MetLife, Inc. is the holding corporation for the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, better known as MetLife, its affiliates. MetLife is among the largest global providers of insurance and employee benefit programs, with 90 million customers in over 60 countries; the firm was founded on March 24, 1868. MetLife ranked No. 43 in the 2018 Fortune 500 list of the largest United States corporations by total revenue. On January 6, 1915, MetLife completed the mutualization process, changing from a stock life insurance company owned by individuals to a mutual company operating without external shareholders and for the benefit of policyholders; the company went public in 2000. Through its subsidiaries and affiliates, MetLife holds leading market positions in the United States, Latin America, Asia's Pacific region and the Middle East. MetLife serves 90 of the largest Fortune 500 companies; the company's principal offices are located at 200 Park Avenue, New York City in Midtown Manhattan, New York City, though it retains some executive offices and its boardroom in the MetLife Building, located at 200 Park Avenue, New York City, which it sold in 2005.
In January 2016, the company announced that it would spin off U. S. Retail business, including individual life insurance and annuities for the retail market, in a separate company called Brighthouse Financial, they will maintain the MetLife name on MetLife Stadium. On March 6, 2017, the separated U. S. Retail business launched Brighthouse Financial – an independent company focused on life insurance and annuities; as of 2010, the company was "organized into five segments: Insurance Products, Retirement Products," the US Business, International. The Insurance Products division was the largest unit, accounting for 53% of 2009 revenue. By 2015, a division referred to; as of 2011, MetLife's chief executive officer was Steven A. Kandarian. Kandarian served as the company's chairman of the board and president as of 2015. MetLife has announced that Kandarian intends to retire after serving through April 30, 2019, be replaced as president and CEO by Michel A. Khalaf and as non-executive chairman of the board by Glenn Hubbard.
In 2015, MetLife hired Hugh Dineen to fill the new role of chief marketing officer within the US Business Unit. As in many large, public corporations, MetLife has a compensation committee which establishes compensation levels for the company's senior executives. MetLife subsidiaries and affiliates have included MetLife Investors, MetLife Bank, MetLife Securities, Metropolitan Property and Casualty Insurance Company and its subsidiaries, General American, Hyatt Legal, MetLife Resources, New England Financial, Walnut Street Securities, Inc. Safeguard Health Enterprises, Inc. and Tower Square Securities, Inc. Cigna; the subsidiary MetLife Insurance Company USA, as of 2015 headquartered in Charlotte, North Carolina, was known as MetLife Insurance Company of Connecticut, prior to this as Travelers Insurance Company. MetLife Bank was sold to GE Capital in 2013, MetLife exited the banking business. Metlife in partnership with Tishman Realty & Construction co-owns the Walt Disney World Swan and Dolphin resort in Lake Buena Vista, Florida.
The land on which the hotels are located on is owned by The Walt Disney Company and is leased to Metlife and Tishman and operated by Starwood Hotels & Resorts as a Westin hotel. The predecessor company to MetLife began in 1863 when a group of New York City businessmen raised $100,000 to found the National Union Life and Limb Insurance Company; the company insured Civil War sailors and soldiers against disabilities due to wartime wounds and sickness. On March 24, 1868, it became known as Metropolitan Life Insurance Company and shifted its focus to the life insurance business. A severe business depression that began with the Panic of 1873 forced the company to contract, until it reached its lowest point in the late 1870s. After observing the insurance industry in Great Britain in 1879, MetLife President Joseph F. Knapp brought “industrial” or “workingmen’s” insurance programs to the United States – insurance issued in small amounts on which premiums were collected weekly or monthly at the policyholder's home.
By 1880, sales had exceeded a quarter million of such policies, resulting in nearly $1 million in revenue from premiums. In 1909, MetLife had become the nation's largest life insurer in the United States, as measured by life insurance in force. In 1907, the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company Tower was commissioned to serve as MetLife's 23rd Street headquarters in Lower Manhattan. Completed two years the building was the world's tallest until 1913 and remained the company's headquarters until 2005. For many years, an illustration of the building featured prominently in MetLife's advertising. By 1930, MetLife insured every fifth man and child in the United States and Canada. During the 1930s, it began to diversify its portfolio by reducing the percentage of individual mortgages in favor of public utility bonds, investments in government securities, loans for commercial real estate; the company financed the construction of the Empire State Building in 1929 as well as provided capital to build Rockefeller Center in 1931.
During World War II, MetLife placed more than 51 percent of its total assets in war bonds, was the largest single private contributor to the Allied cause. During the postwar era, the company expanded its suburban presence, decentralized ope
Hubert H. Humphrey Metrodome
The Hubert H. Humphrey Metrodome was a domed sports stadium located in downtown Minneapolis, Minnesota, it opened in 1982 as a replacement for Metropolitan Stadium, the former home of the National Football League's Minnesota Vikings and Major League Baseball's Minnesota Twins, Memorial Stadium, the former home of the Minnesota Golden Gophers football team. The Metrodome was the home of the Vikings from 1982 to 2013, the Twins from 1982 to 2009, the National Basketball Association's Minnesota Timberwolves in their 1989–90 inaugural season, the Golden Gophers football team until 2008 and the Golden Gophers baseball team from 2004 to 2012, it was the home of the Minnesota Strikers of the North American Soccer League in 1984. On January 18, 2014, the Metrodome roof was deflated; the Vikings played at the University of Minnesota's TCF Bank Stadium for the 2014 and 2015 NFL seasons, ahead of the planned opening of U. S. Bank Stadium in 2016; the stadium had a fiberglass fabric roof, self-supported by air pressure and was the third major sports facility to have this feature.
The Metrodome was similar in design to the former RCA Dome and to BC Place, though BC Place was reconfigured with a retractable roof in 2010. The Metrodome was reputedly the inspiration for the Tokyo Dome in Japan; the stadium was the only facility to have hosted a Super Bowl, World Series, MLB All-Star Game and NCAA Division I Basketball Final Four. The Metrodome had several nicknames such as "The Dome", "The Thunderdome", "The Homer Dome." Preparation for the demolition of the Metrodome began the day after the facility hosted the final home game for the Minnesota Vikings on December 29, 2013, with actual demolition beginning on January 18, 2014. The Metrodome was torn down in sections while construction of U. S. Bank Stadium began. By the early 1970s, the Minnesota Vikings were unhappy with Metropolitan Stadium's small capacity for football. Before the AFL-NFL merger, the NFL had declared that stadiums with a capacity smaller than 50,000 were not adequate for their needs; the biggest stadium in the area was the University of Minnesota's Memorial Stadium, but the Vikings were not willing to be tenants in a college football stadium and demanded a new venue.
Supporters of a dome believed that the Minnesota Twins would benefit from a climate-controlled stadium to insulate the team from harsh Minnesota weather in the season. The Met would have needed to be replaced in any event, as it was not well maintained. Broken railings and seats could be seen in the upper deck by the early 1970s, by its final season they had become a distinct safety hazard. Construction success of other domed stadiums the Pontiac Silverdome near Detroit, paved the way for voters to approve funding for a new stadium. Downtown Minneapolis was beginning a revitalization program, the return of professional sports from suburban Bloomington was seen as a major success story. A professional team hadn't been based in downtown Minneapolis since the Minneapolis Lakers left for Los Angeles in 1960. Construction on the Metrodome began on December 20, 1979, was funded by a limited hotel-motel and liquor tax, local business donations, payments established within a special tax district near the stadium site.
Uncovering the Dome by Amy Klobuchar describes the 10-year effort to build the venue. The stadium was named in memory of former mayor of Minneapolis, U. S. Senator, U. S. Vice President Hubert Humphrey, who died in 1978; the Metrodome itself cost $68 million to build—significantly under budget—totaling around $124 million with infrastructure and other costs associated with the project added. It was a somewhat utilitarian facility. One stadium official once said that all the Metrodome was designed to do was "get fans in, let'em see a game, let'em go home."The Metrodome is the only venue to have hosted a MLB All-Star Game, a Super Bowl, an NCAA Final Four, a World Series. The 1985 MLB All-Star Game, several games of the 1987 and the 1991 World Series, Super Bowl XXVI in 1992, the 1998–99 NFC Championship all were held at the Metrodome; the NCAA Final Four was held at the Metrodome in 1992 and 2001. The Metrodome served as one of the four regional venues for the NCAA Division I Basketball Championship in 1986, 1989, 1996, 2000, 2003, 2006, 2009.
The dome held first- and second-round games in the NCAA Basketball Tournament in addition to regionals and the Final Four, most in 2009. The Metrodome was recognized as one of the loudest venues in which to view a game, due in part to the fact that sound was recycled throughout the stadium because of the fabric domed roof. Stadium loudness is a sports marketing issue, as the noise lends the home team a home advantage against the visiting team; until its demolition, the Metrodome was the loudest domed NFL stadium. During the 1987 World Series and 1991 World Series, peak decibel levels were measured at 125 and 118 comparable to a jet airliner—both close to the threshold of pain; the 1991 World Series is considered one of the best of all time. The blue colored seat back and bottom where Kirby Puckett's 1991 World Series Game 6 walk off home run landed in Section 101, Row 5, Seat 27, is now in the Twins archives, along with the gold colored back and bottom that replaced it for a number of years.
The Twins reinstalled a blue seat back and bottom as well as Puckett's #34 on the seat where it remained until the final Vi
Anheuser-Busch Companies, LLC is an American brewing company headquartered in St. Louis, Missouri. Since 2008, it has been a wholly owned subsidiary of Anheuser-Busch InBev which has its North American regional management headquarters in St. Louis; the original Anheuser-Busch InBev was formed through successive mergers of three international brewing groups: Interbrew from Belgium, AmBev from Brazil and Anheuser-Busch. Hence, since 2008, Anheuser-Busch has been a division of Anheuser-Busch InBev SA/NV, now the world's largest brewing company; the company employs over 30,000 people, operates 12 breweries in the United States, until December 2009, was one of the largest theme park operators in the United States, with ten theme parks through the company's family entertainment division, Busch Entertainment Corporation. Anheuser-Busch InBev is the largest beer producer in the world. In 1852, German American brewer and saloon operator George Schneider opened the Bavarian Brewery on Carondelet Avenue between Dorcas and Lynch streets in South St. Louis.
Schneider's brewery expanded in 1856 to a new brewhouse near Crittenden streets. In 1860, the brewery was purchased on the brink of bankruptcy by William D'Oench, a local pharmacist, Eberhard Anheuser, a prosperous German-born soap manufacturer. D'Oench was the silent partner in the business until 1869, when he sold his half-interest in the company. From 1860 to 1875, the brewery was known as E. Anheuser & Co. and from 1875 to 1879 as the E. Anheuser Company's Brewing Association. Adolphus Busch, a wholesaler who had immigrated to St. Louis from Germany in 1857, married Eberhard Anheuser's daughter, Lilly, in 1861. Following his service in the American Civil War, Busch began working as a salesman for the Anheuser brewery. Busch purchased D'Oench's share of the company in 1869, he assumed the role of company secretary from that time until the death of his father-in-law. Adolphus Busch was the first American brewer to use pasteurization to keep beer fresh. By 1877, the company owned a fleet of 40 refrigerated railroad cars to transport beer.
Expanding the company's distribution range led to increased demand for Anheuser products, the company expanded its facilities in St. Louis during the 1870s; the expansions led production to increase from 31,500 barrels in 1875 to more than 200,000 in 1881. To streamline the company's refrigerator car operations and achieve vertical integration, Busch established the St. Louis Refrigerator Car Company in 1878, charged with building and leasing refrigerator cars. To serve these cars and switch them in and out of their St. Louis brewery, Anheuser-Busch founded the Manufacturers Railway Company in 1887; the shortline operated until 2011. During the 1870s, Adolphus Busch toured Europe and studied the changes in brewing methods which were taking place at the time the success of pilsner beer, which included a locally popular example brewed in Budweis. In 1876, Busch introduced Budweiser, with the ambition of transcending regional tastes, his company's ability to transport bottled beer made Budweiser the first national beer brand in the United States, it was marketed as a "premium" beer.
The company was renamed Anheuser-Busch Brewing Association in 1879. The Busch family controlled the company through the generations until Anheuser-Busch's sale to InBev in 2008. During the 1880s and 1890s, Busch introduced a series of advertisements and marketing giveaways for the company, including bottle openers, corkscrews, pocketknives and prints. Among the most well-known of these giveaways was Custer's Last Fight, a lithograph print of a painting by St. Louis artist Cassilly Adams; as a marketing tactic, Busch distributed thousands of copies of the print to bars in 1896, the same year Anheuser-Busch introduced its new "super-premium" brand, Michelob. More than one million copies of the print were produced, it became "one of the most popular pieces of artwork in American history."At the turn of the 20th century, Anheuser-Busch continued to expand its production facilities to keep up with demand. In 1905, the company built a new stockhouse in St. Louis, by 1907 it produced nearly 1.6 million barrels of beer.
As demands for the prohibition of alcohol in the United States grew, Anheuser-Busch began producing non-alcoholic and low-alcoholic beverages. After the death of Adolphus Busch in 1913, control of the company passed to his son, August Anheuser Busch, Sr. who continued to combat the rise of prohibitionists. As part of an effort to improve the respectability of drinking, August Busch built three upscale restaurants in St. Louis during the 1910s: the Stork Inn, the Gretchen Inn, the Bevo Mill; as with all breweries in the country, the Temperance movement and eventual Prohibition in the United States dealt a major blow to the company in the 1910s through the 1930s. Some of the products sold by Anheuser-Busch to survive during Prohibition included brewer's yeast, malt extract, ice cream, Bevo, a nonalcoholic malt beverage, or "near beer". In 1957, Anheuser-Busch became the largest brewer in the United States. In 1981, Anheuser-Busch International, Inc. was established as a subsidi
Delta Air Lines
Delta Air Lines, Inc. referred to as Delta, is a major American airline, with its headquarters in Atlanta, Georgia. The airline, along with its subsidiaries and regional affiliates, operates over 5,400 flights daily and serves an extensive domestic and international network that includes 304 destinations in 52 countries on six continents, as of October 2018. Delta is a founding member of the SkyTeam airline alliance. Regional service is operated under the brand name Delta Connection. One of the five remaining legacy carriers, Delta is the sixth-oldest operating airline by foundation date, the oldest airline still operating in the United States. Among predecessors of today's Delta Air Lines, Western Airlines and Northwest Airlines began flying passengers in 1926 and 1927, respectively. Delta has eight hubs, with Atlanta being its largest in terms of total passengers and number of departures, it is the world's second largest airline in terms of scheduled passengers carried, revenue passenger-kilometers flown and fleet size.
In 2018, Delta ranked No. 75 in the Fortune 500 list of the largest American corporations by total revenue. Delta Air Lines began as a crop dusting operation called Incorporated; the company was founded on May 30, 1924, in Macon and moved to Monroe, Louisiana, in 1925. They flew a Huff-Daland Duster, the first true crop duster, designed to combat the boll weevil infestation of cotton crops. Collett E. Woolman, one of the original directors, purchased the company on September 13, 1928, renamed it Delta Air Service. Service began on June 17, 1929, with the inaugural flight between Dallas and Jackson, Mississippi; the company recognizes four founders: the principal founder Collett E. Woolman, C. H. McHenery, Travis Oliver, Malcolm S. Biedenharn. Delta moved its headquarters to its current location in Atlanta in 1941, continued to grow through the addition of routes and the acquisition of other airlines, it replaced propeller planes with jets in the 1960s and entered international competition to Europe in the 1970s and across the Pacific in the 1980s.
Delta's more recent history is marked by its emergence from bankruptcy on April 25, 2007, the subsequent merger with Northwest Airlines. The merger was announced April 14, 2008, was set to create the world's largest airline. After approval of the merger on October 29, 2008, Northwest continued to operate as a wholly owned subsidiary of Delta until December 31, 2009, when both carriers' operating certificates were merged. Delta completed integration with Northwest on January 31, 2010, when their reservation systems and websites were combined, the Northwest Airlines brand was retired; as of October 2018, Delta and its worldwide alliance partners operated more than 15,000 flights per day. Delta is the only U. S. carrier that flies to Accra, Dakar, Düsseldorf, Lagos, Ponta Delgada, Stuttgart. It is the only U. S. carrier that has scheduled service to Africa, thereby the only U. S. carrier to serve all six inhabited continents. Delta has eight hubs. Atlanta – In addition to its corporate headquarters, Delta operates its primary hub in Atlanta as well as Delta TechOps, Delta's primary maintenance base.
It is Delta's main gateway to Latin America and the Caribbean, a secondary transatlantic gateway. Detroit – Inherited through the merger with Northwest, Detroit serves as one of Delta's two Midwest hubs, it is the primary Asian gateway for the northeastern United States and it provides service to many destinations in the Americas and Europe. Los Angeles – Delta inherited its LAX hub from Western Airlines, but dismantled it in the mid-1990s, opting to relocate most of those aircraft to the U. S. East Coast. Since it has re-opened the hub, offering service to Latin America, Asia and Europe, as well as major domestic bases and West Coast regional destinations. Minneapolis–Saint Paul – Inherited through the merger with Northwest, Minneapolis–Saint Paul serves as one of Delta's two Midwest hubs. Service includes most major Canadian and American metropolitan areas, a number of regional destinations in the upper Midwest as well as many destinations in Latin America and Asia. New York–JFK, New York City – A major international gateway to Europe.
Inherited from its partnership with Pan Am after Pan Am's collapse in 1991. Offers service on many transcontinental "prestige routes" to west coast destinations Los Angeles, San Francisco and Seattle. New York–LaGuardia, New York City – An important domestic hub created as a result of a slot swap with US Airways. Delta service at LaGuardia covers numerous east coast US cities, a number of regional destinations in the US and Canada. Salt Lake City – Delta inherited Salt Lake City during the Western Airlines merger. Service covers most major US destinations as well as a number of regional destinations in the US and Canada, select cities in Europe and Hawaii. Seattle–Tacoma – Delta announced Seattle's hub status in 2014; the hub serves as an important gateway to Asia. Delta started aggressively building its presence in Seattle in 2011, sparking tensions with Seattle-based Alaska Airlines. Since 2017, due to airport space restrictions, Delta's growth in Seattle has slowed, Delta has been upgauging existing flights rather than adding new ones.
In addition to their eight hubs, Delta operates three smaller focus cities. Boston – Boston was a hub for Delta in the second half of the 20th century through the early 2000s; the present Terminal A was built for Delta's sole use, but following the 2005 bankruptcy, they scaled back operations and leased 11 gates in the terminal. Delta has since regained all the Terminal A gates and
New York Jets
The New York Jets are a professional American football team located in the New York metropolitan area. The Jets compete in the National Football League as a member club of the league's American Football Conference East division; the team is headquartered in New Jersey. In a unique arrangement for the league, the Jets share MetLife Stadium in East Rutherford, New Jersey with the New York Giants; the franchise is and corporately registered as New York Jets, LLC. The team was founded in 1959 as the Titans of New York, an original member of the American Football League; the team began to play in 1960 at the Polo Grounds. Under new ownership, the current name was adopted in 1963 and the franchise moved to Shea Stadium in 1964 and to the Meadowlands Sports Complex in 1984; the Jets advanced to the playoffs for the first time in 1968 and went on to compete in Super Bowl III where they defeated the Baltimore Colts, becoming the first AFL team to defeat an NFL club in an AFL–NFL World Championship Game.
Since 1968, the Jets have appeared in the playoffs 13 times, in the AFC Championship Game four times, most losing to the Pittsburgh Steelers in 2010. However, the Jets have never returned to the Super Bowl, making them one of three NFL teams to win their lone Super Bowl appearance, along with the New Orleans Saints and Tampa Bay Buccaneers. Apart from the Cleveland Browns and Detroit Lions, who have never reached the Super Bowl, the Jets' drought is the longest among current NFL franchises; the team's training facility, Atlantic Health Jets Training Center, which opened in 2008, is located in Florham Park. The team holds their annual training camp sessions in Florham Park, New Jersey; the first organizational meeting of the American Football League took place on August 14, 1959. Harry Wismer, representing the city of New York at the meeting, proclaimed the state was ready for another professional football team and that he was more than capable of running the daily operations. Wismer was granted the charter franchise dubbed the Titans of New York as Wismer explained, "Titans are bigger and stronger than Giants."
He secured the Titans' home field at the decrepit Polo Grounds, where the team struggled financially and on the field during its first three years. By 1962, the debt continued to mount for Wismer, forcing the AFL to assume the costs of the team until season's end. A five-man syndicate, headed by Sonny Werblin, saved the team from certain bankruptcy, purchasing the lowly Titans for $1 million. Werblin renamed the team the New York Jets since the team would play in Shea Stadium near LaGuardia Airport; the new name was intended to reflect the modern approach of his team. The Jets' owners hired Weeb Ewbank as the general head coach. Ewbank and quarterback Joe Namath led the Jets to prominence in 1969, when New York defeated the favored Baltimore Colts in Super Bowl III and solidified the AFL's position in the world of professional football; when the AFL and NFL merged, the team fell into a state of mediocrity along with their star quarterback, who only had three successful post-merger seasons after injuries hampered much of his career.
The Jets continued to spiral downward before enjoying a string of successes in the 1980s, which included an appearance in the 1982 AFC Championship Game, the emergence of the popular New York Sack Exchange. The early 1990s saw the team struggling. After firing coach Bruce Coslet, owner Leon Hess hired Pete Carroll who struggled to a 6–10 record and was promptly fired at the end of the season. Thereafter, Rich Kotite was selected to lead the team to victory. Kotite stepped down at the end of his second season forcing the Jets to search for a new head coach. Hess lured then-disgruntled New England Patriots head coach Bill Parcells to New York in 1997. Parcells led the team back to relevance and coached them to the AFC Championship Game in 1998. Hess died in 1999 while the team, plagued by injuries, produced an eight win record, falling short of a playoff berth. At the end of the season, Parcells stepped down as head coach deferring control to his assistant, Bill Belichick; the franchise obtained a new owner in Woody Johnson in 2000.
Additionally, through the 2000s the Jets visited the playoffs five times, a franchise record, under the direction of three different coaches. Rex Ryan was hired in January 2009. Ryan led the team to back-to-back AFC Championship appearances during his first two years but the team never made the playoffs again during his tenure. Harry Wismer, a businessman, had been interested in sports for much of his life when he was granted a charter franchise in the American Football League. A three-sport letterman, football stuck with Wismer who went on to play for the University of Florida and Michigan State University before a knee injury ended his playing career. Undeterred, Wismer began his career as a broadcaster with Michigan State and became a pioneer of the industry; as the Titans owner, Wismer formulated a league-wide policy which allowed broadcasting rights to be shared among the teams. Wismer, who had had a 25% stake in the Washington Redskins, was interested in the American Football League and was given a franchise to develop in New York.
Wismer, whose philosophy was who you knew mattered most, tried to make the team and the league a success. His efforts began to accrue debt as the Titans' first two
The Fens (Boston, Massachusetts)
The Back Bay Fens called The Fens, is a parkland and urban wild in Boston, Massachusetts, in the United States. It was established in 1879. Designed by Frederick Law Olmsted to serve as a link in the Emerald Necklace park system, the Fens gives its name to the Fenway-Kenmore neighborhood, thereby to Fenway Park, home of the Boston Red Sox; the Fens is a large picturesque park. It is an ancient spot of saltwater marshland, surrounded by dry land, disconnected from the tides of the Atlantic Ocean, landscaped into a park with fresh water within; the park is known as the Fens or the Fenway. The latter term can refer to either the surrounding neighborhood or the parkway on its southern border; when Boston was settled in the early 17th century the Shawmut Peninsula on which it was built was connected to Roxbury by a spit of sandy ground called "The Neck." The adjacent area of marshland to the west was a tidal flat of the Charles River. The area became malodorous with time. For the dual purpose of eliminating the health and aesthetic problem created by the polluted bay waters and creating new and valuable Boston real estate, a series of land reclamation projects was begun in 1820 and continued for the rest of the century.
The filling of present-day Back Bay was completed by 1882. Filling reached Kenmore Square in 1890 and finished in the Fens in 1900; these projects more than doubled the size of the Shawmut Peninsula. Olmsted's challenge was to restore the spot of marsh, preserved into an ecologically healthy place that could be enjoyed as a recreation area. Combining his renowned landscaping talents with state-of-the-art sanitary engineering, he turned a foul-smelling tidal creek and swamp into "scenery of a winding, brackish creek, within wooded banks. However, in 1910 a dam was constructed at Craigie's Bridge, closing the Charles River estuary to the ocean tides and forming a body of freshwater above the dam. Thus, the Fens became a freshwater lagoon accepting storm water from the Charles River Basin. Soon after, noted landscape architect Arthur Shurcliff, a protégé of Olmsted, added new features such as the Kelleher Rose Garden and employed the more formal landscape style popular in the 1920s and 1930s. An athletic field was added.
In 1941, at the outbreak of United States involvement in World War II, citizens planted a victory garden within the Fens. While these were common in their era, the one in the Fens is now the last continually operating Victory Garden in existence and today is a much-valued community garden of flowers and vegetables. In 1961, a group of East Fenway friends and neighbors gathered to address issues in their neighborhood, they formed. Volunteers took on projects to clean their streets, beautify their surroundings, protect their residents from crime. Soon the group started advocating for improved maintenance of parkland and other elements to ensure a safe, enjoyable neighborhood. In 1983, the Back Bay Fens were designated as a Boston Landmarks; the gardens are now named after Richard D. Parker, one of the original organizers of the garden, who continued to garden there until his death in 1975; because of his efforts, the Victory Gardens in the Fenway are one of only two remaining victory gardens in the U.
S. dating back to World War II. During World War II, President Roosevelt stated. Much of the food grown was sent to the armed forces, the remaining portions were rationed; the City of Boston set up 49 areas to grow gardens, including plots on Boston Common and Boston Public Garden. The Fenway Victory Gardens were established in 1942; these gardens are a central part of the Fenway community and are well known to gardeners across the country. The gardens provide the residents in the Boston neighborhoods with personal space to grow vegetables or flowers, are private; the Agassiz Road Duck House was designed by architect Alexander Longfellow, built in 1897. It was used as a public restroom facility, was closed after a damaging fire in 1986; the Duck House is sited within a prominent landscape in The Fens adjacent to the Agassiz Road bridge—the only building along that roadway. Agassiz Road is a significant pedestrian link between the East and West Fenway neighborhoods though it provides only one-way vehicular circulation.
Much of the building that we see today is original. While the Duck House itself is not a Boston Landmark, its rustic style and relationship to the park makes it an important contributing feature to the Back Bay Fens; the City of Boston has been reviewing possible ways to revive the Duck House with such ideas as a bicycle rental shop or café. Dedicated on December 27, 1925, the Fire Alarm Office is located at 59 The Fenway, near the intersection of Westland Avenue and Hemenway Street, it is a neoclassical limestone building in the shape of a villa, with large ornate bronze entry doors to one side. All fire alarm circuits along with radio and telephone communications for the Boston Fire Department are controlled from this site; the building has an independent generator to provide electrical power in the event of power disruptions. In 1905, the formal entrance to Olmsted's park was switched to the end of Westland Avenue, where the Westland Gate marks a somewhat grand portal to the park; the Katharine Lee Bates monument is a freestanding granite tablet inset with a bronze plaque on Agassiz Road overlooking the Mu
Maple Leaf Sports & Entertainment
Maple Leaf Sports & Entertainment Ltd. is a professional sports and commercial real estate company based in Toronto, Canada. With assets that include franchises in four of the six major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada, it is the largest sports and entertainment company in Canada, one of the largest in North America; the primary holdings of the company are its major sports franchises, the Toronto Maple Leafs of the National Hockey League, Toronto Raptors of the National Basketball Association, Toronto Argonauts of the Canadian Football League, Toronto FC of Major League Soccer, as well as their minor league farm teams, the Toronto Marlies of the American Hockey League, Raptors 905 of the NBA G League and Toronto FC II of the USL League One, respectively. In addition, it owns the Scotiabank Arena, the home arena of the Maple Leafs and Raptors, the OVO Athletic Centre, the practice facility for the Raptors. MLSE manages or has invested in several other sports facilities including BMO Field, home of Toronto FC and the Toronto Argonauts.
MLSE was founded by Conn Smythe in 1931 as Maple Leaf Gardens Limited to act as a holding company for the Maple Leafs and their planned new arena Maple Leaf Gardens, from which the company got its name. Smythe transferred his ownership of the Leafs to the company in exchange for shares in MLGL and sold shares in the holding company to the public to help fund construction of the arena. While primarily a hockey company, with ownership stakes in a number of minor and junior hockey clubs including the Toronto Marlboros of the Ontario Hockey Association, the company branched out to own the Hamilton Tiger-Cats of the CFL from the late 1970s to late 1980s, before merging with the Raptors, who were constructing the Air Canada Centre at the time, adopting their current name in 1998; the company launched Toronto FC in 2007. Most the company completed its purchase of the Argonauts in January 2018. Over most of its 80 plus years of existence MLSE was a public company. Following the death of majority owner Harold Ballard in 1990, Steve Stavro led a controversial bid to buy the company and take it private.
In 2012, the Ontario Teachers' Pension Plan sold their 79.53% share of the company for CA$1.32 billion to a joint venture between Rogers Communications and Bell Canada, two of Canada's largest media companies, giving the company an equity value of CA$1.66 billion and an enterprise value of CA$2 billion. The corporation's roots can be traced back to 1927, when Conn Smythe organized a group of investors to purchase Toronto's premier hockey franchise, the Toronto St. Patricks of the National Hockey League, which had won Stanley Cup championships in 1918 and 1922, from a group headed by Charles Querrie; the club was playing poorly and minority partner Jack Bickell contacted Smythe about becoming coach of the team. However, Smythe told Bickell. Not long after, with the team in trouble financially due to majority owner Querrie having lost a lawsuit to former Toronto Blueshirts owner Eddie Livingstone over ownership of the franchise, Querrie put the St. Pats up for sale and agreed in principle to sell them to C. C.
Pyle for $200,000, who planned to move the team to Philadelphia. After Bickell contacted Smythe to inform him of the sale, Smythe persuaded Querrie that civic pride was more important than money and put together a syndicate that bought the St. Pats. Smythe himself invested $10,000 of his own money and his group contributed $75,000 up front and a further $75,000 due 30 days with Bickell retaining his $40,000 share in the team; the deal was finalized on Valentine's Day, the new owners renamed the team the Toronto Maple Leafs, after the national symbol of Canada. Smythe attributed his choice of a maple Leaf for the logo to his experiences as a Canadian Army officer and prisoner of war during World War I; that year, Smythe bought the junior hockey Toronto Marlboros of the Ontario Hockey Association to serve as a developmental team for Maple Leafs. In 1929 Smythe decided, in the midst of the Great Depression, that the Maple Leafs needed a new arena; the Arena Gardens, their home which they shared with the Marlboros, had been built in 1912 and lacked modern amenities.
It seated just 8,000, which the Maple Leafs were filling. After considering various locations, the site at the corner of Carlton and Church was purchased from The T. Eaton Co. Ltd. for $350,000, a price said to be $150,000 below market value. A new 12,473 seat arena was designed by the architectural firm of Macdonald. To finance construction, Smythe got backing from Sun Life for half of the expected $1 million cost and launched Maple Leaf Gardens Limited, a management company that would own both the Maple Leafs and the new arena, named Maple Leaf Gardens. A public offering of shares in MLGL was made at $10 each, with a free common share for each five preferred shares purchased. Ownership of the hockey team was transferred to MLGL in return for shares. To fund construction of the building, workers were paid 20% of their salary in MLG stock. Construction started on June 1, 1931, MLG was opened five months and two weeks on November 12, 1931, at a cost of $1.5 million. The Marlboros moved to the new arena.
Bickell was named the first pres