Hyehwa Station is a station on the Seoul Subway Line 4 in Jongno-gu, Seoul. It is located in the center of the area known as Daehangno, much of the ridership of this station comes from the nightlife scene; the Seoul National University Yongon campus, housing its Hospital and School of Medicine, is located to the southwest. Exit 1: The Holy Spirit Campus of the Catholic University of Korea, Dongseong Middle & High Schools Exit 2: Marronnier Park, Korean National Open University Exit 3: Seoul National University Hospital & Yeongeon Campus Exit 4: Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul Science High School, Hansung University Design campus
Left- and right-hand traffic
Left-hand traffic and right-hand traffic are the practice, in bidirectional traffic, of keeping to the left side or to the right side of the road, respectively. A fundamental element to traffic flow, it is sometimes referred to as the rule of the road. RHT is used in 165 countries and territories, with the remaining 75 countries and territories using LHT. Countries that use LHT account for about a sixth of the world's area with about 35% of its population and a quarter of its roads. In 1919, 104 of the world's territories were LHT and an equal number were RHT. From 1919 to 1986, 34 of the LHT territories switched to RHT. Many of the countries with LHT were part of the British Empire. In addition, Thailand and other countries have retained the LHT tradition. Conversely, many of the countries with RHT were part of the French colonial empire or, in Europe, were subject to French rule during the Napoleonic conquests. For rail traffic, LHT predominates in Western Europe, Latin America, in countries in the British and French Empires, whereas North American and central and eastern European train services operate RHT.
According to the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea, water traffic is RHT: a vessel proceeding along a narrow channel must keep to starboard, when two power-driven vessels are meeting head-on both must alter course to starboard also. For aircraft the US Federal Aviation Regulations suggest RHT principles, both in the air and on water. In LHT vehicles keep left, cars are RHD with the steering wheel on the right-hand side and the driver sitting on the offside or side closest to the centre of the road; the passenger sits on the nearside, closest to the kerb. Roundabouts circulate clockwise. In RHT everything is reversed: cars keep right, the driver sits on the left side of the car, roundabouts circulate anticlockwise. Ancient Greek and Roman troops kept to the left when marching. In 1998, archaeologists found a well-preserved double track leading to a Roman quarry near Swindon, in southern England; the grooves in the road on the left side were much deeper than those on the right side, suggesting LHT, at least at this location, since carts would exit the quarry loaded, enter it empty.
In the year 1300, Pope Boniface VIII directed pilgrims to keep left. Following the French Revolution, all traffic in France kept right; the first reference in English law to an order for LHT was with regard to London Bridge. The United Kingdom is LHT, but its overseas territories of Gibraltar and British Indian Ocean Territory are RHT. In the late 1960s, the UK Department for Transport considered switching to RHT, but declared it unsafe and too costly for such a built-up nation. Road building standards, for motorways in particular, allow asymmetrically designed road junctions, where merge and diverge lanes differ in length. Sweden switched to RHT in 1967, having been LHT since from about 1734 despite having land borders with RHT countries, 90 percent of cars being left-hand drive vehicles. A referendum was held in 1955, with an overwhelming majority voting against a change to RHT; some years the government ordered a conversion, which took place at 5 am on Sunday, 3 September 1967. The accident rate dropped after the change, but soon rose back to near its original level.
The day was known as the'H' being for Högertrafik. When Iceland switched the following year, it was known as H-dagurinn, again meaning "H-Day". Most passenger cars were LHD. LHT was used in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, when the empire was split up, the countries all changed to RHT. Austria switched sides in 1921 in Vorarlberg, 1930 in North Tyrol, 1935 in Carinthia and East Tyrol, in 1938 in the rest of the country. Partitions of Poland changed to RHT in the 1920s, Partitions belonging to the German Empire and the Russian Empire were RHT. Croatia-Slavonia switched to RHT on joining the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, although Istria and Dalmatia were RHT. Nazi Germany introduced the switch to right-hand traffic in Czechoslovakia and Slovakia in 1938–39. West Ukraine was LHT, although the rest of Ukraine, having been part of the Russian Empire drove on the right. In Romania Transylvania, the Banat and Bukovina were LHT until 1919, while Wallachia and Moldavia were RHT. In Italy the countryside was RHT while cities were LHT until 1927.
Rome changed to RHT in 1924 and Milan in 1926. Alfa Romeo and Lancia did produce RHD cars until as late as 1950 and 1953 only to special order, as many drivers favoured the RHD layout in RHT as this offered the driver a clearer view of the edge of the road in mountainous regions at a time when many such roads lacked barriers or walls; the Rome Metro uses LHT. Finland ruled as part of LHT Sweden, switched to RHT in 1858 as the Grand Duchy of Finland by Russian decree. Rotterdam was LHT until 1917, although the rest Today, four countries in Europe continue to use left-hand traffic, all island nations: the UK, Cyprus and Malta. LHT was introduced in British West Africa. All of the countries part of this colony have borders with former French RHT jurisdictions and have switched sides since decolonization; these include Ghana, The Gambia, Sierra Leone, Nigeria. LHT was introduced by the British in the East Africa Protectorate and the Cape Colony. All of these have remained LHT. Sudan part of Anglo-Egyptian Sudan switched to RHT in 1973, as it
Dongdaemun Station is a station on the Seoul Subway Line 1 and Line 4. It is named after one of the four great gates of the circular wall surrounding ancient Seoul, is situated on the eastern end of Jongno; this station is close to Dongdaemun Market. In December 2010 the station is recorded as having the third highest WiFi data consumption of all the Seoul Metropolitan Subway stations, following Express Bus Terminal Station, Sadang Station, followed by Jamsil Station and Jongno 3-ga Station. Changsin-dong Toy Wholesale Market - the largest toy and stationery market in Korea since 1975 Seoul City Wall Museum
Seoul Station is a major railway station in Seoul, the capital of South Korea. The station is served by the Gyeongbu Line, its high-speed counterpart and the Gyeongui Line, with frequent high-speed and local services to various points in South Korea; the station express services to Busan. The station is served by about a dozen trains per day on the Honam Line and its express Gwangju Station and Mokpo; the station used to be the terminus for all long-distance trains on the Gyeongbu, Honam and Janghang Lines, but in early 2004, the terminus for most Honam and Janghang Line trains was moved to Yongsan. AREX express trains provide service to Incheon International Airport. Service began December 29, 2010. Seoul Subway serves the station with Line 1 and Line 4, an hourly train on the Gyeongui Line. Around 2015, a large bus transfer center was built in front of the station's main entrance, it has about nine platforms. It is separated from the main roads with a barrier around the platforms, yet having a rather complicated structure with many bus platforms, the transfer center is built in a simple manner as it is not a separate terminal building.
↑ Terminus Gongdeok ↓ / Incheon Int'l Airport Terminal 1 ↓ Platform numbers are not assigned. The Gyeongbu Line opened in 1905, the Gyeongui Line opened in 1921 – both lines connecting to the station; the construction of the current "Old Seoul Station" began on June 1, 1922, was finished on September 30, 1925. In 1923, the station reverted to the name "Gyeongseong Station," when the name of the city of Seoul changed from Hanseong to Gyeongseong; the station was renamed "Seoul Station" on November 1, 1947. The station was expanded throughout the post-Korean War era. In 1975, the Korea National Railroad's office moved from Seoul Station to the new West Annex Office. A raised walkway connecting the Seoul Station and the West Annex was completed on 1977, Korea's first funded station was erected in 1988 in time for the Seoul Olympics. In 2004, a new terminal adjacent to the existing one was completed to coincide with the introduction of KTX high-speed rail service; the Old Seoul Station named Keijo Station and designed by Tsukamoto Yasushi of Tokyo Imperial University, was finished on November 1925.
This red brick building, designed in an eclectic style, features a Byzantine-style central dome and a centralized and symmetrical layout. The floor of the Central Hall on the ground floor was covered with granite and the walls were covered with man-made stone; the wooden floor inside the building's VIP Lounge was covered with birch wood and a western style restaurant was located on the 2nd floor. On September 25, 1981, the old station was designated as Historic Site 284. A restoration project of the old station began on September 2007 to "transform the former Seoul Station, which had lost its functionality as a train station since the opening of the new KTX Station, into a premier national multidisciplinary cultural facility." On the same year, the management was transferred from the Cultural Heritage Administration to the Ministry of Culture and Tourism. After the design for former Seoul Station's remodeling was developed in 2009, the remodeling construction began. On August 9, 2011, the station was reopened as a culture complex with its original exterior, after a two-year restoration project by the Ministry of Culture and Tourism and the state-run Korea Craft and Design Foundation.
On April 2, 2012, "Culture Seoul Station 284" was launched "as a space for diverse artistic and cultural creation and exchange." The official name, which combines the station's historic and urban symbolisms, was selected through a national open call. By combining the notion of a cultural space with the old Seoul Station's historic site number 284, the name aims to embody the concepts of preserving its appearance and value as a historic site while cultivating the meaning of the station as a place of various cultural intersections; the restored station is a 9,202m2 building with two stories above ground and one story below ground level. The former station, before the renovation, has the main lobby, a waiting room, a VIP room on the first floor, a barber shop and restaurants on the second floor. Post-renovation, the first floor contains a venue for performances and events, a multipurpose hall on the floor above. Korail Seoul Station Opening date: July 8, 1900 Operator: Korail Address: 43–205, Dongja-dong, Yongsan-gu, Seoul Platforms: 14 + 1 Gyeongui Line Platform Seoul Metro Line 1 Seoul Station Opening date: August 15, 1974 Operator: Seoul Metro Address: Bongnaedong 2-ga, Jung-gu, Seoul Platforms: 1, island Seoul Metro Line 4 Seoul Station Opening date: October 18, 1985 Operator: Seoul Metro Address: Dongja-dong, Yongsan-gu, Seoul Platforms: 1, island AREX Seoul Station Opening date: December 29, 2010 Operator: Korail Airport Co.
Platforms: 2, island Transportation in South Korea Station information from Korail Seoul Station introduction Seoul Station introduction
Hoehyeon Station is a station on the Seoul Subway Line 4. It is the closest station to the historical gate of Namdaemun, serves the major shopping district of Namdaemun Market; this station is located in Jung-gu, Seoul. Exit 4: Seoul Hilton Hotel Exit 5: Namdaemun Exit 6: Namdaemun Market Exit 7: Shinsegae Department Store, Bank of Korea
Hansung University station
Hansung University Station is a station on the Seoul Subway Line 4. It is called Samseongyo Station; the university with the same name is about a half-mile away from this station. The Holy Spirit Campus of the Catholic University of Korea is located closer, to the southwest
The Korean alphabet, known as Hangul, has been used to write the Korean language since its creation in the 15th century by King Sejong the Great. It may be written as Hangeul following the standard Romanization, it is the official writing system of Korea, both North. It is a co-official writing system in the Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture and Changbai Korean Autonomous County in Jilin Province, China, it is sometimes used to write the Cia-Cia language spoken near the town of Indonesia. The Hangul alphabet consisted of 28 letters with 17 consonant letters and 11 vowel letters when it was created; as four became obsolete, the modern Hangul consists of total 24 letters with 14 consonant letters and 10 vowel letters. In North Korea the total is counted 40, it consists of 19 consonant letters and 21 vowel letters as it additionally includes 5 tense consonants and 20. The Korean letters are written in syllabic blocks with each alphabetic letter placed vertically and horizontally into a square dimension.
For example, the Korean word for "honeybee" is written 꿀벌, not ㄲㅜㄹㅂㅓㄹ. As it combines the features of alphabetic and syllabic writing systems, it has been described as an "alphabetic syllabary" by some linguists; as in traditional Chinese writing, Korean texts were traditionally written top to bottom, right to left, are still written this way for stylistic purposes. Today, it is written from left to right with spaces between words and western-style punctuation; some linguists consider it among the most phonologically faithful writing systems in use today. One interesting feature of Hangul is that the shapes of its consonants mimic the shapes of the speaker's mouth when pronouncing each consonant; the Korean alphabet was called Hunminjeong'eum, after the document that introduced the script to the Korean people in 1446. The Korean alphabet is called hangeul, a name coined by Korean linguist Ju Si-gyeong in 1912; the name combines the ancient Korean word han, meaning "great", geul, meaning "script".
The word han is used to refer to Korea in general, so the name means "Korean script". It has been romanized in multiple ways: Hangeul or han-geul in the Revised Romanization of Korean, which the South Korean government uses in English publications and encourages for all purposes. Han'gŭl in the McCune–Reischauer system, is capitalized and rendered without the diacritics when used as an English word, Hangul, as it appears in many English dictionaries. Hānkul in the Yale romanization, a system recommended for technical linguistic studies. In North Korea it is called Chosŏn'gŭl after Chosŏn, the North Korean name for Korea after the old name of Korea; the McCune–Reischauer system is used there. Until the mid-20th century, the Korean elite preferred to write using Chinese characters called Hanja, they referred to Hanja as jinseo or "true letters". Some accounts say the elite referred to the Korean alphabet derisively as'amkeul meaning "women's script", and'ahaetgeul meaning "children's script", though there is no written evidence of this.
Supporters of the Korean alphabet referred to it as jeong'eum meaning "correct pronunciation", gukmun meaning "national script", eonmun meaning "vernacular script". Before the creation of the new Korean alphabet, Koreans wrote using Classical Chinese alongside native phonetic writing systems that predate the modern Korean alphabet by hundreds of years, including Idu script, Hyangchal and Gakpil. However, due to fundamental differences between the Korean and Chinese languages, the large number of characters, many lower class Koreans were illiterate. To promote literacy among the common people, the fourth king of the Joseon dynasty, Sejong the Great created and promulgated a new alphabet; the Korean alphabet was designed so that people with little education could learn to write. A popular saying about the alphabet is, "A wise man can acquaint himself with them before the morning is over; the project was completed in late December 1443 or January 1444, described in 1446 in a document titled Hunminjeong'eum, after which the alphabet itself was named.
The publication date of the Hunminjeongeum, October 9, became Hangul Day in South Korea. Its North Korean equivalent, Chosŏn'gŭl Day, is on January 15. Another document published in 1446 and titled Hunminjeong'eum Haerye was discovered in 1940; this document explains that the design of the consonant letters is based on articulatory phonetics and the design of the vowel letters are based on the principles of yin and yang and vowel harmony. The Korean alphabet faced opposition in the 1440s by the literary elite, including politician Choe Manri and other Korean Confucian scholars, they believed. They saw the circulation of the Korean alphabet as a threat to their status. However, the Korean alphabet entered popular culture as King Sejong had intended, used by women and writers of popular fiction. King Yeonsangun banned the study and publication of the Korean alphabet in 1504, after a document criticizing the king entered the public. King Jungjong abolished the Ministry of Eonmun, a governmental institution related to Hangul research, in 1506.
The late 16th century, saw a revival of the Korean alphabet as gasa and sijo poetry flourished. In the 17th century, the Korean alphabet novels became a major genre. However, the use of the Korea