In Aztec mythology, the god Nanahuatzin or Nanahuatl, the most humble of the gods, sacrificed himself in fire so that he would continue to shine on Earth as the Sun, thus becoming the sun god. Nanahuatzin means "full of sores." According to a translation of the Histoyre du Mechique, Nanahuatzin is the son of Itzpapalotl and Cuzcamiahu or Tonan, but was adopted by Piltzintecuhtli and Xōchiquetzal. In the Codex Borgia, Nanahuatzin is represented as a man emerging from a fire; this was interpreted as an illustration of cannibalism. He is an aspect of Xolotl; the Aztecs had various myths about the creation, Nanahuatzin participates in several. In the legend of Quetzalcoatl, Nanahuatzin helps Quetzalcoatl to obtain the first grains which will be the food of humankind. In Aztec mythology, the universe is not permanent or everlasting, but subject to death like any living creature; however as it dies, the universe is reborn again into a new age, or "Sun." Nanahuatzin is best known from the "Legend of the Fifth Sun".
In this legend, the basis for most Nanahuatl myths, there had been four creations. In each one, one god has taken on the task of serving as the sun: Tezcatlipoca, Quetzalcoatl and Chalchiuhtlicue; each age ended. Quetzalcoatl with the aid of Xolotl retrieves the sacred bones of their ancestors, mixes them with corn and his own blood, manages to make acceptable human beings. However, no other god wants the task of being the Sun; the gods decide that the fifth, last, sun must offer up his life as a sacrifice in fire. Two gods are chosen: Tecciztecatl and Nanahuatzin; the former is chosen to serve as the Sun because he is wealthy and strong, while the latter will serve as the Moon because he is poor and ill. Tecciztecatl, proud, sees his impending sacrifice and transformation as an opportunity to gain immortality; the humble Nanahuatzin accepts. During the days before the sacrifice, both gods undergo purification. Tecciztecatl makes offerings of rich gifts and coral. Nanahuatzin performs acts of penance.
The gods prepare a large bonfire that burns for four days, construct a platform high above it from which the two chosen gods must leap into the flames. On the appointed day and Nanahuatzin seat themselves upon the platform, awaiting the moment of sacrifice; the gods call upon Tecciztecatl to immolate himself first. After four attempts to throw himself onto the pyre, giving off strong heat by this time, his courage fails him and he desists. Disgusted at Tecciztecatl's cowardice, the gods call upon Nanahuatzin, who rises from his seat and steps calmly to the edge of the platform. Closing his eyes, he leaps from the edge, landing in the center of the fire, his pride wounded upon seeing that Nanahuatzin had the courage that he lacked, Tecciztecatl jumps upon the burning pyre after him. Nothing happens at first, but two suns appear in the sky. One of the gods, angry over Tecciztecatl's lack of courage, takes a rabbit and throws it in Tecciztecatl's face, causing him to lose his brilliance. Tecciztecatl thus becomes the moon, which bears the impression of a rabbit to this day.
Yet the Sun remains unmoving in the sky and burning all the ground beneath. The gods realize that they, must allow themselves to be sacrificed so that human beings may live, they present themselves to the god Ehecatl. With the powerful wind that arises as a result of their sacrifice, Ehecatl makes the Sun move through the sky, nourishing the earth rather than scorching it. A close relationship between Xolotl and Nanahuatzin exists. Xolotl is identical with Nanahuatl. Seler characterizes Nanahuatzin, deformed by syphilis, as an aspect of Xolotl in his capacity as god of monsters, deforming diseases, deformities; the syphilitic god Nanahuatzin is an avatar of Xolotl. The fifth sun is identified with Tonatiuh, Nanahuatzin was the youngest of three boys and a girl named "Xochit Sihuat" who had emerged from the fruit of the gourd-tree, which in turn had grown from the head of a woman that had flown into the night while her body slept. Nanahuatzin and his siblings were raised by Tantepus Lamat until she gave to her lover some food they had obtained.
The siblings proceeded to butcher that lover and, calling it venison, fed his body to the old woman killed her. The siblings found the world's supply of maize was concealed within a mountain, known only to a bird feeding on that stock. Where his siblings had failed, Nanahuatzin succeeded in opening the mountain, but in doing so, was himself trapped within. List of solar deities
The Devco Railway was a Canadian railway. Devco Railway operated as an unincorporated department within the Coal Division of the Cape Breton Development Corporation known as DEVCO. Devco Railway took over the operations of the Sydney and Louisburg Railway on March 30, 1968 when DEVCO expropriated the S&L as part of the assets of the Dominion Steel and Coal Corporation, or DOSCO. In 1966, DOSCO announced that its mines had only 18 years of production left and concluded that expense of opening new underground mines in the Sydney Coal Field would be too expensive; the company made its intentions clear that it would be exiting the coal mining business within months. In response to a vast public outcry in industrial Cape Breton County, the Minority government of Prime Minister Lester Pearson announced J. R. Donald would head a Royal Commission of Inquiry into the Cape Breton coal industry, with hearings held in 1965 and 1966; the Donald Commission recommended that a federal Crown corporation be established to acquire and manage DOSCO's coal operations, with the aim being to wean the Sydney area economy off the coal industry.
"Future planning should be based on the assumption that the Sydney mines will not operate beyond 1981."On July 7, 1967 the Cape Breton Development Corporation, or DEVCO, was established to operate the mines in the interim, while phasing them out throughout the 1970s and, at the same time, develop new economic opportunities for the surrounding communities. On March 30, 1968 DEVCO expropriated DOSCO's coal mines and the S&L, settling for a payment of $12 million. At the same time, the Government of Nova Scotia took over the operation of DOSCO's integrated steel mill in Sydney, renaming the operation Sydney Steel Corporation, or SYSCO; the S&L was reorganized as the Devco Railway. The Devco Railway continued to operate much as its predecessor, using former S&L locomotives, cars and locomotive shops. Indeed, for several years it continued to operate under its old name of the Sydney & Louisburg Division of the Cumberland Railway. In 1972, with H. S. Haslam as general manager, the road operated 39 miles of route with offices at Sydney.
At that date the company owned 1,100 freight cars. As DEVCO had been created to shut down the Cape Breton coal industry, the Devco Railway did not have expansion in mind at the outset. Initial operations consisted of serving the old mines, hauling coal to the international shipping piers on Sydney Harbour; the line east of Glace Bay to Louisbourg fell into disuse. As part of a regional economic development initiative, DEVCO created a tourist railway named the Cape Breton Steam Railway, to operate between Glace Bay and Louisbourg. In 1973, the Sydney and Louisburg Railway Historical Society was created by retired employees of that company to assist with the tourist railway and to preserve the Louisbourg station; the tourist railway used former S&L equipment and stations, however by the late 1970s it was proving uneconomic to operate and was closed. The track east of Glace Bay was abandoned at this time; the October 1973 Yom Kippur War and the ensuing 1973 oil crisis led the federal government of Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau to re-examine all Canadian energy production, including the potential nationalization of Alberta's oil, as well as an expansion of DEVCO coal production, reversing the recommendation of the 1966 Donald Commission to phase out production and diversify the Sydney area economy.
The Trudeau government sought to use its ownership of DEVCO to reverse Nova Scotia's reliance on the importation of foreign oil for generating electricity. New mines were built and opened near New Waterford and on Boularderie Island starting in 1972. Devco Railway built a spur to serve the adjacent Phalen and Lingan mines, extending the line to serve Nova Scotia Power Incorporated's Lingan Generating Station which opened November 1, 1979. During the early 1980s, DEVCO built new locomotive shops at Victoria Junction, between Sydney and Glace Bay, shut down the Glace Bay roundhouse and shops. DEVCO built a large coal preparation and wash plant at Victoria Junction, as well as new international shipping piers on Sydney Harbour, replacing the antiquated export piers inherited from DOSCO. With federal government financing, DEVCO was in expansion mode and with the high international prices for coal, sought to produce more Cape Breton coal for export than before; the Devco Railway modernized its locomotive fleet by retiring the S&L's diesels purchased second-hand during the early 1960s and purchasing General Motors Diesel Limited GP38-2s.
The coal hopper fleets were modernized, with many being purchased from the Eastern Car Company in New Glasgow. By the late 1980s, production problems at DEVCO saw the last of the older mines inherited from DOSCO shut down, with production concentrated at Lingan and Prince; the Point Aconi Generating Station was built by Nova Scotia Power Incorporated to receive coal from the Prince colliery directly by conveyor belt, however the Lingan and Phalen mines still hauled coal to the Victoria Junction preparation plant and to the Lingan Generating Station. The SYSCO steel mill stopped using DEVCO coal to produce coke as a fuel for its blast furnaces in the mid-1980s. By the late 1980s, S
The heel-shaped cairn, with its cruciform chamber, is a type of megalithic monument, found in Scotland in Caithness and Sutherland and in the Shetland Islands. In Orkney, the Isbister Cairn is the only site, similar in shape; the chambers lie in a round cairn made of broken rocks, which either contemporaneously or were surrounded by the eponymous platform, up to 20 metres wide at the front and from 1.0 to 1.5 metres high, were enclosed by large kerbstones. A gentle concave exedra is characteristic of the front face; the cruciform chambers, accessed via a short passage, have a large recess at the head and two smaller recesses to the side. They were covered with corbelled vaults, of which however only remnants survive; the best-known sites of this type on the Shetlands are: Gillaburn, Hill of Caldback, Hill of Dale, Muckle Heog, Pettigarth’s Field, Punds Water, Turdale Water, Viville Loch, Ward of Silwicks and Wind Hamars. The special shape of Cairn o’ Get resembles a round cairn, covered by a “horned long cairn” with circular chamber, as otherwise occurs in Sutherland.
At the monument of Vementry the round cairn, with the typical chamber of heel-shaped cairns, was built over in the heel-shaped form and given a 10.6-metre-wide exedra. British megalith architecture Chambered cairn Audrey S. Henshall & Graham Ritchie: The Chambered Cairns of Sutherland - an inventory of the structures and their contents Edinburgh 1995, ISBN 0-7486-0609-2. J. L. Davidson, Audrey S. Henshall: The Chambered Cairns of Caithness: An Inventory of the Structures and Their Contents Edinburgh 1991 ISBN 0748602569
USS Grady was a John C. Butler-class destroyer escort acquired by the U. S. Navy during World War II; the primary purpose of the destroyer escort was to escort and protect ships in convoy, in addition to other tasks as assigned, such as patrol or radar picket. Post-war she proudly returned home with three battle stars to her credit. Grady was named in honor of Marine Corporal George Francis Grady, awarded the Navy Cross for bravery on Gavutu in the Solomon Islands, she was launched by Federal Dry Dock Co.. Newark, New Jersey, 2 April 1944. Francis R. King in command. Grady conducted her shakedown training at Bermuda 2 October – 2 November. Returning to Boston, the ship sailed 17 November for Norfolk, escorting transport Chilton, from Norfolk continued through the Panama Canal to San Diego, where she arrived 4 December. Grady sailed via San Francisco, for Pearl Harbor, where she arrived 15 December 1944; until 23 December she operated with carrier Saratoga during flight qualifications, rescuing three downed aviators.
With the American offensive in the Pacific entering its climactic phase, Grady departed 26 December 1944 for Eniwetok and Ulithi, arriving the latter base 10 January 1945. For the next month the ship acted as escort to a vital tanker group engaged in refueling units of the U. S. 3rd Fleet at sea, units engaged in air strikes against Formosa and the Chinese mainland. She proceeded off Iwo Jima 10 February to screen escort carriers during the pre-invasion bombardment. During the assault 19 February Grady patrolled in an antisubmarine screen, departed the area 2 March en route to Saipan. Arriving at Saipan 5 March, Grady departed the next day for Espiritu Santo. Upon her arrival 19 March, the ship joined in preparations for the upcoming Okinawa invasion, last giant step on the long sea road to Japan, she got underway in convoy 25 March, after stopping at Ulithi arrived off the invasion beaches 9 April. As the bloody fighting raged ashore and the other ships engaged in fierce radar and antisubmarine picket duty were savagely attacked by Japanese suicide planes.
Grady and Metcalf downed one of the kamikazes 16 April while at station D-37 off Okinawa. The escort vessel escorted five fast transports to Saipan 5 – 16 May, returned to the picket stations off Okinawa helping to provide antiaircraft fire in the huge transport anchorages. Grady continued this arduous duty until 28 June. Arriving 1 July in the Philippines, she was assigned as offshore patrol vessel and remained in the islands until 5 November 1945, twice making convoy voyages to Okinawa. Grady began the long voyage home 5 November 2 months after the surrender of Japan. Cruising via Manila Bay and Pearl Harbor, she arrived at California, 26 November. Scheduled for deactivation, the ship was towed to San Diego and decommissioned 2 July 1946. Placed in the San Diego Group, Pacific Reserve Fleet, Grady remained inactive until 27 April 1947, when she was placed in an "In Service in Reserve" status. For the next 3 years the ship served as a Naval Reserve Training vessel under the 13th Naval District.
Based at Bellingham, she cruised for 2 or 3 week periods training reservists. Grady was placed in an "In Commission In Reserve" status 1 August 1950, recommissioned in the active fleet 21 November 1950; the ship was placed under the 12th Naval District at San Francisco, continuing her important role as training ship for reserve officers and men, as school ship for Fleet Sonar School, San Diego, California. Grady decommissioned a second time 18 December 1957 and was placed in reserve at Stockton, California. Grady received three battle stars for World War II Service. List of United States Navy ships World War II Destroyer Destroyer escort This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships; the entry can be found here. NavSource Online: Destroyer Escort Photo Archive - USS Grady
The Diocese of St Andrews and Dunblane is one of the seven dioceses of the Scottish Episcopal Church. It is centred on St Ninian's Cathedral in Perth, covers Fife, Kinross-shire and eastern and central Stirlingshire; the current Bishop of St Andrews and Dunblane is the David Chillingworth, Primus of the church. He ministered in the Church of Ireland before his consecration as bishop; the diocese continues the titles of three ancient Scottish dioceses. The Diocese of St Andrews was founded in 906 and was raised to an archdiocese in 1465. Throughout the Scottish Reformation the diocese continued under the auspices of moderate, Episcopalian reformers. From 1704 until 1726, the archbishopric was vacant. In 1842, the diocese, no longer an archdiocese, was moved back to St Andrews and united with the Diocese of Dunkeld and Dunblane; the Diocese of Dunkeld is thought to have begun in the 9th century, but the first reliable date is that of the consecration of Cormac as bishop in 1114. The line of bishops continued with only a few vacancies until, in 1842, the diocese was united with St Andrews.
In 1878, the Roman Catholic Church revived the Diocese of Dunkeld as part of its structures in Scotland. The Diocese of Dunblane was founded in 1162, its line of bishops continued with a few vacancies until it was united with the Diocese of Dunkeld in 1776. The diocese covers the historic counties of Perthshire, the Forfar and Kirriemuir areas of Angus, Kinross-shire and central Stirlingshire; this total population of 703,000 gives the diocese a ratio of one priest to every 37,000 inhabitants and one church to every 14,600 inhabitants. The diocese has 48 churches and 19 stipendiary clergy. Last updated 19 September 2018. Roman Catholic Archdiocese of St Andrews and Edinburgh Roman Catholic Diocese of Dunkeld
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