Ye Ting, born in Huiyang, was a Chinese military leader. He started out nationalist but joined the communists. Ye Ting joined the Kuomintang when Sun Yat-sen founded it in 1919 and from 1921 was a battalion commander in the National Revolutionary Army. In 1924 he studied in the Soviet Union and in December of that year joined the Communist Party of China. In September 1925 he returned to China to serve first as staff officer as independent regiment commander, in the Fourth Army of the National Revolutionary Army. In May 1926 he led an advance detachment in the Northern Expedition, with several victories in August. In September he besieged Wuchang. In 1927 he was a) deputy division commander of the 15th Division, b) division commander of the 24th Division of the 11th Army, c) deputy army commander of the 11th Army. On August 1, with Chen Yi, Zhou Enlai, He Long, Zhu De, Ye Jianying, Lin Biao, Liu Bocheng and Guo Moruo, he participated in the failed Nanchang Uprising, when the “Chinese Red Army” was founded.
After Nanchang, he went to whence on December 11 he led the Canton Uprising. After this uprising failed, he was persecuted as a scapegoat and as a result, he was exiled to Europe and when he returned to Asia went into hiding in Macao. In 1937 he served as army commander of the New Fourth Army; as a result of the New Fourth Army Incident, he was put in jail for five years, until 1946. On April 8 of that year, after he was released, en route from Chongqing to Yan'an, he died in a plane crash. Among the victims were some of his family members and several senior CPC leaders such as Bo Gu, Deng Fa, Wang Ruofei. There are rumors. Ye Ting had a total of nine children including Lt. Gen. Ye Zhengda. One of his granddaughters, Ye Xiaoyan, the daughter of Ye Ting's second son Ye Zhengming, is married to Li Xiaoyong, a son of former Chinese premier Li Peng
Zhang Fakui CBE was a Chinese Nationalist general who fought against northern warlords, the Imperial Japanese Army and Chinese Communist forces in his military career. He served as commander-in-chief of the 8th Army Group and commander-in-chief of NRA ground force before retiring in Hong Kong in 1949. Zhang Fakui was born in 1896 in Guangdong province, he entered a private learning facility at a young age and went to Guangzhou to become an apprentice before joining the local militia. He entered elementary military academy in Guangdong in 1912 and went to Wuhan's military high school, he served as Dr. Sun Yat-Sen's personal bodyguard and was appointed as a battalion commander of the newly created 4th Corps of the National Revolutionary Army. In 1923 he joined the campaign to dislodge warlord Chen Jiongming from power and was promoted to regiment and ten division commander. During the Northern Expedition he led the 4th Corps and defeated Wu Peifu's warlord armies in central China; the 4th Corps became known as the Iron Army.
Zhang was lauded by the public as the "Hero of the Iron Army". When Chiang Kai-shek unleashed his forces against the communists in the Shanghai Massacre on April 12, 1927, Zhang stayed with Wang Jingwei's Wuhan government, he was appointed to command both 11th Corps. In the same month both KMT governments launched separate campaigns against the northern warlords, Zhang again scored a major victory against Marshal Zhang Zuolin's Fengtian clique in Henan province, he was promoted to commander-in-chief of the 4th Area Army and prepared to attack Nanjing. When Wang Jingwei and Chiang Kai-shek reconciled in July 1927, many communist officers under his command mutinied, resulting in the Nanchang Uprising. Zhang's army defeated the communists and chased the mutineers across into Fujian he returned to his home province. While in Guangdong, he drove out the New Guangxi clique and again supported Wang Jingwei over Chiang Kai-shek; the remaining communists in his army used the confusion to launch the Guangzhou Uprising, which Zhang quelled with three divisions.
However, he resigned his command. Before the outbreak of the Second Sino-Japanese War, he participated in a series of local conflicts in order to stop the growing influence of Chiang Kai-shek's Nationalist Government in his province and was an active member during the Central Plains War against the Nanjing government. In 1936 he and Chiang reconciled and he was appointed commander-in-chief of Zhejiang, Jiangxi and Fujian border regions, to eradicate communist activities in those places. During the Second Sino-Japanese War, Zhang Fakui commanded the 8th Army Group in the Battle of Shanghai in 1937, 2nd Army Corps in the Battle of Wuhan in 1938, he Commanded 4th War area from 1939 to 1944, defending Guangdong and Guangxi against the Japanese in South China, achieving a victory in the Battle of South Guangxi. He was appointed as commander in Chief of the Guilin War Zone during the Japanese Operation Ichigo; as Commander in Chief 2nd Front Army he accepted the surrender of the Japanese Twenty-Third Army in Guangdong at the end of the War.
There was a unique feature for the telephone conversations with Chiang Kai-shek, because Zhang was a Hakka, the two had difficulties in understanding each other: instead of hanging up the phone after giving out orders like he did to everyone else, during the conversation with Zhang, Chiang always asked Zhang if he understood what he had just said, Chiang always waited until after Zhang gave an affirmative answer. During the struggle against the Japanese, Zhang was among the first Army Corps commanders to ask the Chinese military to change its code because he discovered that Japanese could decode the Chinese code at the early stage of the war. After the war he was made to march into Hong Kong accept the surrender of the Japanese troops and stayed until the restoration of the British. Commander of the Order of the British Empire, his medal was presented by Governor of Hong Kong Sir Mark Young in May 1947. Zhang was nicknamed Zhang Fei, after the historical Three Kingdoms figure. After the Second Sino-Japanese War, He was put in charge of Guangdong province and named as one of President Chiang Kai-shek's military advisors.
After the disastrous Huaihai Campaign, Vice President Li Zongren took over as acting President, Zhang was named as chief military administrator of Hainan and commander-in-chief of Nationalist ground forces in March 1949. He did not retreat to Taiwan with his commander Xue Yue, he stayed in Hong Kong. Zhang Fakui was instrumental in the Kuomintang support of Vietnamese revolutionary organizations and parties against the French Imperialist occupation of Indo China, he assisted the Viet Nam Quoc Dan Dang. Based in Guangxi, Zhang established the Viet Nam Cach Menh Dong Minh Hoi meaning "Viet Nam Revolutionary League" in 1942, assisted by the Viet Nam Quoc Dan Dang to serve the KMT's aims; the Chinese Yunnan provincial army, under the KMT, occupied northern Vietnam after the Japanese surrender in 1945, the VNQDD tagging alone, opposing Ho Chi Minh's communist party. The Viet Nam Revolutionary League was a union of various Vietnamese nationalist groups, run by the pro Chinese Viet Nam Quoc Dan Dang.
Its stated goal was for unity with China under the Three Principles of the People, created by KMT founder Dr. Sun and opposition to Japanese and French Imperialists; the Revolutionary League was controlled by Nguyen Hai Than. General Zhang shrewdly blocked the Communists of Vietnam, Ho Chi Minh from entering the league, as his main goal was Chinese influence in Indo China; the KMT utilized these Vietnamese nationalists during World War II against Japanese forces. Zhang worked with N
Cantonese is a variety of Chinese spoken in the city of Guangzhou and its surrounding area in Southeastern China. It is the traditional prestige variety and standard form of Yue Chinese, one of the major subgroups of Chinese. In mainland China, it is the lingua franca of the province of Guangdong and neighbouring areas such as Guangxi, it is the official language of Hong Kong and Macau. Cantonese is widely spoken amongst Overseas Chinese in Southeast Asia and throughout the Western world. While the term Cantonese refers to the prestige variety, it is used in a broader sense for the entire Yue subgroup of Chinese, including related but mutually unintelligible languages and dialects such as Taishanese; when Cantonese and the related Yuehai dialects are classified together, there are about 80 million total speakers. Cantonese is viewed as a vital and inseparable part of the cultural identity for its native speakers across large swaths of Southeastern China, Hong Kong and Macau, as well as in overseas communities.
Although Cantonese shares a lot of vocabulary with Mandarin, the two varieties are mutually unintelligible because of differences in pronunciation and lexicon. Sentence structure, in particular the placement of verbs, sometimes differs between the two varieties. A notable difference between Cantonese and Mandarin is; this results in the situation in which a Cantonese and a Mandarin text may look similar but are pronounced differently. In English, the term "Cantonese" can be ambiguous. Cantonese proper is the variety native to the city of Canton, the traditional English name of Guangzhou; this narrow sense may be specified as "Canton language" or "Guangzhou language". However, "Cantonese" may refer to the primary branch of Chinese that contains Cantonese proper as well as Taishanese and Gaoyang. In this article, "Cantonese" is used for Cantonese proper. Speakers called this variety "Canton speech" or "Guangzhou speech", although this term is now used outside Guangzhou. In Guangdong and Guangxi, people call it "provincial capital speech" or "plain speech".
Academically called "Canton prefecture speech". In Hong Kong and Macau, as well as among overseas Chinese communities, the language is referred to as "Guangdong speech" or "Canton Province speech", or as "Chinese". In mainland China, the term "Guangdong speech" is increasingly being used amongst both native and non-native speakers. Given the history of the development of the Yue languages and dialects during the Tang dynasty migrations to the region, in overseas Chinese communities, it is referred to as "Tang speech", given that the Cantonese people refer to themselves as "people of Tang". Due to its status as a prestige dialect among all the dialects of the Yue branch of Chinese varieties, it is called "Standard Cantonese"; the official languages of Hong Kong are English, as defined in the Hong Kong Basic Law. The Chinese language has many different varieties. Given the traditional predominance of Cantonese within Hong Kong, it is the de facto official spoken form of the Chinese language used in the Hong Kong Government and all courts and tribunals.
It is used as the medium of instruction in schools, alongside English. A similar situation exists in neighboring Macau, where Chinese is an official language alongside Portuguese; as in Hong Kong, Cantonese is the predominant spoken variety of Chinese used in everyday life and is thus the official form of Chinese used in the government. The Cantonese spoken in Hong Kong and Macau is mutually intelligible with the Cantonese spoken in the mainland city of Guangzhou, although there exist some minor differences in accent and vocabulary. Cantonese first developed around the port city of Guangzhou in the Pearl River Delta region of southeastern China. Due to the city's long standing as an important cultural center, Cantonese emerged as the prestige dialect of the Yue varieties of Chinese in the Southern Song dynasty and its usage spread around most of what is now the provinces of Guangdong and Guangxi. Despite the cession of Macau to Portugal in 1557 and Hong Kong to Britain in 1842, the ethnic Chinese population of the two territories originated from the 19th and 20th century immigration from Guangzhou and surrounding areas, making Cantonese the predominant Chinese language in the territories.
On the mainland, Cantonese continued to serve as the lingua franca of Guangdong and Guangxi provinces after Mandarin was made the official language of the government by the Qing dynasty in the early 1900s. Cantonese remained a dominant and influential language in southeastern China until the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949 and its promotion of Standard Chinese as the sole official language of the nation throughout the last half of the 20th century, although its influence still remains strong within the region. While the Chinese government vehemently discourages the official use of all forms of Chinese except Standard Chinese, Cantonese enjoys a higher standing than other Chinese langua
Liu Bocheng was a Chinese Communist military commander and Marshal of the People's Liberation Army. Liu is known as the ` half' of A Half" Strategists of China in modern history. Liu was recognised as a revolutionary, military strategist and theoretician, one of the founders of the People's Liberation Army. Liu's nicknames, Chinese Mars and The One-eyed Dragon reflect his character and military achievement. Liu was born to a peasant family in Sichuan. Although he grew up in poverty, Liu made a determined effort in his studies and gained good grades at school. Influenced by the revolutionary theories of Sun Yat-sen, he decided to dedicate himself to the cause of establishing a democratic and modern China. In 1911, Liu joined the Boy Scouts in support of the Xinhai Revolution. In the following year, he enrolled in the Chongqing Military Academy and joined the army against Yuan Shikai, planning to undermine the Xinhai Revolution and proclaim himself Emperor. In 1914, Liu gained extensive military experience.
During one battle during this period he captured 10,000 enemy soldiers, for which he was promoted to brigade commander. In 1916, he lost his right eye in a battle for Fengdu Sichuan. After he lost the eye he gained the nickname "One-Eyed Dragon". Alternative accounts of how Liu lost his eye have included the speculation that he lost it either earlier, in the 1911 Xinhai Revolution, or during the Long March. In 1923, during a war against the warlord Wu Peifu, in response to the Northern Expedition of the Kuomintang, Liu was appointed commander of the Eastern Route, was promoted to commanding general in Sichuan. Liu displayed his military talent in battles against various warlords. While fighting the army of Long Yun, a Yunnan warlord, Liu defeated a force commanded by Zhu De, who would become one of his closest comrades in the Red Army. In the same year, Liu became acquainted with Yang Angong and Wu Yuzhang, who were among the earliest Communists of Sichuan, their relationship marked Liu's first real exposure to the practice of Communism.
In May 1926, Liu was appointed military commissioner of Chongqing. In December 1926, along with Zhu De and Yang, Liu masterminded the Luzhou and Nanchong uprising, fought against local warlords, while supporting the Northern Expedition. In 1927, Liu was appointed army corps commander of the 15th Temporarily Organized National Revolutionary Army, it was during this time that Liu witnessed the split between the Kuomintang and the CPC. After joining the CPC, Liu led the Nanchang Uprising together with Zhu De, He Long, Ye Ting, Li Lisan and Zhou Enlai declaring war on the KMT. During this uprising, Liu was appointed the first chief of staff of the newly born Chinese Red Army. However, after a series of defeats Liu's forces were destroyed, its leaders went underground. In 1927 Liu was selected to travel to Moscow, where he mastered Russian and attended the prestigious Frunze Military Academy. While studying in the Soviet Union he learned Western-style military tactics. While in Russia he translated a Russian textbook into Chinese, Combined Arms Tactics, produced a commentary of Sun Tzu's Art of War, both of which promoted conventional tactics.
On, Liu gave a lecture on the subject at the 6th National Congress of the Chinese Communist Party, held in Moscow. In the summer of 1930, Liu was sent back to China and was appointed as commissioner of the Central Military Committee of the CPC as well as Military Secretary of the Yangtze River division of the CPC. In December 1930, Liu went to Shanghai to assist Zhou Enlai in the daily administration of CPC military affairs. In 1931, the CPC suffered great losses in several major cities and was forced to retreat to the countryside. Liu was sent to the CPC's power base in Jiangxi. In January 1932, Liu was appointed commissar of the Red Army Military Academy. By October he was promoted to Chief of Staff of the Red Army, assisting Zhu De and Zhou in the war against Chiang Kai-shek’s 4th Suppression on the Central Soviet Territory. At the time, the CPC was under the reign of members of the 28 Bolsheviks, including Bo Gu, Zhang Wentian, Otto Braun, the Military Advisor of Comintern, took control of military command.
All three were educated in Moscow, Liu found common ground with these young men. During his time in the Jiangxi-Fujian Soviet Liu experienced conflicts with other Communist leaders, including Mao Zedong and Peng Dehuai. Liu's conflict with Mao may be due to Liu's support for conventional tactics, which contradicted Mao's advocacy of guerrilla warfare. According to a account by Zhang Guotao, Liu described Mao as being a "pedant", resented Mao's tendency to micromanage his military officers, rather than delegating authority to Red Army's general staff. Peng once led his troops during a siege of Guangchang under the orders of Bo and Li De, which resulted in the troops suffering heavy casualties. Peng blamed this on resources. Peng was known for being bad-tempered. After the battle Peng became furious. Liu grew to oppose the leadership of Bo and Braun after the Red Army began to suffer repeated defeats. In the Red Army's en
The Jinggang Mountains are a mountain range of the Luoxiao Mountains System, in the remote border region of Jiangxi and Hunan Provinces. The range lies at the junction of four counties - Ninggang, Yongxing and Lingxian; the mountains cover some 670 km2, with an average elevation of 381.5 metres above sea level. The highest point is 2,120 m above sea level; the range's massif consists of a number of thickly forested parallel ridges. On the heights there is not much farmland with most settlements at the base of the mountains; the main settlement is at Ciping, surrounded by five villages whose literal meanings are Big Well, Little Well, Middle Well, Lower Well, Upper Well. Henceforth came the name of the mountain range—"井冈山" means "Well Ridge Mountains"; the Jinggang Mountains is known as the birthplace of the Chinese Red Army, predecessor of the People's Liberation Army) and the "cradle of the Chinese revolution". After the Kuomintang turned against the Communist Party during the April 12 Incident, the Communists either went underground or fled to the countryside.
Following the unsuccessful Autumn Harvest Uprising in Changsha, Mao Zedong led his 1,000 remaining men here, setting up his first peasant soviet. Mao reorganised his forces at the mountain village of Sanwan, consolidating them into a single regiment - the "1st Regiment, 1st Division, of the First Workers' and Peasants' Revolutionary Army". Mao made an alliance with the local bandit chieftains Wang Zuo and Yuan Wencai, who had had little association with the Communists. For the first year he set up military headquarters at Maoping, a small market town encircled by low hills guarding the main western route into the mountains. In November, the army occupied Chaling, some 80 km to the west, though this was overrun by KMT troops; when pressure from KMT troops became too great, Mao abandoned Maoping and withdrew up the mountain to Wang Zuo's stronghold at Dajing, from which they could control the mountain passes. That winter the Communists drilled with the local bandits and the next year incorporated them into their regular army.
In February a battalion from the KMT's Jiangxi Army occupied a town north of Maoping. During the night of February 17, Mao surrounded them with three battalions of his own and routed them the next day. Zhu De and his 1000 remaining troops, who had participated in the abortive Nanchang Uprising, joined Mao Zedong toward the end of April 1928. Together the two proclaimed the formation of the Fourth Army. Other veterans who joined the new base included Zhou Enlai and Chen Yi; the partnership between Mao Zedong and Zhu De marked the heyday of the Jinggang Mountains base area, which expanded to include, at its peak in the summer of 1928, parts of seven counties with a population of more than 500,000. Together with Yuan Wencai and Wang Zuo's forces, their soldiers numbered more than 8000. A popular story from that period recounts the hardworking Zhu De carrying grain for the troops up the mountain since agriculture was nigh impossible in the mountain range itself, it was around this period that Mao Zedong formulated his theories of rural-based revolution and guerrilla warfare.
In July 1928, Zhu De's 28th and 29th regiments crossed into Hunan with plans to take the important communication hub of Hengyang. Mao Zedong's 31st and 32nd regiments were supposed to hold Ninggang until Zhu returned, they were, unable to hold back the advance of the Kuomintang's Jiangxi units and lost Ninggang and two neighbouring counties. On August 30, the young officer He Tingying managed to hold the narrow pass of Huangyangjie with a single under-strength battalion against three regiments of the Hunanese Eight Army and one regiment of Jiangxi troops, thus saving Maoping from being overrun; as the size of the Communist forces grew and pressure grew from the Kuomintang, the Fourth Army was forced to move out. From January 14, 1929, the organisation moved to Ruijin, further south in Jiangxi province, where the Jiangxi Soviet was set up. At the same time, the Kuomintang were executing another encirclement campaign, involving 25,000 men from fourteen regiments. Peng Dehuai was left in command of an 800-man-strong force the Fifth Army.
By February, his remaining troops broke up under heavy attack from Wu Shang's Hunan troops. After the Jiangxi Soviet had established itself in southern Jiangxi, the Jinggang Mountains became the northwestern frontier of Communist operations. Peng Dehuai returned with a much stronger Fifth Army in early 1930, basing himself just north of the mountains. In late February 1930, the bandits Yuan Wencai and Wang Zuo were assassinated by Communist guerillas on orders from officials in the Jiangxi Soviet, their men made Wang Zuo's younger brother, their new leader. Most Communist forces left the area in 1934. By the time they returned in 1949, Wang Yunlong had been succeeded by his son, he was executed. Along with Mao Zedong's hometown, the Jinggang Mountains is one of the most important sites of the Communist Revolution, it was celebrated on posters and operas. During the Cultural Revolution, it became a place of pilgrimage for young Red Guards, who took advantage of a nationwide "networking movement".
They made the journey on foot to relive the experiences of their revolutionary forebearers. At its peak, more than 30,000 Red Guards arrived a day, causing terrible problems of food, sanitation. Peak numbers continued for more than two months until the government began to discourage the young people. In 1981, an area of 16.6 km2 was designated a Natural Pr
Chinese Civil War
The Chinese Civil War was a war fought between the Kuomintang -led government of the Republic of China and the Communist Party of China lasting intermittently between 1927 and 1949. Although particular attention is paid to the four years of Chinese Communist Revolution from 1945 to 1949, the war started in August 1927, with the White Terror at the end of Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek's Northern Expedition, ended when major hostilities between the two sides ceased in 1950; the conflict took place in two stages, the first between 1927 and 1937, the second from 1946 to 1950. The Civil War marked a major turning point in modern Chinese history, with the Communists gaining control of mainland China and establishing the People's Republic of China in 1949, forcing the Republic of China to retreat to Taiwan, it resulted in a lasting political and military standoff between the two sides of the Taiwan Strait, with the ROC in Taiwan and the PRC in mainland China both claiming to be the legitimate government of all China.
The war represented an ideological split between the Communist Party of China and the Nationalist Party of China. Conflict continued intermittently until late 1937, when the two parties came together to form the Second United Front to counter the Imperial Japanese Army threat and to prevent the country from crumbling. Full-scale civil war in China resumed in 1946, a year after the end of hostilities with the Empire of Japan in September 1945. Four years came the cessation of major military activity, with the newly founded People's Republic of China controlling mainland China, the Republic of China's jurisdiction restricted to Taiwan, Kinmen and several outlying islands; as of December 2018 no armistice or peace treaty has been signed, the debate continues as to whether the civil war has ended. Relations between both sides called the Cross-Strait relations, have been hindered by military threats and political and economic pressure over Taiwan's political status, with both governments adhering to the One-China policy.
The PRC still claims Taiwan as part of its territory and continues to threaten the ROC with a military invasion if the ROC declares independence by changing its name to and gaining international recognition as the "Republic of Taiwan". The ROC, for its part, claims mainland China, both parties continue the fight over diplomatic recognition; as of 2018 the war as such occurs on the political and economic fronts, without actual military action. However, the two separate governments in China have close economic ties. Following the collapse of the Qing dynasty in the aftermath of the Xinhai Revolution, China fell into a brief period of civil war before Yuan Shikai assumed the presidency of the newly formed Republic of China; the administration became known with its capital in Peking. After the death of Yuan Shikai in 1916, the following years were characterized by the power struggle between different cliques in the former Beiyang Army. In the meantime, the Kuomintang, led by Sun Yat-sen, created a new government in Guangzhou to resist the rule of Beiyang Government through a series of movements.
Sun's efforts to obtain aid from the Western countries were ignored, thus he turned to the Soviet Union in 1921. For political expediency, the Soviet leadership initiated a dual policy of support for both Sun and the newly established Communist Party of China, which would found the People's Republic of China, thus the struggle for power in China began between the KMT and the CPC. In 1923, a joint statement by Sun and Soviet representative Adolph Joffe in Shanghai pledged Soviet assistance to China's unification; the Sun-Joffe Manifesto was a declaration of cooperation among the Comintern, KMT and CPC. Comintern agent Mikhail Borodin arrived in China in 1923 to aid in the reorganization and consolidation of the KMT along the lines of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union; the CPC joined the KMT to form the First United Front. In 1923, Sun sent Chiang Kai-shek, one of his lieutenants from his Tongmenghui days, for several months of military and political study in the Soviet capital Moscow. By 1924, Chiang became the head of the Whampoa Military Academy, rose to prominence as Sun's successor as head of the KMT.
The Soviets provided the academy with much educational material and equipment, including munitions. They provided education in many of the techniques for mass mobilization. With this aid, Sun was able to raise a dedicated "army of the party," with which he hoped to defeat the warlords militarily. CPC members were present in the academy, many of them became instructors, including Zhou Enlai, made a political instructor. Communist members were allowed to join the KMT on an individual basis; the CPC itself was still small at the time, having a membership of 300 in 1922 and only 1,500 by 1925. As of 1923, the KMT had 50,000 members. However, after Sun died in 1925, the KMT split into left- and right-wing movements. KMT members worried that the Soviets were trying to destroy the KMT from inside using the CPC; the CPC began movements in opposition of the Northern Expedition, passing a resolution against it at a party meeting. In March 1927, the KMT held its second party meeting where the Soviets helped pass resolutions against the Expedition and curbing Chiang's power.
Soon, the KMT would be divided. Throughout this time the Soviet Union had a large impact on the Communist Party of China, they sent money and spies to support the Chinese Communist P
Soong Ching-ling was a Chinese political figure. As the third wife of Sun Yat-sen, one of the leaders of the 1911 revolution that established the Republic of China, she was referred to as Madame Sun Yat-sen, she was a member of the Soong family and, together with her siblings, played a prominent role in China's politics prior to and after 1949. After the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949, she held several prominent positions in the new government, including Vice President of China and Vice Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress, travelled abroad during the early 1950s, representing her country at a number of international events. During the Cultural Revolution, she was criticized. Following the purge of President Liu Shaoqi in 1968, she and Dong Biwu as Vice Presidents became de facto Heads of State of China until 1972, when Dong was appointed Acting President. Soong survived the political turmoil during the Cultural Revolution, but only appeared less after 1976.
As the Chairwoman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress from 1976 to 1978, Soong was the Head of State. During her final illness in May 1981, she was given the special title of "Honorary President of the People's Republic of China". Soong Ching-ling was born to businessman and missionary Charlie Soong in Chuansha, Shanghai, the second of six children, she graduated from McTyeire School for Girls in Shanghai, Wesleyan College in Macon, United States. Like her sisters, she spoke fluent English due to being educated in English for most of her life, her Christian name was Rosamonde. Soong married Sun Yat-sen, leader of China's 1911 revolution and founder of the Kuomintang, on 25 October 1915 though her parents opposed the match. After Sun's death in 1925, she was elected to the KMT Central Executive Committee. However, she left China for Moscow after the expulsion of the Communists from the KMT in 1927, accusing the KMT of betraying her husband's legacy, her younger sister, May-ling, married Chiang Kai-shek shortly afterward, making Chiang Soong's brother-in-law.
Soong returned to China in June 1929 when Sun Yat-sen was moved from his temporary burial site in Beijing to a new memorial in Nanjing, but left again three months and did not return until July 1931, when her mother died. She resided afterwards in Shanghai until July 1937. Following the outbreak of hostilities, she moved first to Hong Kong to Chongqing, the wartime capital of the Chinese government. In 1939, she founded the China Defense League, which raised funds and sought supplies for the Chinese Communist controlled areas of northern China. In 1946, the League was renamed the China Welfare fund, continuing to seek funds and support for the Chinese Communists. During the Chinese Civil War, Soong supported the Communists. In 1948, she became honorary chairwoman of the Revolutionary Committee of the Kuomintang, a left-wing splinter group of the KMT that claimed to be the legitimate heir of Sun's legacy. With the collapse of the Nationalist government and the Communist victory in the civil war, she left Shanghai in September 1949 to attend the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, convened in Beijing by the Chinese Communist Party to establish a new Central People's Government.
On 1 October, she was a guest at the ceremony in Tiananmen Square marking the birth of the new People's Republic of China. The Nationalist government issued an order for her arrest, but this was soon commuted by the swift military victory of the Communists; the KMT fled from mainland China to Taiwan soon after this. Soong was held in great esteem by the victorious Communists, who reckoned her as a link between their movement and Sun's earlier movement. After the formal establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949, she became one of six vice chairpeople of the Central People's Government, one of several vice-chairpeople of the Sino-Soviet Friendship Association. In April 1951, it was announced that she had been awarded the Stalin Peace Prize for 1950. In 1950, Soong became chairwoman of the Chinese People's Relief Administration, which combined several organizations dealing with welfare and relief issues, her China Welfare Fund was reorganized as the China Welfare Institute and began publishing the magazine China Reconstructs, now published as China Today.
In 1953, a collection of her writings, Struggle for New China, was published. In 1953 Soong served on the committees preparing for elections to the new National People's Congress and the drafting of the 1954 constitution. Soong was elected a Shanghai deputy to the first NPC, which adopted the constitution at its first meeting in September 1954, she was elected one of 14 vice-chairpeople of the NPC's standing committee, chaired by Liu Shaoqi. In December of the same year, she was elected a vice-chairwoman of the CPPCC, which became a consultative body, replaced Liu Shaoqi as chairperson of the Sino-Soviet Friendship Association. During this period, Soong traveled abroad several times, visiting Austria, Burma and Indonesia, her trips included a January 1953 visit to the Soviet Union, where she was received by Stalin shortly before his death. She visited Moscow again in 1957 with Mao Zedong's delegation to the 40th anniversary of the Russian Revolution. In April 1959, Soong