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Nancy Astor, Viscountess Astor

Nancy Witcher Langhorne Astor, Viscountess Astor, CH was an American-born British politician, the second female Member of Parliament but the first to take her seat, serving from 1919 to 1945. Sinn Féin's Constance Markievicz had become the first elected female MP in 1918, but refused to take up her seat in line with party policy. Astor was an American citizen who married Waldorf Astor, he entered the House of Lords. Her first husband was American Robert Gould Shaw II, she served in Parliament as a member of the Conservative Party for Plymouth Sutton until 1945, when she was persuaded to step down. Astor's legacy has attracted attention for her views sympathetic to Nazism. Nancy Witcher Langhorne was born at the Langhorne House in Virginia, she was the eighth of eleven children born to railroad businessman Chiswell Dabney Langhorne and his wife Nancy Witcher Keene. Following the abolition of slavery, Chiswell struggled to make his operations profitable, with the destruction of the war, the family lived in near-poverty for several years before Nancy was born.

After her birth, her father gained a job as a tobacco auctioneer in Danville, the center of bright leaf tobacco and a major marketing and processing center. In 1874, he won a construction contract with the Chespeake and Ohio Railroad, using former contacts from his service in the Civil War. By 1892, when Nancy was thirteen years old, her father had re-established his wealth and built a sizeable home. Chiswell Langhorne moved his family to an estate, known as Mirador, in Albemarle County, Virginia. Nancy Langhorne had three brothers who survived childhood. All of the sisters were known for their beauty. There Nancy met her first husband, socialite Robert Gould Shaw II, a first cousin of Colonel Robert Gould Shaw, who commanded the 54th Massachusetts Regiment, the first unit in the Union Army to be composed of African Americans, they married in New York City on 27 October 1897, when she was 18. The marriage was unhappy. Shaw's friends said Nancy became rigid after marriage. During their four-year marriage, they had one son, Robert Gould Shaw III.

Nancy left Shaw numerous times during the first during their honeymoon. In 1903, Nancy's mother died. Nancy Shaw fell in love with the country. Since she had been so happy there, her father suggested. Seeing she was reluctant, her father said this was her mother's wish. Nancy and Phyllis moved together to England in 1905, their older sister Irene had married the artist Charles Dana Gibson and became a model for his Gibson Girls. Nancy Shaw had become known in English society as an interesting and witty American, at a time when numerous wealthy young American women had married into the aristocracy, her tendency to be saucy in conversation, yet religiously devout and prudish in behavior, confused many of the English men but pleased some of the older socialites. Nancy began to show her skill at winning over critics, she was once asked by an English woman, "Have you come to get our husbands?" Her unexpected response, "If you knew the trouble I had getting rid of mine..." charmed her listeners and displayed the wit for which she became known.

She did marry an Englishman, albeit one born in the United States, Waldorf Astor. The couple were well matched, they were of the same age, born on the same day, 19 May 1879. Astor shared some of Nancy's moral attitudes, had a heart condition that may have contributed to his restraint. After the marriage, the Astors moved into Cliveden, a lavish estate in Buckinghamshire on the River Thames, a wedding gift from Astor's father. Nancy Astor developed as a prominent hostess for the social elite; the Astors owned a grand London house, No. 4 St. James's Square, now the premises of the Naval & Military Club. A blue plaque unveiled in 1987 commemorates Astor at St. James's Square. Through her many social connections, Lady Astor became involved in a political circle called Milner's Kindergarten. Considered liberal in their age, the group advocated unity and equality among English-speaking people and a continuance or expansion of the British Empire. With Milner's Kindergarten, Astor began her association with Philip Kerr.

The friendship became important in her religious life. They were attracted to Christian Science, to which they both converted. After converting, she began to proselytise for that faith and played a role in Kerr's conversion to it, she tried to convert Hilaire Belloc's daughters to Christian Science, which led to a rift between them. Despite having Catholic friends such as Belloc for a time, Astor's religious views included a strong vein of Anti-Catholicism. Christopher Sykes argues that Kerr, an ex-Catholic, influenced this, but others argue that Astor's Protestant Virginia origins are a sufficient explanation for her Anti-Catholic views. (Anti-Catholicism

Ital Dub

Ital Dub is a studio album by Augustus Pablo released in 1974 and sees Tommy Cowan and Warwick Lyn replacing Clive Chin on production duties. The album features King Tubby as Engineer, a role he would reprise a number of times during Pablo's career. "The Big Rip Off" – 3:15 "Road Block" – 3:55 "Curly Dub" – 3:56 "Well Red" – 2:34 "Gun Trade" – 3:36 "Shake Up " – 3:26 "Hillside Airstrip" – 3:14 "Barbwire Disaster" - 2:33 "Mr Big" – 3:50 "Eli's Move" – 2:31 "House Raid" – 3:30 "Shake Down" – 3:02

Old Log Theatre

The Old Log Theatre is the oldest professional theater in the state of Minnesota. It is sometimes cited as the oldest continuously operating professional theater in the United States, it is located in Excelsior and is funded by ticket sales and income from its restaurant. The Old Log Theatre first opened in 1940 in Greenwood, in a dirt-floored log building now used as a scenery shop. Throughout its existence the theater has focused on screwball comedy, contemporary plays and British farces, though in its early years it operated as a summer stock company; the original building seated 270 people and during its summer season the theater presented a show a week. During the 1950s the theater's popularity grew and late in that decade it found a need for larger quarters. Herb Bloomberg, a builder in Chanhassen, was hired to design and build the new theater on 10 acres adjacent to the original theater in 1965; the new building could seat 655 and was designed to look like a barn with a large lobby featuring a fireplace and a high ceiling.

Herb Bloomberg went on to operate the Chanhassen Dinner Theatres. For 73 years the theater was owned by Don Stolz, who joined a year after its inception, when he was 23 and a graduate student in theater at Northwestern University. Hired to direct, he performed in The Taming of the Shrew starting on his second day; the first show. Stolz was instrumental in the growth of television in the Twin Cities and became a radio veteran in the area. In 2006, several of Stolz's sons took over theater operations, though Stolz remained active in the productions, including a short speech before and after each night's performance, he died on February 14, 2015, at age 97. Greg and Marissa Frankenfield purchased the theater and restaurant in May 2013. Greg Frankenfield is cofounder and CEO of Magenic Technologies, a Minnesota information technology firm; the Frankenfields are theater enthusiasts and producers who have been on the boards of several local theatre organizations and invested in West End and Broadway productions.

The current theater has been reconfigured to seat 560. They renovated the restaurant, which seats 250, reopened it as Cast & Cru in fall 2014. An estimated 6 million people have attended productions at the Old Log Theatre. Theater alumni include actor Nick Nolte, who spent three years with the theater, Loni Anderson, long-time Twin Cities news anchor and actor Dave Moore. Old Log Theatre

Differential topology

In mathematics, differential topology is the field dealing with differentiable functions on differentiable manifolds. It is related to differential geometry and together they make up the geometric theory of differentiable manifolds. Differential topology considers the properties and structures that require only a smooth structure on a manifold to be defined. Smooth manifolds are'softer' than manifolds with extra geometric structures, which can act as obstructions to certain types of equivalences and deformations that exist in differential topology. For instance and Riemannian curvature are invariants that can distinguish different geometric structures on the same smooth manifold—that is, one can smoothly "flatten out" certain manifolds, but it might require distorting the space and affecting the curvature or volume. On the other hand, smooth manifolds are more rigid than the topological manifolds. John Milnor discovered that some spheres have more than one smooth structure—see Exotic sphere and Donaldson's theorem.

Michel Kervaire exhibited topological manifolds with no smooth structure at all. Some constructions of smooth manifold theory, such as the existence of tangent bundles, can be done in the topological setting with much more work, others cannot. One of the main topics in differential topology is the study of special kinds of smooth mappings between manifolds, namely immersions and submersions, the intersections of submanifolds via transversality. More one is interested in properties and invariants of smooth manifolds that are carried over by diffeomorphisms, another special kind of smooth mapping. Morse theory is another branch of differential topology, in which topological information about a manifold is deduced from changes in the rank of the Jacobian of a function. For a list of differential topology topics, see the following reference: List of differential geometry topics. Differential topology and differential geometry are first characterized by their similarity, they both study the properties of differentiable manifolds, sometimes with a variety of structures imposed on them.

One major difference lies in the nature of the problems. In one view, differential topology distinguishes itself from differential geometry by studying those problems that are inherently global. Consider the example of a coffee cup and a donut. From the point of view of differential topology, the donut and the coffee cup are the same; this is an inherently global view, because there is no way for the differential topologist to tell whether the two objects are the same by looking at just a tiny piece of either of them. They must have access to each entire object. From the point of view of differential geometry, the coffee cup and the donut are different because it is impossible to rotate the coffee cup in such a way that its configuration matches that of the donut; this is a global way of thinking about the problem. But an important distinction is. By looking, for instance, at just a tiny piece of the handle, he can decide that the coffee cup is different from the donut because the handle is thinner than any piece of the donut.

To put it succinctly, differential topology studies structures on manifolds that, in a sense, have no interesting local structure. Differential geometry studies structures on manifolds that do have an interesting local structure. More mathematically, for example, the problem of constructing a diffeomorphism between two manifolds of the same dimension is inherently global since locally two such manifolds are always diffeomorphic; the problem of computing a quantity on a manifold, invariant under differentiable mappings is inherently global, since any local invariant will be trivial in the sense that it is exhibited in the topology of R n. Moreover, differential topology does not restrict itself to the study of diffeomorphism. For example, symplectic topology—a subbranch of differential topology—studies global properties of symplectic manifolds. Differential geometry concerns itself with problems—which may be local or global—that always have some non-trivial local properties, thus differential geometry may study differentiable manifolds equipped with a connection, a metric, a special sort of distribution, so on.

This distinction between differential geometry and differential topology is blurred, however, in questions pertaining to local diffeomorphism invariants such as the tangent space at a point. Differential topology deals with questions like these, which pertain to the properties of differentiable mappings on R n; the distinction is concise in abstract terms: Differential topology is the study of the properties of structures on manifolds that have only trivial local moduli. Differential geometry is such a study of structures on manifolds that have one or more non-trivial local moduli. List of differential geometry topics Glossary of differential geometry and topology Important publications in differential geometry Important publications in differential topology Basic introduction to the mathematics of curved spacetime Bloch, Ethan D.. A First Course in Geometric Topology and Differential Geometry. Boston: Birkhäuser. ISBN 978-0-8176-3840-5. Hirsch, Morris. Differen

Trolleybuses in Warsaw

A Warsaw trolleybus system formed part of the public transport network of Warsaw, the capital city of Poland, during two separate periods. The first trolleybus system was established in 1946 and lasted until 1973, it had a maximum of 10 routes. The second system, comprising only one route, was in operation from 1983 until 1995. During World War II, most of the mass transit infrastructure in Warsaw was destroyed; the city was in need of a efficient transport network. In 1945, thirty secondhand trolleybuses, along with material for installation of overhead lines, were obtained from the Moscow trolleybus system, in the Soviet Union, the first two lines in Warsaw opened on 5 January 1946, they operated from Plac Unii Lubelskiej to Warszawa Gdańska train station, from the Łazienkowska depot to the city centre. In March 1946, another line was closed and replaced by trams in December. By 1955, five new trolleybus lines were opened and existing ones extended, covering the city centre; the first system's fleet had included 15 French-built Vétra trolleybuses, purchased new in 1947, 30 East German-built LOWA vehicles, received in 1952–53.

These were supplanted by trolleybuses built by Škoda, in what was Czechoslovakia. They included seven of model 7Tr, 45 of model 8Tr and 77 of model 9Tr, though not all in service during the same periods. 1967 started a period of fast decline in both the number of trolleybuses and the trolleybus lines in Warsaw. The national government policy at the time was that as much Polish coal as possible be exported while the oil be imported at low prices from the USSR, it was decided. The last trolleybus line closed on 29 June 1973; the last period of the Warsaw trolleybus history started in 1977, when it was decided that the existing vehicles should be used on a new line between Warsaw and the southern suburb of Piaseczno. An additional longer route to Piaseczno was planned, through Wilanów, Powsin and Konstancin-Jeziorna. However, economic conditions made construction of the latter line impossible, only the former, on the direct route between Warsaw and Piaseczno, was opened; this single route, numbered 51, opened on 1 June 1983.

In the meantime, it had been decided to purchase new trolleybuses, these came from Uritsky, in Russia, model ZIU-682. These wore a red-and-cream paint scheme. New trolleybuses were purchased from the Polish manufacturer, Jelcz. Route 51 was 12.5 km long, the depot was located only about 1.5 km from the outer end of the line. After 1989 it became apparent that the ZIU trolleybuses were in need of replacement, that the cost of running a single line was high. In 1992, additional trolleybuses were acquired secondhand from the St. Gallen trolleybus system, in Switzerland; these comprised St. Gallen trolleybuses 119–130, built in 1957–58 by Saurer, a number of passenger trailers, built in 1969–70; these entered service in 1992, with new fleet numbers but keeping their green-and-cream St. Gallen livery; the ZIU trolleybuses were withdrawn in 1993. By 1995, the 1957 Saurer trolleybuses had become "among the oldest trolleybuses still in service anywhere in the world". In 1995, the Warsaw City Council decided to discontinue the service.

The final day of operation was 31 August 1995. The trolleybus depot at Iwiczna, in Piaseczno, was closed, the vehicles were placed in storage; the decision was taken to reduce costs. The depot had been designed for 300 vehicles but was only being used by 39. In July 2000, what had been an indefinite closure; the remaining vehicles were sold to Gdynia and Lublin, to various museums. List of trolleybus systems

Huckitta (meteorite)

Huckitta is a pallasite meteorite recovered in 1937 from Huckitta Cattle Station in the Northern Territory of Australia. In 1924 a meteoritic mass of 1,084 grams was found by Herbert Basedow on Burt Plain, about 17 kilometres north of Alice Springs; this mass was called Alice Springs. In July 1937, the main mass of 1,411.5 kilograms was recovered by Cecil Madigan at Huckitta. Over 900 kilograms of iron shale was found; the Alice Springs meteorite was paired with the main mass and considered a transported fragment. Today the location of the site where the main mass was found is on Arapunya Cattle Station, part of Huckitta Cattle Station but was excised from it after the meteorite had been recovered, it is a pallasite related to Main Group of pallasites. This pallasite is weathered: all of the metal is oxidized and transformed into maghemite and goethite, the olivine crystals are altered. Sometimes it is called an anomalous Main Group pallasite because, compared to other Main Group pallasites, it has rather high Ge and Ga contents, higher Pt, W, Ir, lower Au content.

Main mass, South Australian Museum, Adelaide 4.3 kilograms, Monnig collection, Fort Worth, Texas 2.2 kilograms, Arizona State University, Tempe 1 kilogram, Natural History Museum, London 733 grams, Max Planck Institute, Mainz 403 grams, National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D. C. 352 grams, Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago Glossary of meteoritics Meteorite Pallasite Madigan's account of the discovery and analysis of the meteorite