Chicago the City of Chicago, is the most populous city in Illinois, as well as the third most populous city in the United States. With an estimated population of 2,716,450, it is the most populous city in the Midwest. Chicago is the principal city of the Chicago metropolitan area referred to as Chicagoland, the county seat of Cook County, the second most populous county in the United States; the metropolitan area, at nearly 10 million people, is the third-largest in the United States, the fourth largest in North America and the third largest metropolitan area in the world by land area. Located on the shores of freshwater Lake Michigan, Chicago was incorporated as a city in 1837 near a portage between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River watershed and grew in the mid-nineteenth century. After the Great Chicago Fire of 1871, which destroyed several square miles and left more than 100,000 homeless, the city made a concerted effort to rebuild; the construction boom accelerated population growth throughout the following decades, by 1900 Chicago was the fifth largest city in the world.
Chicago made noted contributions to urban planning and zoning standards, including new construction styles, the development of the City Beautiful Movement, the steel-framed skyscraper. Chicago is an international hub for finance, commerce, technology, telecommunications, transportation, it is the site of the creation of the first standardized futures contracts at the Chicago Board of Trade, which today is the largest and most diverse derivatives market gobally, generating 20% of all volume in commodities and financial futures. O'Hare International Airport is the one of the busiest airports in the world, the region has the largest number of U. S. highways and greatest amount of railroad freight. In 2012, Chicago was listed as an alpha global city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, it ranked seventh in the entire world in the 2017 Global Cities Index; the Chicago area has one of the highest gross domestic products in the world, generating $680 billion in 2017. In addition, the city has one of the world's most diversified and balanced economies, not being dependent on any one industry, with no single industry employing more than 14% of the workforce.
Chicago's 58 million domestic and international visitors in 2018, made it the second most visited city in the nation, behind New York City's approximate 65 million visitors. The city ranked first place in the 2018 Time Out City Life Index, a global quality of life survey of 15,000 people in 32 cities. Landmarks in the city include Millennium Park, Navy Pier, the Magnificent Mile, the Art Institute of Chicago, Museum Campus, the Willis Tower, Grant Park, the Museum of Science and Industry, Lincoln Park Zoo. Chicago's culture includes the visual arts, film, comedy and music jazz, soul, hip-hop and electronic dance music including house music. Of the area's many colleges and universities, the University of Chicago, Northwestern University, the University of Illinois at Chicago are classified as "highest research" doctoral universities. Chicago has professional sports teams in each of the major professional leagues, including two Major League Baseball teams; the name "Chicago" is derived from a French rendering of the indigenous Miami-Illinois word shikaakwa for a wild relative of the onion, known to botanists as Allium tricoccum and known more as ramps.
The first known reference to the site of the current city of Chicago as "Checagou" was by Robert de LaSalle around 1679 in a memoir. Henri Joutel, in his journal of 1688, noted that the eponymous wild "garlic" grew abundantly in the area. According to his diary of late September 1687:...when we arrived at the said place called "Chicagou" which, according to what we were able to learn of it, has taken this name because of the quantity of garlic which grows in the forests in this region. The city has had several nicknames throughout its history such as the Windy City, Chi-Town, Second City, the City of the Big Shoulders, which refers to the city's numerous skyscrapers and high-rises. In the mid-18th century, the area was inhabited by a Native American tribe known as the Potawatomi, who had taken the place of the Miami and Sauk and Fox peoples; the first known non-indigenous permanent settler in Chicago was Jean Baptiste Point du Sable. Du Sable arrived in the 1780s, he is known as the "Founder of Chicago".
In 1795, following the Northwest Indian War, an area, to be part of Chicago was turned over to the United States for a military post by native tribes in accordance with the Treaty of Greenville. In 1803, the United States Army built Fort Dearborn, destroyed in 1812 in the Battle of Fort Dearborn and rebuilt; the Ottawa and Potawatomi tribes had ceded additional land to the United States in the 1816 Treaty of St. Louis; the Potawatomi were forcibly removed from their land after the Treaty of Chicago in 1833. On August 12, 1833, the Town of Chicago was organized with a population of about 200. Within seven years it grew to more than 4,000 people. On June 15, 1835, the first public land sales began with Edmund Dick Taylor as U. S. Receiver of Public Monies; the City of Chicago was incorporated on Saturday, March 4, 1837, for several decades was the world's fastest-growing city. As the site of the Chicago Portage, the city became an important transportation hub between the eastern and western United States.
Chicago's first railway and Chicago Union Railroad, the Illi
North Park University
North Park University is a private Christian university in Chicago, Illinois. It was founded in 1891 by the Evangelical Covenant Church, it is located on Chicago's north side and enrolls more than 3,000 undergraduate and graduate students. In the part of the 19th century, thousands of Swedish immigrants left Sweden and began to settle in America; as the communities, concentrated in the Midwest with hubs in Chicago and Minneapolis, began to settle and develop, many things began to happen that would pave the way for North Park University. The denomination, now known as the Covenant began to organize in the 1880s and soon the education of Swedish immigrants theological education, became an important issue. Erik August Skogsbergh, sometimes called the Swedish Moody for his association with the famous Chicago Evangelist D. L. Moody, started a school in Minneapolis in 1884 at First Covenant Church that would serve as a forerunner to North Park. By 1891, the Covenant was in agreement. Skogsbergh offered his school, which served as the official Covenant school for three years, from 1891 until 1893.
In 1894, the school was moved to Chicago, a move. It moved to its present location at the corner of Foster and Kedzie, despite its remoteness from the Loop, it was sited close to existing Swedish-American villages and the newly established Swedish Covenant Hospital. Old Main, the oldest building on campus, was erected and dedicated on June 16, 1894, it is at this time. The early years of North Park were marked with both successes. Both enrollment and funding fluctuated in the early years. An interesting source of both money and headache came from P. H. Anderson, who at the time was serving as a Covenant missionary in Alaska. Taking part in the gold rush of the time, Anderson made, and though he donated a portion of the findings, questionable circumstances surrounded the claim that created tension among the leadership of North Park. An early leader at that time was David Nyvall. Nyvall served as teacher in the Seminary for many years; the current seminary building, Nyvall Hall, is named after him. By the turn of the century, North Park could boast of a theological seminary, a prominent and large commercial department, a growing music department, an academy created in 1894 to better prepare students for the seminary.
Since the early days, the school has changed in many ways. In 1958, North Park Junior College expanded from a two-year college into a four-year program, becoming North Park College. In 1997, the controversial decision was made to again change the name of the school, North Park University was born. Though North Park still holds on to its Swedish American past and close ties with the Evangelical Covenant Church, it is now an intercultural institution focused on diversity. North Park describes itself as a Liberal Arts University, Christian, city-centered, intercultural. North Park University is accredited by the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools and the Higher Learning Commission; the seminary is additionally accredited by the Association of Theological Schools in the United States and Canada. North Park's last president, David L. Parkyn, retired at the end of the 2016-17 academic year. Carl E. Balsam was named as the interim president in June 2017, served until August 2018. Mary Surridge was nominated as the school's tenth president, began her term in August 2018.
College of Arts and Sciences School of Business and Nonprofit Management School of Education School of Music and Theater School of Nursing and Health Sciences School of Professional Studies North Park Theological Seminary The North Park University athletics department fields 16 NCAA Division III teams: 8 men's teams and 8 women's teams. The teams compete in the College Conference of Wisconsin. Men compete in football, baseball, cross country, soccer and field, volleyball. Women compete in volleyball, softball, soccer and field, cross country, rowing. North Park has had a successful men's basketball program, it has won five men's NCAA Men's Division III Basketball Championships since 1978, including three consecutive ones led by Michael Harper, who played for the NBA's Portland Trail Blazers. North Park Men's Soccer ended their 2017 season with a record of 20-2-2, finishing runner-up for the National Championship title, their decorated season included a CCIW Championship, CCIW Tournament Championship, victories all the way to the NCAA Championship game, seven All-CCIW picks, four All-Region picks, a First Team All American selection, a plethora of awards for Head Coach John Born: National Coach of the Year, Regional Coach of the Year, CCIW Coach of the Year.
North Park Baseball has shown recent success, winning CCIW titles in 2011 and 2012. Since 2010, North Park has appeared in the CCIW Tournament five times, winning the conference’s postseason tournament in 2012. North Park fields club teams for women's ultimate frisbee and men's volleyball. There is a healthy Intramural sports program on campus. Men's Basketball: 1978, 1979, 1980, 1985, 1987 The North Park Student Government Association sponsors many student-led organizations on campus; the President of North Park University SGA is Rakiiba Vaalele and the Vice President is Daniel Strom. Some of the organizations SGA helps with include the weekly student magazine, the Vista Magazine, the North Branch literary magazine, Java Haus, the student-run coffeeshop in the basement of Burgh
Pop music is a genre of popular music that originated in its modern form in the United States and United Kingdom during the mid-1950s. The terms "popular music" and "pop music" are used interchangeably, although the former describes all music, popular and includes many diverse styles. "Pop" and "rock" were synonymous terms until the late 1960s, when they became differentiated from each other. Although much of the music that appears on record charts is seen as pop music, the genre is distinguished from chart music. Pop music is eclectic, borrows elements from other styles such as urban, rock and country. Identifying factors include short to medium-length songs written in a basic format, as well as common use of repeated choruses, melodic tunes, hooks. David Hatch and Stephen Millward define pop music as "a body of music, distinguishable from popular and folk musics". According to Pete Seeger, pop music is "professional music which draws upon both folk music and fine arts music". Although pop music is seen as just the singles charts, it is not the sum of all chart music.
The music charts contain songs from a variety of sources, including classical, jazz and novelty songs. As a genre, pop music is seen to develop separately. Therefore, the term "pop music" may be used to describe a distinct genre, designed to appeal to all characterized as "instant singles-based music aimed at teenagers" in contrast to rock music as "album-based music for adults". Pop music continuously evolves along with the term's definition. According to music writer Bill Lamb, popular music is defined as "the music since industrialization in the 1800s, most in line with the tastes and interests of the urban middle class." The term "pop song" was first used in 1926, in the sense of a piece of music "having popular appeal". Hatch and Millward indicate that many events in the history of recording in the 1920s can be seen as the birth of the modern pop music industry, including in country and hillbilly music. According to the website of The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, the term "pop music" "originated in Britain in the mid-1950s as a description for rock and roll and the new youth music styles that it influenced".
The Oxford Dictionary of Music states that while pop's "earlier meaning meant concerts appealing to a wide audience since the late 1950s, pop has had the special meaning of non-classical mus in the form of songs, performed by such artists as the Beatles, the Rolling Stones, ABBA, etc." Grove Music Online states that " in the early 1960s,'pop music' competed terminologically with beat music, while in the US its coverage overlapped with that of'rock and roll'". From about 1967, the term “pop music” was used in opposition to the term rock music, a division that gave generic significance to both terms. While rock aspired to authenticity and an expansion of the possibilities of popular music, pop was more commercial and accessible. According to British musicologist Simon Frith, pop music is produced "as a matter of enterprise not art", is "designed to appeal to everyone" but "doesn't come from any particular place or mark off any particular taste". Frith adds that it is "not driven by any significant ambition except profit and commercial reward and, in musical terms, it is conservative".
It is, "provided from on high rather than being made from below... Pop is not a do-it-yourself music but is professionally produced and packaged". According to Frith, characteristics of pop music include an aim of appealing to a general audience, rather than to a particular sub-culture or ideology, an emphasis on craftsmanship rather than formal "artistic" qualities. Music scholar Timothy Warner said it has an emphasis on recording and technology, rather than live performance; the main medium of pop music is the song between two and a half and three and a half minutes in length marked by a consistent and noticeable rhythmic element, a mainstream style and a simple traditional structure. Common variants include the verse-chorus form and the thirty-two-bar form, with a focus on melodies and catchy hooks, a chorus that contrasts melodically and harmonically with the verse; the beat and the melodies tend to be simple, with limited harmonic accompaniment. The lyrics of modern pop songs focus on simple themes – love and romantic relationships – although there are notable exceptions.
Harmony and chord progressions in pop music are "that of classical European tonality, only more simple-minded." Clichés include the barbershop quartet-style blues scale-influenced harmony. There was a lessening of the influence of traditional views of the circle of fifths between the mid-1950s and the late 1970s, including less predominance for the dominant function. Throughout its development, pop music has absorbed influences from other genres of popular music. Early pop music drew on the sentimental ballad for its form, gained its use of vocal harmonies from gospel and soul music, instrumentation from jazz and rock music, orchestration from classical music, tempo from dance music, backing from electronic music, rhythmic elements from hip-hop music, spoken passages from rap. In the 1960s, the majority of mainstream pop music fell in two categories: guitar and bass groups or singers
The Chicago Blackhawks are a professional ice hockey team based in Chicago, Illinois. They are members of the Central Division of the Western Conference of the National Hockey League, they have won six Stanley Cup championships since their founding in 1926. The Blackhawks are one of the "Original Six" NHL teams along with the Detroit Red Wings, Montreal Canadiens, Toronto Maple Leafs, Boston Bruins and New York Rangers. Since 1994, the club's home rink is the United Center, which they share with the National Basketball Association's Chicago Bulls; the club had played for 65 years at Chicago Stadium. The club's original owner was Frederic McLaughlin, who owned the club until his death in 1944. Under McLaughlin, a "hands-on" owner who fired many coaches during his ownership, the club won two Stanley Cup titles; the club was owned by the Norris family, who as owners of the Chicago Stadium were the club's landlord, owned stakes in several of the NHL teams. At first, the Norris ownership was as part of a syndicate fronted by long-time executive Bill Tobin, the team languished in favor of the Norris-owned Detroit Red Wings.
After the senior James E. Norris died in 1952, the Norris assets were spread among family members and James D. Norris became owner. Norris Jr. took an active interest in the team and under his ownership, the club won one Stanley Cup title in 1961. After James D. Norris died in 1966, the Wirtz family became owners of the franchise. In 2007, the club came under the control of Rocky Wirtz, credited with turning around the organization, which had lost fan interest and competitiveness. Under Rocky Wirtz, the Blackhawks won the Stanley Cup three times between 2010 and 2015. On May 1, 1926, the NHL awarded an expansion franchise for Chicago to a syndicate headed by former football star Huntington Hardwick of Boston. At the same meeting, Hardwick arranged the purchase of the players of the Portland Rosebuds of the Western Hockey League for $100,000 from WHL president Frank Patrick in a deal brokered by Boston Bruins' owner Charles Adams. However, only one month Hardwick's group sold out to Chicago coffee tycoon Frederic McLaughlin.
McLaughlin had been a commander with the 333rd Machine Gun Battalion of the 86th Infantry Division during World War I. This division was nicknamed the "Blackhawk Division" after a Native American of the Sauk nation, Black Hawk, a prominent figure in the history of Illinois. McLaughlin named the new hockey team in honor of the military unit, making it one of many sports team names using Native Americans as icons. However, unlike the military division, the team's name was spelled in two words as the "Black Hawks" until 1986, when the club became the "Blackhawks," based on the spelling found in the original franchise documents; the Black Hawks began play in the 1926–27 season, along with fellow expansion franchises the Detroit Cougars and New York Rangers. The team had to face immediate competition in Chicago from Eddie Livingstone's rival Chicago Cardinals, which played in the same building. McLaughlin took a active role in running the team despite having no background in the sport, he was very interested in promoting American hockey players very rare in professional hockey.
Several of them, including Doc Romnes, Taffy Abel, Alex Levinsky, Mike Karakas, Cully Dahlstrom, become staples with the club, under McLaughlin, the Black Hawks were the first NHL team with an all-American-born lineup. The Black Hawks played their first game on November 17, 1926, against the Toronto St. Patricks in the Chicago Coliseum; the Black Hawks won their first game 4–1, in front of a crowd of over 7,000. The Hawks' first season was a moderate success. However, they lost the 1927 first-round playoff series to the Boston Bruins. Following the series, McLaughlin fired head coach Pete Muldoon. According to Jim Coleman, sportswriter for the Toronto-based The Globe and Mail, McLaughlin felt the Hawks were good enough to finish first. Muldoon disagreed, in a fit of pique, McLaughlin fired him. According to Coleman, Muldoon responded by yelling, "Fire me, you'll never finish first. I'll put a curse on this team that will hoodoo it until the end of time." The Curse of Muldoon was born – although Coleman admitted years after the fact that he had fabricated the whole incident – and became one of the first widely-known sports "curses."
While the team would go on to win three Stanley Cups in its first 39 years of existence, it did so without having finished in first place, either in a single- or multi-division format. The Black Hawks proceeded to have the worst record in the league in 1927–28, winning only seven of 44 games. For the 1928–29 season, the Black Hawks were slated to play in the new Chicago Stadium, but due to construction delays and a dispute between McLaughlin and Chicago Stadium promoter Paddy Harmon, they instead divided their time between the Coliseum, the Detroit Olympia, the Peace Bridge Arena in Fort Erie, Ontario, they moved to Chicago Stadium the following season. By 1931, with goal-scorer Johnny Gottselig, Cy Wentworth on defense, Charlie Gardiner in goal, the Hawks reached their first Stanley Cup Final, but fizzled in the final two games against the Montreal Canadiens. Chicago had another stellar season in 1932. However, two years Gardiner led his team to victory by shutting out the Detroit Red Wings in the final game of the Stanley Cup Finals.
Guaranteed Rate Field
Guaranteed Rate Field is a baseball park located in Chicago, that serves as the home ballpark for the Chicago White Sox of Major League Baseball. The facility is owned by the state of Illinois through the Illinois Sports Facilities Authority, is operated by the White Sox; the park opened for the 1991 season, after the White Sox had spent 81 years at the original Comiskey Park. It opened with the name Comiskey Park but was renamed U. S. Cellular Field in 2003 after U. S. Cellular bought the naming rights at $68 million over 20 years; the current name was announced on October 31, 2016, after Guaranteed Rate, a private residential mortgage company located in Chicago, purchased the naming rights to the ballpark in a 13-year deal. The stadium is situated just to the west of the Dan Ryan Expressway in Chicago's Armour Square neighborhood, adjacent to the more famous neighborhood of Bridgeport, it was built directly across 35th Street from old Comiskey Park, demolished to make room for a parking lot that serves the venue.
Old Comiskey's home plate location is represented by a marble plaque on the sidewalk next to Guaranteed Rate Field and the foul lines are painted in the parking lot. The spectator ramp across 35th Street is designed in such a way that it echoes the contour of the old first-base grandstand; the park was completed at a cost of US$137 million. The current public address announcer is Gene Honda, who serves as the PA announcer for the Chicago Blackhawks, NCAA Final Four, University of Illinois Football; the stadium was the first new major sporting facility built in Chicago since Chicago Stadium in 1929. It was the last one built before the wave of new "retro-classic" ballparks in the 1990s and 2000s. However, a few design features from old Comiskey Park were retained; the front facade of the park features arched windows. Most notable is the "exploding scoreboard" which pays homage to the original installed by Bill Veeck at the old park in 1960; the original field dimensions and seating configuration were similar to those of Royals Stadium in Kansas City—which had been the last baseball-only park built in the majors, in 1973.
As built, the park was criticized by many fans because of the height of the upper deck. The original architect, HOK Sport, wanted to eliminate the overhang problems present in many stadiums built since the 1970s. With this in mind, the upper deck was set back over the lower deck, the stands rose gradually. While it gave nearly every seat in the upper level an unobstructed view of the field, it created one of the highest upper decks in baseball; the first row of seats in the upper deck at the new stadium is as far from the field as the highest row of seats in the upper deck at the old stadium. Due to the field being at street level, the original upper deck made the park look like a cookie-cutter stadium from the outside. Fans sitting in this area didn't get much chance for relief, as it is one of the few parks in Major League Baseball that do not allow fans sitting in the upper deck to venture anywhere else in the park, e.g. lower deck concourse. In response to fan complaints, the stadium has undergone numerous renovations since the 2001 season in order to retrofit the facility to current architectural trends.
These changes have included building a multi-tiered concourse beyond center field, adjusting the fences to make the outfield less symmetrical and, most the removal of 6,600 seats at the top of the upper deck. The uppermost story of the park now has a white and black screen behind the top row of seats and is topped by a flat canopy roof supported by black steel truss supports that obstruct the view of a few seats; the original blue seats were replaced by forest green seats. The new green and black color scheme, upper level screen set back from the outer wall and canopy roof are reminiscent of the old Comiskey Park, as well as other classic baseball stadiums; the White Sox have added murals to the interior concourses, a prominent feature of the old stadium. The stadium houses 103 luxury suites located on two levels, as well as 1,822 "club seats" on 300-level mezzanine between the lower deck and upper deck; the club seats receive in-seat wait-staff and benefit from an enclosed concourse with multiple television viewing areas and bar-style concessions.
The stadium has 400 wheelchair-accessible seats, 38 public restrooms, 12 escalators and 15 elevators. The new suites were one example of why the old Comiskey Park was demolished, as suites generate more revenue. Fan Deck: A panoramic view of the playing field on the two-tiered Fan Deck atop the center field concession stands. Fan Deck includes catered food and beverage service consisting of chicken sandwiches, hot dogs, potato chips, beer and water. Fan deck can accommodate around 150 people; the Goose Island: A 326 seat section in right field that features running water fixtures on all four sides, individual seating, spaces for group parties and a standing room area where fans can interact near the outfield concourse. The first few rows of the section includes cushioned seats, device charging ports, television screens and more. Craft Kave: A two-tiered, open-air section located in right field next to the visitor's bullpen with food and drinks. Rain Room: A place where fans can cool off during hot game days.
Near section 107 & 537. Kids Zone: Located in left field; this 15,000-square-foot area is devoted to young White Sox fans, providing them with the opportunity to learn the fundamentals of baseball. It features a youth-sized whiffle ball diamond for coaching clinics and pitching cages, batting "swing" boxes for proper batting techniques and area
The pipe organ is a musical instrument that produces sound by driving pressurized air through the organ pipes selected via a keyboard. Because each pipe produces a single pitch, the pipes are provided in sets called ranks, each of which has a common timbre and volume throughout the keyboard compass. Most organs have multiple ranks of pipes of differing timbre and volume that the player can employ singly or in combination through the use of controls called stops. A pipe organ has one or more keyboards played by the hands, a pedalboard played by the feet; the keyboard and stops are housed in the organ's console. The organ's continuous supply of wind allows it to sustain notes for as long as the corresponding keys are pressed, unlike the piano and harpsichord whose sound begins to dissipate after a key is depressed; the smallest portable pipe organs may have one manual. A list of some of the most notable and largest pipe organs in the world can be viewed at List of pipe organs. A list consisting the ranking of the largest organs in the world - based on the criterion constructed by Michał Szostak, i.e.'the number of ranks and additional equipment managed from a single console - can be found in'The Organ' and in'The Vox Humana'.
The origins of the pipe organ can be traced back to the water organ in Ancient Greece, in the 3rd century BC, in which the wind supply was created by the weight of displaced water in an airtight container. By the 6th or 7th century AD, bellows were used to supply Byzantine organs with wind. Beginning in the 12th century, the organ began to evolve into a complex instrument capable of producing different timbres. A pipe organ with "great leaden pipes" was sent to the West by the Byzantine emperor Constantine V as a gift to Pepin the Short, King of the Franks, in 757. Pepin's son Charlemagne requested a similar organ for his chapel in Aachen in 812, beginning the pipe organ's establishment in Western European church music. In England, "The first organ of which any detailed record exists was built in Winchester Cathedral in the 10th century, it was a huge machine with 400 pipes, which needed two men to play it and 70 men to blow it, its sound could be heard throughout the city." By the 17th century, most of the sounds available on the modern classical organ had been developed.
From that time, the pipe organ was the most complex man-made device — a distinction it retained until it was displaced by the telephone exchange in the late 19th century. Pipe organs are installed in churches, concert halls, other public buildings and in private properties, they are used in the performance of classical music, sacred music, secular music, popular music. In the early 20th century, pipe organs were installed in theaters to accompany the screening of films during the silent movie era; the beginning of the 21st century has seen a resurgence in installations in concert halls. The organ boasts a substantial repertoire; the organ is one of the oldest instruments still used in European classical music, credited as having derived from Greece. Its earliest predecessors were built in Ancient Greece in the 3rd century BC; the word organ is derived from the Greek όργανον, a generic term for an instrument or a tool, via the Latin organum, an instrument similar to a portative organ used in ancient Roman circus games.
The Greek engineer Ctesibius of Alexandria is credited with inventing the organ in the 3rd century BC. He devised an instrument called the hydraulis, which delivered a wind supply maintained through water pressure to a set of pipes; the hydraulis was played in the arenas of the Roman Empire. The pumps and water regulators of the hydraulis were replaced by an inflated leather bag in the 2nd century AD, true bellows began to appear in the Eastern Roman Empire in the 6th or 7th century AD; some 400 pieces of a hydraulis from the year 228 AD have been revealed during the 1931 archaeological excavations in the former Roman town Aquincum, province of Pannonia, used as a music instrument by the Aquincum fire dormitory. The 9th century Persian geographer Ibn Khurradadhbih, in his lexicographical discussion of instruments, cited the urghun as one of the typical instruments of the Eastern Roman Empire, it was used in the Hippodrome in the imperial capital of Constantinople. A Syrian visitor describes a pipe organ powered by two servants pumping "bellows like a blacksmith's" as being played while guests ate at the emperor's Christmas dinner in Constantinople in 911.
The first Western European pipe organ with "great leaden pipes" was sent from Constantinople to the West by the Byzantine emperor Constantine V as a gift to Pepin the Short King of the Franks in 757. Pepin's son Charlemagne requested a similar organ for his chapel in Aachen in 812, beginning its establishment in Western European church music. Portable organs were invented in the Middle Ages. Towards the middle of the 13th century, the portatives represented in the miniatures of illuminated manuscripts appear to have real keyboards with balanced keys, as in the Cantigas de Santa Maria, its portability made the portative useful for the accompaniment of both sacred and secular music in a variety of settings. In the 11th century, the monk Theophilus described in his treatise, known as Schedula diversarum artium or De diversis artibus, all of th
2009 in baseball
The following are the baseball events of the year 2009 throughout the world. Regular Season ChampionsWorld Series Champions – New York Yankees American League Champions – New York Yankees National League Champions – Philadelphia Phillies Postseason – October 7 to November 4 Minor League Baseball AAA Championship: Durham Bulls International League: Durham Bulls Pacific Coast League: Memphis Redbirds Mexican League: Saraperos de Saltillo AA Eastern League: Akron Aeros Southern League: Jacksonville Suns Texas League: Midland RockHounds A California League: San Jose Giants Carolina League: Lynchburg Hillcats Florida State League: Tampa Yankees Midwest League: Fort Wayne TinCaps South Atlantic League: Lakewood BlueClaws New York–Penn League: Staten Island Yankees Northwest League: Salem-Keizer Volcanoes Rookie Appalachian League: Danville Braves Gulf Coast League: GF Nationals Pioneer League: Orem Owlz Arizona League: AZL Mariners Independent baseball leagues Alaska Baseball League: Mat-Su Miners American Association: Lincoln Saltdogs Atlantic League: Somerset Patriots Canadian-American Association: Quebec Capitales Frontier League: Lake Erie Crushers Golden Baseball League: Calgary Vipers Northern League: Fargo-Moorhead RedHawks United League Baseball: Amarillo Dillas Amateur College College World Series: LSU NCAA Division II: Lynn University NCAA Division III: St. Thomas NAIA: Lubbock Christian Youth Big League World Series: Santiago, Dominican Republic Junior League World Series: Scottsdale, Arizona Little League World Series: Chula Vista, California Senior League World Series: Houston, Texas International National teams World Baseball Classic: Japan Baseball World Cup: United States Asian Baseball Championship: Japan International club team competitions Asia Series: Yomiuri Giants, Japan Caribbean Series: Tigres de Aragua, Venezuela European Champion Cup Final Four: Nettuno, Italy Domestic Leagues Australia – Claxton Shield: Perth Heat China Baseball League: Beijing Tigers Cuban National Series: Habana Dominican League: Tigres del Licey France – Division Elite: Rouen Baseball 76 Holland Series: Neptunus Italy – Serie A1: Fortitudo Bologna Japanese Leagues: Championship: Yomiuri Giants Central League: Yomiuri Giants Pacific League: Hokkaido Nippon-Ham Fighters Most Valuable Players – Alex Ramírez / Yu Darvish Korean Series: KIA Tigers Mexican Pacific League: Venados de Mazatlán Puerto Rican League: Leones de Ponce Taiwan Series: Uni-President Lions Venezuelan League: Tigres de Aragua Baseball Hall of Fame honors Rickey Henderson and Jim Rice were elected by the Baseball Writers' Association of America.
Frick Award. MVP Awards American League – Joe Mauer National League – Albert Pujols Cy Young Awards American League – Zack Greinke National League – Tim Lincecum Rookie of the Year Awards American League – Andrew Bailey National League – Chris Coghlan Manager of the Year Awards American League – Mike Scioscia National League – Jim Tracy Silver Slugger AwardsGold Glove Awards Woman Executive of the Year: Katie Dannemiller, Greensboro Grasshoppers, South Atlantic LeagueMajor Leagues Branch Rickey Award – Torii Hunter DHL Delivery Man of the Year Award – Mariano Rivera Hutch Award – Mark Teahen Luis Aparicio Award – Félix Hernández Roberto Clemente Award – Derek Jeter Players Choice Awards Player of the Year – Albert Pujols Marvin Miller Man of the Year – Curtis Granderson Outstanding Players – Joe Mauer / Albert Pujols Outstanding Pitchers – Zack Greinke / Adam Wainwright Outstanding Rookies – Gordon Beckham / J. A. Happ Comeback players of the year – Aaron Hill / Chris Carpenter Sporting News Awards Player of the Year – Albert Pujols Managers of the Year – Mike Scioscia / Jim Tracy Pitchers of the Year – Zack Greinke / Tim Lincecum Rookies of the Year – Gordon Beckham / J. A. Happ Comeback players of the year – Aaron Hill / Chris Carpenter Relievers of the year – Mariano Rivera / Ryan Franklin Minor Leagues Baseball America Minor League Player of the Year Award – Jason Heyward USA Today Minor League Player of the Year Award – Jason Heyward January 1 – Major League Baseball launches the MLB Network at 6 PM ET.
Commissioner Bud Selig greets viewers at the channel's official inception. January 13 – Trevor Hoffman, the current all-time saves leader, signs a one-year $6 million deal with the Milwaukee Brewers. January 15 – The Los Angeles Dodgers reach an agreement with Andruw Jones to release him in time to catch on with another team before spring training in exchange for a deferral of some of the remaining money due on his contract. January 21 – In his first year of arbitration eligibility, closer Jonathan Papelbon and the Boston Red Sox agree to a $6.25 million, one-year contract that avoids salary arbitration. Just one day after Bobby Jenks does the same, Papelbon surpasses Éric Gagné's previous major league mark of $5 million for a reliever with three years of service time. Francisco Rodríguez made $3.775 million in his first year of arbitration. January 22 -Jeff Kent announces his retirement after 17 seasons, he hit more home runs than any other second baseman in major league history. January 25 – Thre