The Paris Métro is a rapid transit system in the Paris metropolitan area, France. A symbol of the city, it is known for its density within the city limits, uniform architecture and unique entrances influenced by Art Nouveau, it is underground and 214 kilometres long. It has 302 stations. There are 16 lines, numbered 1 to 14 with two lines, 3bis and 7bis, which are named because they started out as branches of lines 3 and 7. Lines are identified on maps by number and colour, direction of travel is indicated by the terminus, it is the second busiest metro system in Europe, after the Moscow Metro, the tenth-busiest in the world. It carried 1.520 billion passengers in 2015, 4.16 million passengers a day, which amounts to 20% of the overall traffic in Paris. It is one of the densest metro systems in the world, with 245 stations within the 86.9 km2 of the city of Paris. Châtelet – Les Halles, with five Métro lines, three RER commuter rail and platforms up to 800 m apart, is one of the world's largest metro stations.
However, the system has poor disabled accessibility, because most stations were built well before this became a consideration. The first line opened without ceremony on 19 July 1900, during the World's Fair; the system expanded until the First World War and the core was complete by the 1920s. Extensions into suburbs and Line 11 were built in the 1930s; the network reached saturation after World War II with new trains to allow higher traffic, but further improvements have been limited by the design of the network and in particular the short distances between stations. Besides the Métro, central Paris and its urban area are served by the RER, developed beginning in the 1960s, several tramway lines, Transilien suburban trains and two VAL lines, serving Charles De Gaulle and Orly airports. In the late 1990s, the automated line 14 was built to relieve RER line A. Métro is the abbreviated name of the company that operated most of the network: La Compagnie du chemin de fer métropolitain de Paris, shortened to "Le Métropolitain".
It was abbreviated to métro, which became a common word to designate all rapid transit systems in France and in many cities elsewhere. The Métro is operated by the Régie autonome des transports parisiens, a public transport authority that operates part of the RER network, bus services, light rail lines and many bus routes; the name métro was adopted in many languages, making it the most used word for a urban transit system. It is possible that "Compagnie du chemin de fer métropolitain" was copied from the name of London's pioneering underground railway company, the Metropolitan Railway, in business for 40 years prior to the inauguration of Paris's first line. By 1845, Paris and the railway companies were thinking about an urban railway system to link inner districts of the city; the railway companies and the French government wanted to extend main-line railways into a new underground network, whereas the Parisians favoured a new and independent network and feared national takeover of any system it built.
The disagreement lasted from 1856 to 1890. Meanwhile, the population became traffic congestion grew massively; the deadlock gave the city the chance to enforce its vision. Prior to 1845, the urban transport network consisted of a large number of omnibus lines, consolidated by the French government into a regulated system with fixed and unconflicting routes and schedules; the first concrete proposal for an urban rail system in Paris was put forward by civil engineer Florence de Kérizouet. This plan called for a surface cable car system. In 1855, civil engineers Edouard Brame and Eugène Flachat proposed an underground freight urban railroad, due to the high rate of accidents on surface rail lines. On 19 November 1871 the General Council of the Seine commissioned a team of 40 engineers to plan an urban rail network; this team proposed a network with a pattern of routes "resembling a cross enclosed in a circle" with axial routes following large boulevards. On 11 May 1872 the Council endorsed the plan.
After this point, a serious debate occurred over whether the new system should consist of elevated lines or of underground lines. The underground option emerged as the preferred solution because of the high cost of buying land for rights-of-way in central Paris required for elevated lines, estimated at 70,000 francs per metre of line for a 20-metre-wide railroad; the last remaining hurdle was the city's concern about national interference in its urban rail system. The city commissioned renowned engineer Jean-Baptiste Berlier, who designed Paris' postal network of pneumatic tubes, to design and plan its rail system in the early 1890s. Berlier recommended a special track gauge of 1,300 mm to protect the system from national takeover, which inflamed the issue substantially; the issue was settled when the Minister of Public Works begrudgingly recognized the city's right to build a local system on 22 November 1895, by the city's secret designing of the trains and tunnels to be too narrow for main-line trains, while adopting standard gauge as a compromise with the state.
On 20 April 1896, Par
The Bordeaux tramway network consists of three lines serving the city of Bordeaux in Aquitaine in southwestern France. The first line of Bordeaux's modern tramway opened on 21 December 2003; the system is notable for using a ground-level power supply of the Alimentation par Sol system in the city centre. It has been operated by Keolis Bordeaux since 1 May 2009; the first tramway line of Bordeaux, with cars towed by horses, dates back to 1880. In 1946, the public transportation system in Bordeaux had 38 tram lines with a total length of 200 kilometres, carrying 160,000 passengers per day. A rudimentary system of ground-level power supply was used on some stretches with mixed success; as in other French cities at the time the mayor, Jacques Chaban-Delmas, embraced anti-tram arguments and decided to terminate the operation of the tramway. He found the tramway to be old-fashioned compared to the bus and its attachment to set tracks on the ground hindered the increasing flow of cars; the lines were closed one after the other.
In 1958 the last line of tramway was terminated. By the 1970s the failure of the "all car" transport policy had become obvious, but Chaban was not prepared to backtrack. A grandiose automatic light underground railway scheme was promoted; the VAL idea was dropped. Chaban remained. Bordeaux had to wait until 1995 and the election of Alain Juppé as mayor – as well as the total strangulation of the city by its transport problems – before the situation was tackled. Following two years of studies, the Bordeaux Urban Community adopted the tramway plan in 1997. Recognized by the central government in 2000 as a Public Interest Project, the scheme got under way and by 21 December 2003 was carrying passengers on three routes, one of, extended on 25 September 2005, with further extensions opened in 2007 and 2008. A particular feature of the new Bordeaux tram network is its ground-level power supply system, used in the city centre to avoid overhead wires spoiling the view of buildings; this was the source of many breakdowns when first introduced.
Improvements since however, have increased reliability and the network is now one of Bordeaux's principal plus points, valued not just for enabling the people of the city to get about but for its contribution to the aesthetics of the city and its quality of life. The new trams are an essential part of Bordeaux's current tourist redynamization strategy; the three lines were extended in 2007 and 2008 to reach several housing estates as well as the suburb of Mérignac. The whole system is with a camera installed inside each vehicle. Trams operate on all lines from around 4.30am until midnight, seven days a week with service on Thursdays and Saturdays until around 1.30am. All stops have panels showing the waiting time until the next tram. On Sunday and holiday mornings, trams run every 30/40 minutes until around 1000am every 20 minutes. Weekday and Saturday services operate every 10 – 12 minutes with additional service during'rush hour' and for special events. However, there is no service at all on Labour Day holiday.
As of July 2009, the Bordeaux tram network has a total route length of 66.1 kilometres, with 116 stops. The current routes of the three lines are: The first line was opened on 21 December 2003 in the presence of President Jacques Chirac, the mayor of Bordeaux, Alain Juppé, it ran between Lormont/Cenon. It was extended on 26 September 2005 to new termini at Saint-Augustin. Further extensions opened in 2007. A new extension from Lormont Lauriers to Carbon Blanc opened in May 2008. Line C was the next to open on 24 April 2004, following delays; the first part of the southern extension from Gare St. Jean to Terres Neuves was opened in February 2008, as was the northern section to Les Aubiers. From there via Berges du Lac to the final terminus at Parc Des Expositions in the Bordeaux Lac commercial and exhibition district it went into service in January 2015; this was followed in mid-March 2015 by the southwards extension to Lycée V. Havel. Line B was opened on 15 May 2004 and throughout on 3 July 2004.
29 May 2007 saw the opening of the first phase of its 2007 extension of when it began to serve Pessac Centre at its western end. On 23 July 2007 a further extension of the line from its previous terminus at Quinconces, along the left bank of the Garonne, to a station at Bassins à Flot opened; the final extension to northern terminus of the line at Cité Claveau, near to the Pont d'Aquitaine on the Bordeaux ring road, opened in October 2008. The main depot for trams is at Thiers Benauge and a secondary depot has opened on Line B at Rue Achard on the new extension towards Claveau. A'tram-train This 7.2 kilometres line branch from Line C, turning off after the stop Cracovie is in service from 17 December 2016. It joins the route of the former Médoc line at La Vache run parallel to it as far as Blanquefort, via several stations including the existing SNCF stop at Bruges; the overall system recorded 117 million passenger journeys in 2012. By demand of the Municipality of Bordeaux, part of the system uses ground-level power supply.
The Lille Metro is a driverless light metro system located in Lille, France. It was the first to use the VAL system. While referred to as the first automated driverless metro of any kind in the world, the Port Liner in Kobe, Japan predates it by two years; the light metro system is made up of two lines that serve 60 stations, runs over 45 kilometres of route. The system forms part of a multi-modal public transport system covering the Lille metropolitan area, along with buses and trams, operated under the Transpole brand. In the 1960s the decentralisation of the city of Lille was considered; the decentralisation resulted in the creation of the Public Establishment of Lille East development in 1968. In the 1970s, a plan for a proposed four line light metro system was developed, favouring the VAL system over conventional rail systems. Construction started in 1978, the first section was opened on 25 April 1983 between Quatre Cantons and République. On 2 May 1984 line 1 was completed, with a length of 13.5 kilometres, linking CHR B Calmette to Quatre Cantons via Gare de Lille Flandres.
All 18 stations have doors between the train. Line 2 opened on 3 April 1989 and it connects Lille with its two large suburban towns and Tourcoing, reaching CH Dron near the Belgian border on 27 October 2000, it is 32 kilometres long with 43 stations. While line one opened in April 1983 between 4 Cantons and République. H. R. B Calmette opening on the 2nd of May 1984; the cost of opening the first line in both its phases costed about 2 billion Francs. Construction of line two began in April 1985. A depot was opened on the second line at Villeneuve d'Ascq, after the terminus of the line Saint Philibert in Lomme. Line one became operational in late 1988 with testing being carried out for four months. In 1989, COMELI which runs the metro merged with COTRALI, which runs the bus and tram networks into a unified public transport body; the section between Lille and neighbouring towns of Roubaix and Tourcoing was built and opened in four stages. The first extension was inaugurated on 5 May 1994K; the third part is the longest to be opened.
It commissioned on 18 August that year. This section goes through the towns of Villeneuve d'Ascq, Croix and stops in downtown Tourcoing. Though the route is underground, the metro runs on a 1.3 km viaduct between the stations of Fort Mons and Jean-Jaures. The final section was inaugurated on 27 October 2000 by Prime Minister Lionel Jospin. While a system of four lines was planned in the 1970s only two lines have been built. Lille Métropole Urban Community indicates in its urban transport plan adopted in June 2000 that'the subway construction cost does not allow new achievements'. In 2003 a third line was estimated to cost €810 million. In 2010, the vice president of urban transport, Eric Quiquet confirms this decision by stating that the LMCU'plans no more new metro lines' and that'the priority is the development of the network of buses, urban tramway, the tram-train'. Line 1 serves 18 stations. Trains are 2 metres wide and 26 metres long, are rubber-tyred. Platforms are 52 metres in length, long enough for two units.
Each unit can carry 156 passengers. The metro operates from 5:00 a.m. until midnight, with trains every 1½ to 4 minutes, every 6 to 8 minutes early mornings and evenings. On Sundays there is a train every 2 to 6 minutes. A one-way ticket costs €1.80. Since January 2013, work to double the capacity of Line 1 has been ongoing; the platforms are being lengthened to be used with new 52 metres long trains built by Alstom. This expansion should be complete in autumn 2017; the former VAL 208 of the first line will be transferred to Line 2 to increase its passenger capacity as well. Lille tramway List of metro systems Media related to Lille Metro at Wikimedia Commons Interactive Lille Metro Map Transpole Lille at UrbanRail.net Lille VAL Automated Urban Metro
The Strasbourg tramway, run by the CTS, is a network of six tramlines, A, B, C, D, E and F that operate in the city of Strasbourg in Alsace and Kehl in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. The first tramline in Strasbourg, horse-drawn, opened in 1878. After 1894, when an electric powered tram system was introduced, a widespread network of tramways was built, including several longer distance lines on both sides of the Rhine; the decline of the tramways system began in the 1930s, ended with the retirement of the service in 1960 in parallel to the closure of many such systems in France and the rest of the Western world. However, a strategic reconsideration of the city's public transport requirements led to the reconstruction of the system, a development whose success led to other large French cities reopening their tramways, such as Montpellier and Nice. Lines A and D were opened in 1994, lines B and C were opened in 2000, line E was opened in 2007 and line F was opened in 2010, it is regarded as a remarkable example of the tramway's rebirth in the 1990s.
Together with the success seen in Nantes since 1985, the Strasbourg experiment resulted in the construction of tramways in multiple other French urban areas, the expansion of tramway systems remains an ongoing project in Strasbourg and throughout France. The first tram line in Strasbourg, horse-drawn, opened in 1878. After 1894, when an electric powered tram system was introduced, a widespread network of tramways was built in the largest city of Alsace, including several longer distance lines on both sides of the Rhine; the decline of the tramways system began in the 1930s, ended with the retirement of the service in 1960. After a long drawn out communal political decision process, the tram was reintroduced in 1994; as part of the redevelopment of the city, a track of a total 33 km distance was built, on which 5 tram line services have been developed. On 5 April 1877 the Strasbourg Horse Railway Company was founded, the name changed on 25 April 1888 to the Strasbourg Tramway Company. Since May 1897, the AEG electrical manufacturing company was the main shareholder.
In 1912 the company was transferred to the possession of the city of Strasbourg. When Alsace became part of France in November 1918, the name of the company was translated into French, "Compagnie des tramways strasbourgeois“. In this form it still exists today. Public transport in Strasbourg had begun in 1848 with horse-drawn carriages; the first standard gauge tracks of the Horse/Railway Company were opened on 20 July 1878. These passed through the areas of "Hönheim" and "zur Kehler Brücke". In the inner city, horses were used. In the suburbs, small steam locomotives drew the carriages. By 1885 further lines to the suburbs of Königshofen, Robertsau and Wolfisheim were opened, in 1886 the meter gauge was first used in extending the track to Grafenstaden; the electric company of AEG was engaged to install electric traction of that line in December 1894. Though the contract between town and company had included the maintaining of standard gauge, since 1897, the standard gauge tracks were converted to one-meter gauge.
New lines were built and run to Kronenburg and Breuschwickersheim. In addition to the network in town, an overland network was built worked with steam traction, extending from Strasbourg to the Vosges Mountains and across the Rhine into Baden. After in 1918 Strasbourg had become French, the 1920 all lines east of the Rhine were taken over at first by the shortly founded general German railway company of Deutsche Reichseisenbahnen in 1922 by the regional Mittelbadische Eisenbahnen. In 1930, the network comprised 234 km of track, about 100 km in town and 130 km overland lines, all in France. There were 55 million passengers in 1930 and 71.5 million passengers in 1943. In the 1950s, the tram weakened by World War II, faced competition from other modes of transport such as the bus, the bicycle and the private automobile; the tram system was replaced by buses. Much of the traffic was absorbed by the private automobile. Due to increasing traffic and pollution, the Urban Community of Strasbourg considered building a Véhicule Automatique Léger network with two lines.
The choice of rapid transit system became a major point of debate at the 1989 municipal elections, with the incumbent right-wing majority favouring the VAL, while the opposition Socialists campaigned for a modern tramway. Shopkeepers in the city centre were in favour of the VAL, on the grounds that the construction of the tramway and subsequent loss of parking spaces would deter customers. Meanwhile, the opposition campaigning for the tramway emphasised its cost-efficiency relative to the VAL and the revitalization and pedestrianization of the city centre that the construction of the tramway entailed. With Catherine Trautmann's election as mayor of Strasbourg, the VAL project was abandoned in favour of the tramway; the first line, line A, opened on 25 November 1994. At 9.8 kilometres long, it signalled the tramway's return to Strasbourg. The line ran from the western suburb of Hautepierre to Illkirch-Graffenstaden. In order to cross the railway lines near the Strasbourg railway station, a 1 400 m long tunnel was dug with a tunnel boring machine between the Rotonde and Ancienne Synagogue/Les Halles stations.
The Gare Centrale station, serving Strasbourg's railway station, is situated
The Marseille Metro is a rapid transit system serving the city of Marseille, in southern France. The Marseille Metro opened in 1977; as of 2013, the system comprises two lines underground, serving 28 stations, with an overall route length of 21.5 kilometres. The first line opened on November 26, 1977. After the opening of a second line and multiple extensions, the metro serves 28 stations, two of which provide interchange with another line; the Metro uses the rubber-tyred metro technology developed by the RATP Paris transport operator for some lines of the Paris Metro. In 2013 the Marseille Metro carried 76.7 million passengers in 2012, making it a core part of the transport network in the Marseille urban area, with 49% of journeys using the metro. Since 1986 the Régie des transports métropolitains has operated the network, operating it since 2016 on behalf of the Aix-Marseille-Provence Metropolis; the first plans for a metro system in Marseille appeared in the early years of the 20th century, following the opening of the Paris metro.
Many plans were put forward, but abandoned due to lack of financing. The most serious proposal emanated in 1918 from the Compagnie d'électricité de Marseille, which proposed to build an underground network similar to the Paris métro; this proposal was met with fierce opposition from the Compagnie générale française de tramways, which owned and operated the city's tramway system. This project failed, the idea of building a metro in Marseille was abandoned for many decades; the tramway system, badly damaged during the Second World War, was completely scrapped during the 1950s and replaced by buses. However, by 1960, the city was suffering from severe congestion due to the growth in automobile use. New metro projects resurfaced as a means to alleviate traffic congestion. After several years of studies, the city council voted unanimously in 1969 for the creation of a metro system. Construction of the first line started on August 13, 1973 and lasted until early 1977. Revenue operation started on November 26, 1977 on a portion of the line, between La Rose and Saint-Charles.
The rest of the line opened on March 11, 1978. The plans for the second line were approved in 1978. Construction began in 1980; the central portion of the line, between Joliette and Castellane, opened on March 3, 1984. Southern and northern portions of the line were opened in February 1986 and February 1987 respectively. Subsequent extensions took place in the following years on line 1, first between Castellane and La Timone on September 5, 1992, between La Timone and La Fourragère in 2010; the rolling stock comprises 36 4-car trains, named MPM 76. Trains have a capacity of 472 passengers. MPM 76 trains use the rubber tyre metro technology developed by the RATP for the Paris métro. Trains were built in Valenciennes, France, by a group of French companies which are now part of Alstom group. A first batch of 21 3-car trains was delivered in 1976, for line 1. A second batch of 15 was delivered in 1983, for line 2. In 1985, a fourth car was added on every train; the metro system is operated by the Régie des Transports de Marseille, on behalf of the Urban Community of Marseille Provence Métropole, which owns the infrastructure as well as the rolling stock.
Service is open every day, from 5 am to 1 am the next day. Trains run every 3 minutes during rush hour, every 10 minutes during evenings; the metro system transported 76.7 million passengers in 2012, leading to an average daily ridership of over 210,000. A 900-metre long extension of line 2 to Capitaine Gèze is expected to open in 2019, north of the current terminus station Bougainville; the new Capitaine Gèze station will feature a park and ride facility. This short extension will reuse existing service tracks that lead to the Zoccola depot; the cost is estimated to be 80 million euros. Several other long-term extensions, including a southern extension of line 2 from Sainte-Marguerite to St-Loup, are being considered; the replacement of the MPM76 rolling stock is expected to take place by the year 2020. However, no decision has been made as of January 2013. List of Marseille Metro stations Marseille tramway List of metro systems Jacques. Marseille et son Métro. Éditions Paul Tacussel. ISBN 2903963665.
Groneck, Christoph. Metros in France. Robert Schwandl Verlag. ISBN 978-3936573138. Media related to Marseille Metro at Wikimedia Commons Marseille Metro Map on Google earth with geolocation RTM – official website Marseille at UrbanRail.net
The Toulouse Metro serves the city of Toulouse and some of the surrounding area. The city's public transport system was managed by Société d'économie mixte des voyageurs de l'agglomération toulousaine, a company, 80% owned by local government bodies and 20% owned, it has been managed by Tisséo, under the authority of the Syndicat Mixte des Transports en Commun since 2003. The Toulouse Metro consists of two underground metro lines, Lines A and B, that together serve 37 stations, comprise 28.2 kilometres of route. The metro is supplemented by Toulouse railway network, by lines T1 and T2 which are a tramway to Blagnac's suburbs. 1983: City Council decides to create a metro line on a south-western/north-eastern axis. 1985: the municipality decides to use VAL technology. 1987: the project receives planning and environmental approvals. 1989: beginning of work on Line A. 1993: opening of Line A. 1997: beginning of preliminary studies for the extension of Line A and the construction of Line B. 2001: beginning of work on extension of Line A and construction of Line B. 2002: opening of the extension of line A to Balma-Gramont.
2007: Opening of Line B. 2010: Tram Line T1 opens from Arènes to Blagnac 2013: Opening of the extension of Line T1 to Palais de Justice 2025: Date announced for the start of operations of the "Toulouse Aerospace Express" The Toulouse Metro is composed of two lines: Line A, Basso-Cambo - Balma Gramont. Opened in 1993, it is underground, but comprises some elevated sections. Line B, Borderouge - Ramonville. On a North-South axis underground and which opened on 30 June 2007. Line A comprises 18 stations on a 12.5 kilometres route. The original section of Line A opened in June 1993, it extends from the shopping centre of Balma through Toulouse with stations at Marengo, Place Esquirol and University of Mirail. After its final station, Basso-Cambo, is a carriage shed-workshop, which provides storage and tests of the rolling stock for the whole of network; the Central Control Centre is located at the garage-workshop. Operating hours: 05:15 to midnight, until 03:00. In order to reduce costs, five of the 18 stations have short platforms.
Long platforms are needed to use four-carriage trains instead of two in order to double the capacity of the line. As a result, 13 years after its opening the line is saturated - peak hour lasts longer and longer, the opening of Line B, Line E and various exclusive bus lanes will bring additional traffic flows on to Line A and suggests that the use of Line A will become uncomfortable. Short platforms are being lengthened and longer trains are expected to serve the whole line by late 2019. A 5 km northern extension to L'Union is under study by the year 2030; the terminus station would be at Plaine des Monges. This line has 20 stations on a 15.7 kilometres route. It opened on 30 June 2007. Car parks have been built at Borderouge, Ramonville stations. New bus stations have been built Université Paul Sabatier and Ramonville stations. In January 2006, the Mayor of Toulouse, Jean-Luc Moudenc called for a fast decision on a southern extension of Line B; this extension would include 5 km of line on viaduct, with a crossing of the Canal du Midi and the A61 autoroute, four stations and would terminate at Labège - Innopole.
It would cost €330 million and be opened in 2019. This project has been shelved in favor of a third metro line; the Tramway Line T1 runs between Toulouse-Arènes passing through Blagnac. It was to open in November 2010; the line has 18 stops: - Arènes - Zénith - Cartoucherie - Casselardit - Purpan - Arênes Romaines - Ancely - Servanty - Guyenne - Pasteur - Relais - Marronniers - Patinoire - Grand Noble - Georges Brassens - Lycée - Beauzelle - Garossos Line T2 opened in 2015 as a branch of line T1. Both lines have a common section from southern terminus Palais de Justice to Ancely. Line T2 goes toward Toulouse Blagnac airport. Lines A and B are automatic metro lines, which use VAL technology built by Matra, now part of Siemens Transportation Systems. 13 of the 18 stations on line A can therefore handle four-car trains. Platform screen doors separate the platforms from the tracks and are synchronised with the doors of the trains. Therefore, each platform must be straight; each two-car set can accommodate from 150 to 220 people.
The trains use a third rail 750 V direct current electric supply. They can climb slopes of up to 7%, reach a top speed of 60 km/h, can operate on the line at a maximum frequency of 65 seconds. A central control centre regulates the network and ensures its safety and can take control of trains remotely in the event of an incident or a breakdown. Two types of rolling stock are in circulation: VAL 206 and VAL 208; the name of the next station is announced just before each stop and just after the departure from the preceding station. In VAL 208 trains, the name of the next station and its connections are shown in each car on a panel of LEDs. Extensions to the tram line are planned, to Grand Rond and to Beauzelle
The Marseille tramway is a tramway system in the French city of Marseille in Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur. Marseille's modern tram network now consists of three lines, serving 32 stations, operating over 15.8 kilometres of route. The current, modern Marseille tram network opened on 7 July 2007; the first horse tramway opened in Marseille on 21 January 1876. Unlike most other French cities, trams continued to operate in Marseille through the 1950s and beyond, when trams disappeared from most cities around the world; the original tram system continued to operate until 2004, when Line 68, was closed. Trams remained out of operation for three years between 2004 and 2007, in advance of the effort to renovate the tram network to modern standards. A new tram network is being built in Marseille, which when completed in 2011 will consist of three tram lines; the first phase opened on 30 June 2007. It is part of an urban renewal project which aims to reduce car use and favour pedestrians and public transit users.
On 30 June 2007, the first phase of the new Marseille tram network opened. It consists of one line linking Euroméditerranée in the northwest with Les Caillols in the east. Between Blancarde Chave and Saint-Pierre stations, it runs on part of the former route of Line 68. Blancarde Chave station will not open until October 2007. In October 2007, the portion of the old Line 68 between Blancarde Chave. and E.-Pierre will reopen, two lines will be created. Line 1 will link E.-Pierre and Les Caillols, line 2 will go from Euroméditerranée to La Blancarde, where a transfer between the two lines will be created. La Blancarde train station will become a transit hub: a station on Line 1 of the Marseille Metro will be built, in 2009 it will be served by TER regional trains. In mid-2008, two further extensions will be opened. Line 1 will be extended to Noailles via an existing tunnel, Line 2 will be extended north from Euroméditerranée to Euroméditerranée-Arenc. In 2011, a third tram line will be created. Line 2 will be modified: it will serve only the section of the existing line from Euroméditerranée-Arenc to Canabière, where it will be extended south on new track to Castellane and north to Bougainville.
A new Line 3 will be created, which will run along the existing Line 2 between La Blancarde and Canabière. It will run along new track west to Quatre Septembre on the south side of the Vieux-Port. Thus, Line 2 will become a north-south line, Line 3 will become an east-west line. A new transfer station between Lines 2 and 3 will be built at Cours Saint-Louis. Customized Bombardier Flexity Outlook trams are used on the new tram line. Composed of five articulated sections, they are 2.4 m wide. Twenty-six trams have been delivered, they can be extended by 10 m by adding two additional articulated sections. Their exterior and interior appearance was designed by MBD Design; the exterior resembles the hull of a ship, the driver's cabin resembles the bow. A lighted circle displays the colour of the line. Inside the tram, the floor and ceiling are coloured blue, seats and shutters are made of wood; the tram network is run by Le Tram, a consortium of Régie des transports de Marseille and Veolia Transport. The proposal to privatize the operation of public transit was unpopular, resulted in a 46-day transit strike.
The first tram, horse drawn, ran in 1876 on Canebière. The electrification began in 1899 and preceded he delivery of new electric tramcars, all similar as to keep a consistent pool of cars. In 1905, a batch of bogie-tramcars was purchased, these were equipped with trailers and were used on suburban lines; the system comprised suburban lines, which stretched to outlying villages. Many tram lines joined in the centre of Marseille on the Canebière and harbour, resulting in headways of less than a minute in the centre city; this huge network was modernised by the constant introduction of newer tramcars, to replace the older ones. In 1938, thirty-three trailers were recuperated from Paris; these meant. In 1939, the tramway company operated 430 tramcars and 350 trailers and 71 lines. In 1943 a large project, never realised, was designed; this project planned to build large tunnels in the centre of Marseille. The busiest lines would join into two tunnels. In 1949 a further modernisation occurred; the first articulated tramcars was built.
These were created by joining two older tramcars. These tramcars remained unique until 1985. Marseille city-council did not favour keeping its network of trams. Indeed, unorganised development of the car meant that modernisation and expansion of the tram network was hindered; the process of replacing tramways by trolleybuses and buses began after World War II in 1945 and accelerated from 1950. The first closures meant that Canebière was tramway-free from 1955; the last closure occurred on 21 January 1960. Line 68 opened in December 1893 and is the only tramway line to remain in service during the part of the twentieth century. Line 68 stretched from Noailles to Alhambra, serving La Plaine, the Boulevard Chave, the La Blancarde railway station and Saint-Pierre cemetery; the central terminus is situated in a tunnel. This tunnel, built in 1893, is unique in France and was built to give access to the city centre, avoiding the narrow streets of some of Marseilles's suburbs; because of the problems involved in converting the line to bus use it was decided to keep the line operational.
Line 68 is 3 km long and it remained out of u