Autores.uy is an author's database and maintained by the Uruguayan chapter of Creative Commons, with the support and collaboration of the Biblioteca Nacional de Uruguay, the Biblioteca del Poder Legislativo de Uruguay and the National Museum of Visual Arts of Uruguay. It has been declared of cultural interest by the Ministry of Culture of Uruguay, its main goal is to provide information regarding the copyright status of Uruguayan authors to identify whose works are in the Public Domain, to digitize and socialize those works. The platform allows online access to written and visual works in the public domain; as of December 2017, the database had more than 13,000 indexed authors. Autores.uy
A huaso is a Chilean countryman and skilled horseman, similar to the American cowboy or Mexican charro, the gaucho of Argentina and Rio Grande Do Sul and the Australian stockman. A female huaso is called a huasa, although the term china is far more used for his wife or sweetheart, whose dress can be seen in cueca dancing. Huasos are found all over Central and Southern Chile while the Magallanes Region sheep raisers are gauchos; the major difference between the huaso and the gaucho is that huasos are involved in farming as well as cattle herding. Huasos are found in Chile's central valley, they ride horses and wear a straw hat called a chupalla. They wear a poncho—called a manta or a chamanto —over a short Andalusian waist jacket, as well as tooled leather legging over booties with raw hide leather spur holders that sustain a long-shanked spur with 4-inch rowels, many other typical garments. Huasos are an important part of Chilean folkloric culture and are a vital part of parades, fiestas and popular music.
The dancing of the cueca in which the coy china is courted by the persistent huaso, both traditionally attired, is de rigueur on such occasions. In Chile, the term huaso or ahuasado is used disparagingly to refer to people without manners or lacking the sophistication of an urbanite, akin to US English redneck. Various theories are advanced: from the Quechua wakcha meaning orphan, not belonging to a community, hence free and homeless, an important aspect of the huaso/gaucho myth, or alternatively from the Quechua wasu, meaning either the back of an animal, or rough and rustic. Moreover the word guaso/a is used in American Spanish with the last sense, it appears that a form of folk etymology has operated to conflate the contrasting identities of the huaso, viewed as both a free horseman and an unsophisticated country bumpkin. Both senses can be observed in Chilean usage. Regional variantsGaucho Stockman Caipira Cowboy Chagra Chalan Guajiro Paniolo Charro Jibaro Llanero Related articlesArriero Chilean horse Chilean rodeo Southamerica.cl/Chile/Huasos.htm
Uruguayan Air Force Flight 571
Uruguayan Air Force Flight 571 was a chartered flight that crashed on a glacier at an elevation of 3,570 metres in the remote Andes. Among the 45 people on board, 28 survived the initial crash. Facing starvation and death, the survivors reluctantly resorted to cannibalism. After 72 days on the glacier, 16 people were rescued; the flight carrying 19 members of a rugby team, family and friends originated in Montevideo and was headed for Santiago, Chile. While crossing the Andes, the inexperienced co-pilot, in command mistakenly believed they had reached Curicó, despite instrument readings indicating otherwise, he turned north and began to descend towards what he thought was Pudahuel Airport. Instead, the aircraft struck the mountain, shearing off the rear of the fuselage; the forward part of the fuselage careered down a steep slope like a toboggan and came to rest on a glacier. Three crew members and more than a quarter of the passengers died in the crash, several others succumbed to cold and injuries.
On the tenth day after the crash, the survivors learned from a transistor radio that the search had been called off. Faced with starvation and death, those still alive agreed that should they die, the others might consume their bodies in order to live. With no choice, the survivors ate the bodies of their dead friends. Seventeen days after the crash, 27 remained alive when an avalanche filled the rear of the broken fuselage they were using as shelter, killing eight more survivors; the survivors had no source of heat in the harsh conditions. They decided. Sixty days after the crash, passengers Nando Parrado and Roberto Canessa, lacking mountaineering gear of any kind, climbed from the glacier at 3,570 metres to the 4,670 metres peak blocking their way west. Over 10 days they trekked about 38 miles seeking help; the first person they saw was Chilean arriero Sergio Catalán, who gave them food and rode for ten hours to alert authorities. The story of the passengers' survival after 72 days drew international attention.
The remaining 16 survivors were rescued on 23 December 1972, more than two months after the crash. The survivors were concerned about what the public and family members of the dead might think about their acts of eating the dead. There was an initial public backlash, but after they explained the pact the survivors made to sacrifice their flesh if they died to help the others survive, the outcry diminished and the families were more understanding; the incident was known as the Andes flight disaster and, in the Hispanic world, as El Milagro de los Andes. Members of the amateur Old Christians Club rugby union team from Montevideo, were scheduled to play a match against the Old Boys Club, an English rugby team in Santiago, Chile. Club president Daniel Juan chartered an Uruguayan Air Force twin turboprop Fairchild FH-227D to fly the team over the Andes to Santiago; the aircraft carried 5 crew members. Colonel Julio César Ferradas was an experienced Air Force pilot who had a total of 5,117 flying hours.
He was accompanied by co-pilot Lieutenant-Colonel Dante Héctor Lagurara. There were 10 extra seats and the team members invited a few friends and family members to accompany them; when someone cancelled at the last minute, Graziela Mariana bought the seat so she could attend her oldest daughter's wedding. The aircraft departed Carrasco International Airport on 12 October 1972, but a storm front over the Andes forced them to stop overnight in Mendoza, Argentina. Although there is a direct route from Mendoza to Santiago 200 kilometres to the west, the high mountains require flight levels of 25,000 to 26,000 feet close to the FH-227D's maximum operational ceiling of 28,000 feet. Given that the FH-227 aircraft was loaded, this route would have required the pilot to carefully calculate fuel consumption and to avoid the mountains. Instead, it was customary for this type of aircraft to fly a longer 600 kilometres, 90-minute U-shaped route from Mendoza south to Malargüe using the A7 airway. From there aircraft flew west via the G-17 airway, crossing Planchón Pass, to the Chilean town of Curicó, from there north to Santiago.
The weather on 13 October affected the flight. On that morning, conditions over the Andes had not improved but changes were expected by the early afternoon; the pilot took off at 2:18 PM on Friday 13 October from Mendoza. He flew south from Mendoza towards Malargüe at flight level 180. Lagurara radioed the Malargüe airport with their position and told them they would reach 2,515 metres high Planchón Pass at 3:21 PM; the pass is the hand-off point for air traffic control from one side of the Andes to the other. At the pass, controllers in Mendoza transfer flight tracking to Pudahuel air traffic control in Santiago, Chile. Once across the mountains in Chile, south of Curicó, aircraft turn north and initiate descent into Pudahuel Airport in Santiago. Pilot Ferradas had flown across the Andes 29 times. On this flight he was training co-pilot Lagurara, pilot in command; as they flew through the Andes, clouds obscured the mountains. The aircraft FAU 571 had only 792 airframe hours; the aircraft was regarded by some pilots as underpowered, had been nicknamed by them as the "lead-sled."Given the cloud cover, the pilots were flying under instrument meteorological conditions at an altitude of 18,000 feet, could not visually confirm their location.
While some reports state the pilot incorrectly estimated his position using dea
Miracle in the Andes
Miracle in the Andes is a 2006 non-fiction account of a rugby team's survival on a glacier in the Andes for 72 days by survivor Nando Parrado and co-author Vince Rause. It was published by Crown. Nando Parrado co-wrote the 2006 book Miracle in the Andes: 72 Days on the Mountain and My Long Trek Home, with Vince Rause. In Miracle in the Andes, Nando Parrado returns to the events described in Piers Paul Read's 1974 book, Alive: The Story of the Andes Survivors; when what little food they had ran out after ten days, those still alive agreed that after their death the others should eat their bodies to survive. Piers Paul Read's version was published two years after the rescue and was based upon interviews with the survivors. Miracle of the Andes, however, is told from Nando Parrado's point of view 34 years later. Publisher's Weekly wrote that it is "more than a companion to the 1970s best-selling chronicle of the disaster, Alive: The Story of the Andes Survivors, this is a fresh, gripping page-turner that will satisfy adventure readers, a complex reflection on camaraderie and love."
The Library Journal found the book to be, "more introspective than Piers Paul Read's journalistic account, Alive: The Story of the Andes Survivors... Parrado presents both the jaw-dropping realities of the 16 survivors' story and the life-altering lessons he learned from the experience". Jon Krakauer, the author of Into Thin Air, said the book is "an astonishing account of an unimaginable ordeal". Alive: The Miracle of the Andes Alive: 20 Years Later Uruguayan Air Force Flight 571 Powell's review Book Excerpt
Rugby refers to the team sports rugby league and rugby union. Legend claims that rugby football was started about 1845 in Rugby School, Warwickshire, although forms of football in which the ball was carried and tossed date to medieval times. Rugby split into two sports in 1895 when twenty-one clubs split from the original Rugby Football Union, to form the Northern Union in the George Hotel, Northern England over the issue of payment to players, thus making rugby league the first code to turn professional and pay its players, rugby union turned professional in 1995. Both sports are run by their respective world governing bodies World Rugby and the Rugby League International Federation. Rugby football was one of many versions of football played at English public schools in the 19th century. Although rugby league used rugby union rules, they are now wholly separate sports. In addition to these two codes, both American and Canadian football evolved from rugby football. Following the 1895 split in rugby football, the two forms rugby league and rugby union differed in administration only.
Soon the rules of rugby league were modified. After 100 years, in 1995 rugby union joined rugby league and most other forms of football as an professional sport; the Olympic form of rugby is known as Rugby 7s. In this form of the game, each team has 7 players on the field at one time playing 7 minute halves; the rules and pitch size are the same as rugby union. The Greeks and Romans are known to have played many ball games, some of which involved the use of the feet; the Roman game harpastum is believed to have been adapted from a Greek team game known as "ἐπίσκυρος" or "φαινίνδα", mentioned by a Greek playwright and referred to by the Christian theologian Clement of Alexandria. These games appear to have resembled rugby football; the Roman politician Cicero describes the case of a man, killed whilst having a shave when a ball was kicked into a barber's shop. Roman ball games knew the air-filled ball, the follis. Episkyros is recognised as an early form of football by FIFA. In 1871, English clubs met to form the Rugby Football Union.
In 1892, after charges of professionalism were made against some clubs for paying players for missing work, the Northern Rugby Football Union called the Northern Union, was formed. The existing rugby union authorities responded by issuing sanctions against the clubs and officials involved in the new organization. After the schism, the separate clubs were named "rugby league" and "rugby union". Rugby union is both a professional and amateur game, is dominated by the first tier unions: New Zealand, Wales, South Africa, Argentina, Scotland and France. Second and third tier unions include Belgium, Canada, Fiji, Germany, Hong Kong, Kenya, the Netherlands, Romania, Samoa, Tonga, the United States and Uruguay. Rugby Union is administered by World Rugby, whose headquarters are located in Ireland, it is the national sport in New Zealand, Fiji, Tonga and Madagascar, is the most popular form of rugby globally. The Olympic Games have admitted the seven-a-side version of the game, known as Rugby sevens, into the programme from Rio de Janeiro in 2016 onwards.
There was a possibility sevens would be a demonstration sport at the 2012 London Olympics but many sports including sevens were dropped. In Canada and the United States, rugby union evolved into gridiron football. During the late 1800s, the two forms of the game were similar, but numerous rule changes have differentiated the gridiron-based game from its rugby counterpart, introduced by Walter Camp in the United States and John Thrift Meldrum Burnside in Canada. Among unique features of the North American game are the separation of play into downs instead of releasing the ball upon tackling, the requirement that the team with the ball set into a set formation for at least one second before resuming play after a tackle, the allowance for one forward pass from behind the site of the last tackle on each down, the evolution of hard plastic equipment, a smaller and pointier ball, favorable to being passed but makes drop kicks impractical, a smaller and narrower field measured in customary units instead of metric, a distinctive field with lines marked in five-yard intervals.
Rugby league is both a professional and amateur game, administered on a global level by the Rugby League International Federation. In addition to amateur and semi-professional competitions in the United States, Lebanon, Serbia and Australasia, there are two major professional competitions—the Australasian National Rugby League and the Super League. International Rugby League is dominated by Australia and New Zealand. In Papua New Guinea it is the national sport. Other nations from the South Pacific and Europe play in the Pacific Cup and European Cup respectively. Distinctive features common to both rugby codes include the oval ball and throwing the ball forward is not allowed so that players can gain ground only
A writer is a person who uses written words in various styles and techniques to communicate their ideas. Writers produce various forms of literary art and creative writing such as novels, short stories, plays and essays as well as various reports and news articles that may be of interest to the public. Writers' texts are published across a range of media. Skilled writers who are able to use language to express ideas well contribute to the cultural content of a society; the term "writer" is used elsewhere in the arts – such as songwriter – but as a standalone "writer" refers to the creation of written language. Some writers work from an oral tradition. Writers can produce material across a number of genres, non-fictional. Other writers use multiple media – for example, graphics or illustration – to enhance the communication of their ideas. Another recent demand has been created by civil and government readers for the work of non-fictional technical writers, whose skills create understandable, interpretive documents of a practical or scientific nature.
Some writers may use multimedia to augment their writing. In rare instances, creative writers are able to communicate their ideas via music as well as words; as well as producing their own written works, writers write on how they write. Writers work professionally or non-professionally, that is, for payment or without payment and may be paid either in advance, or only after their work is published. Payment is only one of the motivations of writers and many are never paid for their work; the term writer is used as a synonym of author, although the latter term has a somewhat broader meaning and is used to convey legal responsibility for a piece of writing if its composition is anonymous, unknown or collaborative. Writers choose from a range of literary genres to express their ideas. Most writing can be adapted for use in another medium. For example, a writer's work may be read or recited or performed in a play or film. Satire for example, may be written as a poem, an essay, a film, a comic play, or a piece of journalism.
The writer of a letter may include elements of biography, or journalism. Many writers work across genres; the genre sets the parameters but all kinds of creative adaptation have been attempted: novel to film. Writers may change to another. For example, historian William Dalrymple began in the genre of travel literature and writes as a journalist. Many writers have produced both fiction and non-fiction works and others write in a genre that crosses the two. For example, writers of historical romances, such as Georgette Heyer, invent characters and stories set in historical periods. In this genre, the accuracy of the history and the level of factual detail in the work both tend to be debated; some writers write both creative fiction and serious analysis, sometimes using different names to separate their work. Dorothy Sayers, for example, wrote crime fiction but was a playwright, essayist and critic. Poets make maximum use of the language to achieve an emotional and sensory effect as well as a cognitive one.
To create these effects, they use rhyme and rhythm and they exploit the properties of words with a range of other techniques such as alliteration and assonance. A common theme is its vicissitudes. Shakespeare's famous love story Romeo and Juliet, for example, written in a variety of poetic forms, has been performed in innumerable theatres and made into at least eight cinematic versions. John Donne is another poet renowned for his love poetry. Novelists write novels -- stories, they situate invented characters and plots in a narrative designed to be both credible and entertaining. Every novel worthy of the name is like another planet, whether large or small, which has its own laws just as it has its own flora and fauna. Thus, Faulkner's technique is the best one with which to paint Faulkner's world, Kafka's nightmare has produced its own myths that make it communicable. Benjamin Constant, Eugène Fromentin, Jacques Rivière, all used different techniques, took different liberties, set themselves different tasks.
François Mauriac, novelist A satirist uses wit to ridicule the shortcomings of society or individuals, with the intent of exposing stupidity. The subject of the satire is a contemporary issue such as ineffective political decisions or politicians, although human vices such as greed are a common and universal subject. Philosopher Voltaire wrote a satire about optimism called Candide, subsequently turned into an opera, many well known lyricists wrote for it. There are elements of Absurdism in Candide, just as there are in the work of contemporary satirist Barry Humphries, who writes comic satire for his character Dame Edna Everage to perform on stage. Satirists use various techniques such as irony and hyperbole to make their point and they choose from the full range of genres – the satire may be in the form of prose or poetry or dialogue in a film, for example. One of the most famous satirists is Jonathan Swift who wrote the four-volume work Gulliver's Travels and many other satires, including A Modest Proposal and The Battle of the Books.
It is amazing to me that... our age is wholly illiterate and has hardly produced one writer upon any subject. Jonathan Swift, satirist A short story writer is a writer of short stories, works of fiction that can be read in a single sitting. Libretti (the p