The Hopewell tradition describes the common aspects of the Native American culture that flourished along rivers in the northeastern and midwestern United States from 100 BCE to 500 CE, in the Middle Woodland period. The Hopewell tradition was not a single culture or society, but a dispersed set of related populations, they were connected by a common network of trade routes, known as the Hopewell exchange system. At its greatest extent, the Hopewell exchange system ran from the Crystal River Indian Mounds in modern-day Florida as far north as the Canadian shores of Lake Ontario. Within this area, societies participated in a high degree of exchange with the highest amount of activity along waterways; the Hopewell exchange system received materials from all over. Most of the items traded were exotic materials and were received by people living in the major trading and manufacturing areas; these people converted the materials into products and exported them through local and regional exchange networks.
The objects created by the Hopewell exchange system spread far and wide and have been seen in many burials outside the Midwest. Although the origins of the Hopewell are still under discussion, the Hopewell culture can be considered a cultural climax. Hopewell populations originated in western New York and moved south into Ohio, where they built upon the local Adena mortuary tradition. Or, Hopewell was said to have originated in western Illinois and spread by diffusion... to southern Ohio. The Havana Hopewell tradition was thought to have spread up the Illinois River and into southwestern Michigan, spawning Goodall Hopewell; the name "Hopewell" was applied by Warren K. Moorehead after his explorations of the Hopewell Mound Group in Ross County, Ohio, in 1891 and 1892; the mound group itself was named after Mordecai Hopewell, whose family who owned the earthworks at the time. What any of the various groups now defined as Hopewellian called themselves is unknown, it is used to describe a wide scattering of people who lived near rivers in temporary settlements of 1-3 households and practiced a mixture of hunting and crop growing.
The Hopewell inherited from their Adena forebears an incipient social stratification. This increased social stability and reinforced sedentism, social stratification, specialized use of resources, population growth. Hopewell societies cremated most of their deceased and reserved burial for only the most important people. In some sites, hunters received a higher status in the community because their graves were more elaborate and contained more status goods; the Hopewellian peoples had leaders, but they were not like powerful rulers who could command armies of slaves and soldiers. These cultures accorded certain families a special place of privilege; some scholars suggest that these societies were marked by the emergence of "big-men". These leaders acquired their position because of their ability to persuade others to agree with them on important matters such as trade and religion, they perhaps were able to develop influence by the creation of reciprocal obligations with other important members of the community.
Whatever the source of their status and power, the emergence of "big-men" was another step toward the development of the structured and stratified sociopolitical organization called the chiefdom. The Hopewell settlements were linked by extensive and complex trading routes, which doubled as communication networks, bring people together for important ceremonies. Today, the best-surviving features of the Hopewell tradition era are mounds built for uncertain purposes. Great geometric earthworks are one of the most impressive Native American monuments throughout American prehistory. Eastern Woodlands mounds have various geometric shapes and rise to impressive heights; the gigantic sculpted earthworks took the shape of animals, birds, or writhing serpents. The function of the mounds is still under debate. Due to considerable evidence and surveys, plus the good survival condition of the largest mounds, more information can be obtained. Several scientists, including Dr. Bradley T. Lepper, Curator of Archaeology, Ohio Historical Society, hypothesize that the Octagon earthwork at Newark, was a lunar observatory oriented to the 18.6-year cycle of minimum and maximum lunar risings and settings on the local horizon.
The Octagon covers the size of 100 football pitches. Dr. John Eddy completed an unpublished survey in 1978, proposed a lunar major alignment for the Octagon. Ray Hively and Robert Horn of Earlham College in Richmond, were the first researchers to analyze numerous lunar sightlines at the Newark Earthworks and the High Banks Works in Chillicothe, Ohio. Christopher Turner noted that the Fairground Circle in Newark, Ohio aligns to the sunrise on May 4, i.e. that it marked the May cross-quarter sunrise. In 1983, Turner demonstrated that the Hopeton earthworks encode various sunrise and moonrise patterns, including the winter and summer solstices, the equinoxes, the cross-quarter days, the lunar maximum events, the lunar minimum events due to their precise straight and parallel lines. William F. Romain has written a book on the subject of "astronomers and magicians" at the earthworks. Many of the mounds contain various types of burials. Precious burial good have been found in the mounds; these include objects of adornment made of copper and obsidian, imported to the region hundreds of miles away.
Stone and ceramics were fashioned into intricate shapes. The Hopewell created artwork of the Americas. Most of their works had some religious significance, their graves were filled with neck
George Catlin was an American painter and traveler, who specialized in portraits of Native Americans in the Old West. Travelling to the American West five times during the 1830s, Catlin was the first white man to depict Plains Indians in their native territory. George Catlin was born in Luzerne County, Pennsylvania; as a child growing up in Pennsylvania, Catlin had spent many hours hunting and looking for American Indian artifacts. His fascination with Native Americans was kindled by his mother, who told him stories of the western frontier and how she was captured by a tribe when she was a young girl. Years a group of Native Americans came through Philadelphia dressed in their colorful outfits and made quite an impression on Catlin, his early work included engravings, drawn from nature, of sites along the route of the Erie Canal in New York State. Several of his renderings were published in one of the first printed books to use lithography, Cadwallader D. Colden's Memoir, Prepared at the Request of a Committee of the Common Council of the City of New York, Presented to the Mayor of the City, at the Celebration of the Completion of the New York Canals, published in 1825, with early images of the City of Buffalo.
Following a brief career as an attorney, Catlin produced two major collections of paintings of American Indians and published a series of books chronicling his travels among the native peoples of North and South America. Spurred by relics brought back by the famous Lewis and Clark Expedition of 1804–1806 owned by his friend, Charles Willson Peale, claiming that his interest in America's'vanishing race' was inspired by a visiting American Indian delegation in Philadelphia, he set out to record the appearance and customs of America's native peoples. Catlin began his journey in 1830 when he accompanied Governor William Clark on a diplomatic mission up the Mississippi River into Native American territory. St. Louis became Catlin’s base of operations for five trips he took between 1830 and 1836 visiting fifty tribes. Two years he ascended the Missouri River more than 3000 km to Fort Union Trading Post, near what is now the North Dakota-Montana border, where he spent several weeks among indigenous people who were still untouched by European culture.
He visited eighteen tribes, including the Pawnee and Ponca in the south and the Mandan, Cheyenne, Crow and Blackfeet to the north. There he produced the most penetrating portraits of his career. During trips along the Arkansas and Mississippi rivers, as well as visits to Florida and the Great Lakes, he produced more than 500 paintings and gathered a substantial collection of artifacts; when Catlin returned east in 1838, he assembled the paintings and numerous artifacts into his Indian Gallery, began delivering public lectures that drew on his personal recollections of life among the American Indians. Catlin traveled with his Indian Gallery to major cities such as Pittsburgh and New York, he hung his paintings "salon style" -- side by one above another. Visitors identified each painting by the number on the frame. Soon afterward, he began a lifelong effort to sell his collection to the U. S. government. The touring Indian Gallery did not attract the paying public Catlin needed to stay financially sound, the United States Congress rejected his initial petition to purchase the works.
In 1839 Catlin took his collection across the Atlantic for a tour of European capitals. As a showman and entrepreneur, he attracted crowds to his Indian Gallery in London and Paris; the French critic Charles Baudelaire remarked on Catlin’s paintings, "He has brought back alive the proud and free characters of these chiefs, both their nobility and manliness."Catlin wanted to sell his Indian Gallery to the U. S. government to have his life’s work preserved intact. His continued attempts to persuade various officials in Washington, D. C. to buy the collection failed. In 1852 he was forced to sell the original Indian Gallery, now 607 paintings, due to personal debts; the industrialist Joseph Harrison acquired the paintings and artifacts, which he stored in a factory in Philadelphia, as security. Catlin spent the last 20 years of his life trying to re-create his collection, recreated more than 400 paintings; this second collection of paintings is known as the "Cartoon Collection", since the works are based on the outlines he drew of the works from the 1830s.
In 1841 Catlin published Manners and Condition of the North American Indians, in two volumes, with 300 engravings. Three years he published 25 plates, entitled Catlin’s North American Indian Portfolio, and, in 1848, Eight Years' Travels and Residence in Europe. From 1852 to 1857 he traveled through South and Central America and returned for further exploration in the Far West; the record of these years is contained in Last Rambles amongst the Indians of the Rocky Mountains and the Andes and My Life among the Indians. Paintings of his Spanish American Indians are published. In 1872, Catlin traveled to Washington, D. C. at the invitation of Joseph Henry, the first secretary of the Smithsonian. Until his death that year in Jersey City, New Jersey, Catlin worked in a studio in the Smithsonian "Castle". In 1879 Harrison’s widow donated the original Indian Gallery, more than 500 works, along with related artifacts, to the Smithsonian; the nearly complete surviving set of Catlin's first Indian Gallery, painted in the 1830s, is now part of the Smithsonian American Art Museum's collection.
The associated Catlin artifacts are in the collections of the Department of Anthropology, National M
Choctaw Trail of Tears
The Choctaw Trail of Tears was the attempted ethnic cleansing and relocation of the Choctaw Nation from their country referred to now as the Deep South to lands west of the Mississippi River in Indian Territory in the 1830s by the United States government. A Choctaw miko was quoted by the Arkansas Gazette that the removal was a "trail of tears and death." After removal the Choctaws became three distinct groups, the Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma, Jena Band of Choctaw Indians, the Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians. After ceding nearly 11,000,000 acres, the Choctaw emigrated in three stages: the first in the fall of 1831, the second in 1832 and the last in 1833; the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek was ratified by the U. S. Senate on February 25, 1830, the U. S. President Andrew Jackson was anxious to make it a model of removal. George W. Harkins wrote a letter to the American people. We go forth sorrowful. Will you extend to us your sympathizing regards until all traces of disagreeable oppositions are obliterated, we again shall have confidence in the professions of our white brethren.
Here is the land of our progenitors, here are their bones. Could I stay and forget them and leave them to struggle alone, unaided and forgotten, by our great father? I should be unworthy the name of a Choctaw, be a disgrace to my blood. I must go with them. If they suffer, so will I. Let me again ask you to regard us with feelings of kindness; the first wave of removal suffered the most. The second and third wave "sowed their fields promptly and experienced fewer hardships than the Indians of most of the other expatriated tribes." Removal continued throughout the 19th century. In 1846 1,000 Choctaw removed, by 1930 1,665 remained in Mississippi. For Choctaws, the introduction of African slavery in the late eighteenth century was shaped and conditioned by their previous experience with the Native slave trade of the late seventeenth and eighteenth centuries and with preexisting practices of Native warfare and captive adoption; the first slavers in the Choctaw Nation, were not, as John Davis was, white Americans searching for African slaves.
Rather, they were Native people from adjacent areas who sought Native slaves to trade in New Orleans and the eastern markets of the United States during the 1690s and early 1700s. The slave-raiders themselves were acting to satisfy outstanding debts they had acquired with British merchants; the Choctaw and the United States agreed to nine treaties between 1786 and 1830. The Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek was the last to be signed agreeing to the final removal of the Choctaw Nation. Choctaw land was systematically obtained through treaties and threats of warfare. Treaties were made with Great Britain and Spain. Nine treaties were signed with the United States; some treaties, like the Treaty of San Lorenzo, indirectly affected the Choctaws. The Choctaws considered European laws and diplomacy puzzling; the most confusing aspect of treaty making was writing, impressive for a people who have not developed a written system. Choctaw history, as with many Native Americans, was passed orally from generation to generation.
During treaty negotiations the three main Choctaw tribal areas had a "Miko" to represent them. During the Treaty of Natchez, 1793, the Upper Town Chief was last name King according to curated, the Chief of Six Towns was Pushmataha, the Chief of Western Division was James King, Jr representing the Royal Governor Corondolet. Spain had the earliest claims to Choctaw country, followed by French claims starting in the late 17th century; the United States, following the Treaty of San Lorenzo, laid claim to Choctaw country starting in 1795. The Treaty of Hopewell was signed in 1786, although it did not cede any land to the United States, this treaty was important because Article 9 gave the United States Congress the right to regulate, "manage all their affairs in such a manner as they think proper"; the Treaty of Fort Adams signed to cede the land at the mouth of the Yazoo River. The Choctaws believed that ceding over 2 million acres of to the United States would be enough to satisfy the American need for land, but it was not enough.
Six months the General Wilkinson came back with a new treaty. The Treaty of Mount Dexter was signed in November 1805, it ceded more land than any of the previous treaties. During this time, the plan of the Jefferson Administration was to force the Choctaws into debt and allow them to pay that debt back with their land. In the case of the Mount Dexter Treaty, the Choctaw received $48,000 for the 4.1 million acres of land that they were giving up. With this money, they had to pay back $51,000 for the trading houses they used; the Treaty of Doak's Stand was considered one of Jackson's greatest achievements since the battle of New Orleans, one of the first "significant achievement of Calhoun's policy of moderation." The treaty had the Choctaws ceding five million acres of land, but they were to receive thirteen million acres of land in Arkansas. This treaty foreshadows the degradation of all Indians; this became problematic because the people in Arkansas felt as though their government had abandoned them in order to remove the Indians from Mississippi, so they began launching an all-out effort to prevent the treaty
Neshoba County, Mississippi
Neshoba County is a county located in the U. S. state of Mississippi. As of the 2010 census, the population was 29,676, its county seat is Philadelphia. It was named after a Choctaw chief, his name means "wolf" in the Choctaw language. The county is known for the Neshoba County harness horse races, it is home of the Williams Brothers Store, in operation since the early 1900s. The Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians, a federally recognized tribe, own one of the largest casino complexes in the state; the Silver Star and Golden Moon casinos are the first land-based casinos in Mississippi. These casinos are part of the MBCI's Pearl River Resort. Neshoba County is known as the site of one of the most infamous race-related crimes in American history, which took place in 1964 during Freedom Summer in Mississippi, a period of heightened civil rights activity in a voter registration drive. White supremacists brutally murdered three civil rights activists, Chaney and Schwerner in Philadelphia, the county seat.
Deputy Sheriff Cecil Price was implicated but never charged with being part of the group that lynched the three young men and buried them in an earthen dam 15 miles northeast of Philadelphia. The crime and decades-long legal aftermath of investigation and trials inspired the 1988 movie Mississippi Burning. In 1980 President Ronald Reagan launched his presidential campaign from the Neshoba County Fair, delivering a speech about economic policy and referring to "states' rights", it was believed to be referring to southern conservative values, in an area associated with the 1964 murders. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 572 square miles, of which 570 square miles is land and 1.5 square miles is water. Mississippi Highway 15 Mississippi Highway 16 Mississippi Highway 19 Mississippi Highway 21 Winston County Kemper County Newton County Leake County As of the census of 2000, there were 28,684 people, 10,694 households, 7,742 families residing in the county; the population density was 50 people per square mile.
There were 11,980 housing units at an average density of 21 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 65.50% White, 19.33% Black or African American, 13.80% Native American, 0.19% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.34% from other races, 0.81% from two or more races. 1.16% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 28.6% identified as of American ancestry, 8.8% as Irish and 6.1% as English, according to Census 2000. Those who identify as having "American" ancestry are predominantly of English descent, but have ancestors who came to the US so long ago that they identify as American. 88.7 % spoke 10.2 % Choctaw as their first language. There were 10,694 households out of which 34.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.50% were married couples living together, 15.60% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.60% were non-families. 24.70% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.63 and the average family size was 3.11.
In the county, the population was spread out with 28.20% under the age of 18, 9.00% from 18 to 24, 27.00% from 25 to 44, 21.60% from 45 to 64, 14.20% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females there were 91.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.30 males. The median income for a household in the county was $28,300, the median income for a family was $33,439. Males had a median income of $28,112 versus $19,882 for females; the per capita income for the county was $14,964. About 17.90% of families and 21.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 27.20% of those under age 18 and 22.00% of those age 65 or over. Philadelphia Union Bogue Chitto Pearl River Tucker Burnside Choctaw Good Hope Neshoba Sandtown Stallo National Register of Historic Places listings in Neshoba County, Mississippi Neshoba Iris Kelso Carol V. R. George, One Mississippi, Two Mississippi: Methodists and the Struggle for Racial Justice in Neshoba County.
Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 2015. Mississippi Region Grapples with Legacy of Civil Rights Murders, a 40th anniversary story from All Things Considered Neshoba Democrat's 40th anniversary stories
Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek
The Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek was a treaty signed on September 27, 1830, proclaimed on February 24, 1831, between the Choctaw American Indian tribe and the United States Government. This was the first removal treaty carried into effect under the Indian Removal Act; the treaty ceded about 11 million acres of the Choctaw Nation in what is now Mississippi in exchange for about 15 million acres in the Indian territory, now the state of Oklahoma. The principal Choctaw negotiators were Chief Greenwood LeFlore and Nittucachee. S. negotiators were Colonel John Secretary of War John Eaton. The site of the signing of this treaty is in the southwest corner of Noxubee County; the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek was the last major land cession treaty signed by the Choctaw. With ratification by the U. S. Congress in 1831, the treaty allowed those Choctaw who chose to remain in Mississippi to become the first major non-European ethnic group to gain recognition as U. S. citizens. On August 25, 1830, the Choctaw were supposed to meet with Andrew Jackson in Franklin, but Greenwood Leflore informed the Secretary of War, John H. Eaton, that the chiefs were fiercely opposed to attending.
The president was upset but, as the journalist Len Green wrote in 1978, "Although angered by the Choctaw refusal to meet him in Tennessee, Jackson felt from LeFlore's words that he might have a foot in the door and dispatched Secretary of War Eaton and John Coffee to meet with the Choctaws in their nation." Jackson appointed Eaton and General John Coffee as commissioners to represent him to meet the Choctaws where the "rabbits gather to dance." The commissioners met with the headmen on September 15, 1830, at Dancing Rabbit Creek. In a carnival-like atmosphere, the US officials explained the policy of removal through interpreters to an audience of 6,000 men and children; the Choctaws faced migration west of the Mississippi River or submitting to U. S. and state law as citizens. The treaty would sign away the remaining traditional homeland to the United States; the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek was one of the largest land transfers signed between the United States Government and American Indians in time of peace.
The Choctaw ceded their remaining traditional homeland to the United States. Article 14 allowed for some Choctaw to remain in the state of Mississippi, if they wanted to become citizens: ART. XIV; each Choctaw head of a family being desirous to remain and become a citizen of the States, shall be permitted to do so, by signifying his intention to the Agent within six months from the ratification of this Treaty, he or she shall thereupon be entitled to a reservation of one section of six hundred and forty acres of land, to be bounded by sectional lines of survey. If they reside upon said lands intending to become citizens of the States for five years after the ratification of this Treaty, in that case a grant in fee simple shall issue. Persons who claim under this article shall not lose the privilege of a Choctaw citizen, but if they remove are not to be entitled to any portion of the Choctaw annuity; the Choctaw were the first of the "Five Civilized Tribes" to be removed from the southeastern United States, as the federal and state governments desired Indian lands to accommodate a growing agrarian American society.
In 1831, tens of thousands of Choctaw walked the 800-kilometer journey to Oklahoma and many died. Like the Creek, Cherokee and Seminole who followed them, the Choctaw attempted to resurrect their traditional lifestyle and government in their new homeland; the Choctaw at this crucial time became two distinct groups: the Nation in Oklahoma and the Tribe in Mississippi. The nation retained its autonomy to regulate itself, but the tribe left in Mississippi had to submit to state and U. S. laws. Under article XIV, in 1830 the Mississippi Choctaws became the first major non-European ethnic group to gain U. S. citizenship. The Choctaw sought to elect a representative to the U. S. House of Representatives; the preamble begins with, A treaty of perpetual, friendship and limits, entered into by John H. Eaton and John Coffee, for and in behalf of the Government of the United States, the Mingoes, Chiefs and Warriors of the Choctaw Nation and held at Dancing Rabbit Creek, on the fifteenth of September, in the year eighteen hundred and thirty...
The following terms of the treaty were: 1. Perpetual peace and friendship. 2. Lands west of the Mississippi River to be conveyed to the Choctaw Nation. 3. Lands east of the Mississippi River to be ceded and removal to begin in 1831 and end in 1833. 4. Autonomy of the Choctaw Nation and descendants to be secured from laws of U. S. territories forever. 5. U. S. will serve as protectorate of the Choctaw Nation. 6. Choctaw or party of Choctaws part of violent acts against the U. S. citizens or property will be delivered to the U. S. authorities. 7. Offenses against Choctaws and their property by U. S. citizens and other tribes will be examined and every possible degree of justice applied. 8. No harboring of U. S. fugitives with all expenses to capture him or her paid by the U. S. 9. Persons ordered from Choctaw Nation. 10. Traders require a written permit. 11. Nav
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States federal government's official list of districts, buildings and objects deemed worthy of preservation for their historical significance. A property listed in the National Register, or located within a National Register Historic District, may qualify for tax incentives derived from the total value of expenses incurred preserving the property; the passage of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966 established the National Register and the process for adding properties to it. Of the more than one million properties on the National Register, 80,000 are listed individually; the remainder are contributing resources within historic districts. For most of its history the National Register has been administered by the National Park Service, an agency within the United States Department of the Interior, its goals are to help property owners and interest groups, such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation, coordinate and protect historic sites in the United States.
While National Register listings are symbolic, their recognition of significance provides some financial incentive to owners of listed properties. Protection of the property is not guaranteed. During the nomination process, the property is evaluated in terms of the four criteria for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places; the application of those criteria has been the subject of criticism by academics of history and preservation, as well as the public and politicians. Historic sites outside the country proper, but associated with the United States are listed. Properties can be nominated in a variety of forms, including individual properties, historic districts, multiple property submissions; the Register categorizes general listings into one of five types of properties: district, structure, building, or object. National Register Historic Districts are defined geographical areas consisting of contributing and non-contributing properties; some properties are added automatically to the National Register when they become administered by the National Park Service.
These include National Historic Landmarks, National Historic Sites, National Historical Parks, National Military Parks, National Memorials, some National Monuments. On October 15, 1966, the Historic Preservation Act created the National Register of Historic Places and the corresponding State Historic Preservation Offices; the National Register consisted of the National Historic Landmarks designated before the Register's creation, as well as any other historic sites in the National Park system. Approval of the act, amended in 1980 and 1992, represented the first time the United States had a broad-based historic preservation policy; the 1966 act required those agencies to work in conjunction with the SHPO and an independent federal agency, the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, to confront adverse effects of federal activities on historic preservation. To administer the newly created National Register of Historic Places, the National Park Service of the U. S. Department of the Interior, with director George B.
Hartzog Jr. established an administrative division named the Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation. Hartzog charged OAHP with creating the National Register program mandated by the 1966 law. Ernest Connally was the Office's first director. Within OAHP new divisions were created to deal with the National Register; the division administered several existing programs, including the Historic Sites Survey and the Historic American Buildings Survey, as well as the new National Register and Historic Preservation Fund. The first official Keeper of the Register was an architectural historian. During the Register's earliest years in the late 1960s and early 1970s, organization was lax and SHPOs were small and underfunded. However, funds were still being supplied for the Historic Preservation Fund to provide matching grants-in-aid to listed property owners, first for house museums and institutional buildings, but for commercial structures as well. A few years in 1979, the NPS history programs affiliated with both the U.
S. National Parks system and the National Register were categorized formally into two "Assistant Directorates." Established were the Assistant Directorate for Archeology and Historic Preservation and the Assistant Directorate for Park Historic Preservation. From 1978 until 1981, the main agency for the National Register was the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service of the United States Department of the Interior. In February 1983, the two assistant directorates were merged to promote efficiency and recognize the interdependency of their programs. Jerry L. Rogers was selected to direct this newly merged associate directorate, he was described as a skilled administrator, sensitive to the need for the NPS to work with SHPOs, local governments. Although not described in detail in the 1966 act, SHPOs became integral to the process of listing properties on the National Register; the 1980 amendments of the 1966 law further defined the responsibilities of SHPOs concerning the National Register.
Several 1992 amendments of the NHPA added a category to the National Register, known as Traditional Cultural Properties: those properties associated with Native American or Hawaiian groups
The Great Spirit, known as Wakan Tanka among the Sioux, Gitche Manitou in Algonquian, in many Native American and First Nations cultures as the divine or the sacred, is the supreme being, God, or a conception of universal spiritual force. The Great Spirit has at times been conceptualized as an "anthropomorphic celestial deity," a God of creation and eternity, who takes a personal interest in world affairs and might intervene in the lives of human beings. There have been, may be, many different speakers for the Great Spirit, each of whom must be dedicated to the preservation of the Native American way of life; the Great Spirit, by way of the spiritual leaders, is looked to for spiritual and cultural guidance on both an individual and community level. Cultural variations among the different Native American Tribes who hold a belief in The Great Spirit have resulted in different stories about this being or these beings, as well as different types of messages being delivered by those seen as prophets or spiritual leaders in these cultures.
According to Lakota activist Russell Means, a better translation of Wakan Tanka is the Great Mystery. Two of the most well known prophets' prophecies took place in the early 1800s; the Shawnee Prophet occurred in 1824. Tenskwatawa, a religious and political leader of the Shawnee tribe, warned the Governor of Michigan, Lewis Cass, that the children of the Shawnees tribe would carry the "sacred flame"; this flame would end the world as it was between the Native Whites. Once the destruction was complete, the Great Spirit would restructure and repopulate the world in the way it was believed that it should be. Another well-known story happened in 1827 and involves William Clark and Kennekuk, a spiritual leader of the Kickapoo nation; this is known as the Kickapoo Prophet. Kennekuk informed Clark that he must be careful while exploring the land, now Illinois; this warning was. He proclaimed. Other popular prophets include The Red Sticks Prophet; the Great Spirit is portrayed in most North American Indigenous cultures as a powerful force that guides the people in wisdom and survival.
In the various Nations, The Great Spirit might be called Earthgrasper, Gisha Munetoa, Gitchi Manido, or "The Creator". An Algonquin legend speaks of a Delaware Indian called Eroneniera that travels to meet The Great Spirit. Upon meeting, The Great Spirit tells Eroneniera that he is the "Maker of Heaven and Earth…because I love you…the land on which you are, I have made for you"; the Great Spirit teaches him a prayer to share with his people that they should repeat it every morning and night. The stories of the Native American helped explain abstract ideas; the stories explained weather and land formations. Chief Mononcue, of the Ohio Wendat a nation of Christianized tribes, spoke to a group of white Methodists in the 1820s, he pointed out that the white men had been taught to do good. "The Great Spirit has taught you and us both one thing- that we should love one another and fear him. He has taught us by his Spirit and you white men by the Good Book, all one." Mononcue tells the gathered crowd that the white men say that they love the tribes but they give them whiskey and this causes evil and that the white man cheats the Indian and treats him as if he is less than the white man.
"Now, your Good Book forbids all this. Why not do what it tells you? Indians would do right too…. Now, let us all do right. According to a Chippewa legend a forest fire on the Wisconsin shoreline forced a mother bear and her two cubs into Lake Michigan; the cubs became tired and fell behind their mother and drowned within sight of the shoreline. The mother made it to the shore and climbed to the top of a dune to look for her cubs, but they were gone; the mother waited there for days in hopes. The Great Spirit was moved by the mother’s devotion and commitment to find her cubs and covered the mother in a blanket of sand so she would have a final resting place and be able to reunite with her cubs, it is said. The Great Spirit created two islands to mark the spot where the cubs had drowned; the two islands are known today as the South Manitou Islands. The Sleeping Bear Dunes are located on the northwest coast of the Lower Peninsula of Michigan in Leelanau county; the Great Spirit created man and woman and they "lived in happiness for a time, but as husbands and wives have done since, they soon began to quarrel".
The story explains that the wife leaves the husband and sets off walking toward "the setting sun". The Great Spirit sees that the man creates berries along her path; the Great Spirit creates strawberries and the woman stops to gather some and the man is able to catch up to her, she shares them with him and they return home together. The berries are named Odamin, meaning heart berry. Hail to the Sunrise Statue Manitou Monotheism Native American religion