The MG 3 is a subcompact car produced by the Chinese automotive giant SAIC. The first generation, marketed as the MG 3 SW, is based on the British made Rover Streetwise, which itself was based on the Rover 25, while the second generation, introduced in 2011 is marketed as the MG 3, it is the most popular Chinese manufactured car on sale in the United Kingdom. The first generation MG 3 SW is a rebadged version of the Rover Streetwise, which had ceased production in April 2005, after the bankruptcy of predecessor organisation MG Rover, it started production at SAIC's Chinese factory in Pukou, Nanjing. The MG 3 SW is only on sale in the Chinese market, cannot be exported by SAIC; the new MG 3 was showcased in the form of the MG Zero concept car. The new model uses an all new automotive platform with a wheelbase of 2.5 m, featuring MacPherson strut front suspension and a torsion beam rear axle. The development work took place in the United Kingdom, with production in China; the car went on sale in China in the spring of 2011.
Engine options at launch consist of a choice of 1.3 and 1.5 litre, rated at 68 kW and 80 kW with either a five speed manual transmission, or an Italian AMT transmission called e shift. The MG3 supermini has a low insurance, over a million personalisation options. In Thailand, MG3 and Xross were launched 18 March 2015, it has lower price than other cars in same segment, but equipped with more features, such as Moonroof and ESP. The second generation MG 3 is available in a crossover style variant, known as the MG 3 Xross; the Xross is only available with the 80 kW 1.5 litre engine. A facelifted version of the MG 3, with a revised front design, was announced in the spring of 2013, with sales in the United Kingdom commencing in September 2013, but only with the 1.5 litre 105 hp engine option. It was claimed that it would be built for Europe at the Longbridge plant in Birmingham alongside the larger MG6; the MG 3 was assembled there from 2014 until 2016. For 2016, the MG3 received several upgrades to improve the refinement of the MG3.
The main upgrade is the installation of an EU 6 derivative of the standard 1.5 litre engine, developed by SAIC Motor UK. A stop start was fitted. There was an addition of two-tone colour schemes on the red and yellow MG3's which can be equipped with either a black or white roof, similar to the Audi A1; the MG 3 is only available with a 1.5L Engine, which has received an EU 6 upgrade to reduce emissions, the addition of stop start. The MG 3 was revised in 2018 with a facelift to a new interior; the interior redesign now includes space for an eight inch touchscreen unit, fitted as standard to some models. The 1.5 litre engine received minor modifications to bring it up to EU 6D standards, now rated at 140g/km for CO2 emissions. Chinese models are available with a more powerful 1.5 litre engine option mated to a four speed automatic gearbox. The MG3 has featured in a series of advertisements for the popular supermarket Tienda Inglesa, where a protagonist is chased across a supermarket by a policeman to the theme tune of The Benny Hill Show, before driving away in a blue MG3 with a roof featuring the Union Jack.
SAIC Motor Corporation Limited is a Chinese state-owned automotive design and manufacturing company headquartered in Shanghai, with multinational operations. A Fortune Global 100 company and one of the "Big Four" state-owned Chinese automakers, the company had the largest production volume of any Chinese automaker in 2014 making more than 4.5 million vehicles. Its manufacturing mix is not wholly consumer offerings, with as many as one million SAIC passenger vehicles being commercial vans. SAIC traces its origins to the early years of the Chinese automobile industry in the 1940s, SAIC was one of the few carmakers in Mao's China, making the Shanghai SH760, it participates in the oldest surviving sino-foreign car making joint venture, with Volkswagen, in addition has had a joint venture and 40% shares of General Motors since 1998. SAIC products sell under a variety including those of its joint venture partners. Two notable brands owned by SAIC itself are MG, a historic British car marque, Roewe, one of the few domestic Chinese luxury car brands.
Although it has a long history, originating from an automobile assembly factory established in Shanghai sometime around World War II, SAIC, unlike domestic rivals FAW Group and Dongfeng Motors, has only attained a position of prominence in the Chinese vehicle industry. A small company in the 1970s, SAIC owes its rise to more than an increase in domestic demand for passenger vehicles. A cooperative agreement made with Volkswagen in 1984 followed by the formal establishment of Shanghai Volkswagen Automotive Co Ltd in March 1985 allowed it to produce competitive cars with foreign technology. Early success at SAIC may be a result of guidance provided by local Shanghai authorities. For these two reasons and more, SAIC grew swiftly. In the 11 years leading to 1996, annual production capacity increased ten-fold to 300,000 units/year, the company established itself as one of the leading Chinese automakers. During this period, SAIC built an entire modern automotive component supply chain in Shanghai from scratch, the number and quality of locally produced auto parts rose significantly.
Cars that were assembled in China from knock-down kits provisioned by Volkswagen became products built from parts produced in Shanghai, between 1990 and 1996 the city more than doubled its contribution to the national output of automotive components. In 1987, the only local parts used in one car, the Volkswagen Santana, were tires and antenna, but by 1998 over 90% of the components used in its manufacture were locally sourced. A goal set by the Shanghai Municipal government, creation of a local parts industry is an example of the influence that the local government has had on the development of SAIC. In June 1997, SAIC formed a second major joint venture, Shanghai General Motors Co Ltd, with General Motors; the new joint venture began operations in 1998, helped to drive a doubling in SAIC's vehicle production between 2000 and 2004. Partnering with foreign automakers, creating joint ventures with component suppliers, such as the American Visteon, may now help underpin SAIC success. At the start of the 2000s, SAIC made several acquisitions in Korea.
In 2002 it participated in GM's purchase of Korean automaker Daewoo, acquiring a 10% stake in the newly formed GM Daewoo company for US$59.7 million, in 2004 it assumed control of an ailing South Korean automaker, SsangYong Motor, paying US$500 million for 48.9% ownership of the company. Around this time SAIC created a new holding company for its subsidiaries employed in passenger car production, Shanghai Automotive Group. In the middle of the decade, SAIC attempted to acquire the British automaker MG Rover, but in 2005 was outbid by another Chinese automaker, Nanjing Automobile. SAIC did manage to obtain some MG Rover technology, incorporated into a new line of luxury sedans sold under the Roewe marque, it subsequently purchased the winning bidder. While the company saw sales success in the late 2000s, with 2.72 million vehicles sold in 2009, its 2004 purchase of an ownership stake in a Korean SUV-maker, soured. In January 2009, after an additional US$45 million was provided to it by SAIC, SsangYong Motor Company was placed into receivership in Korea.
Courts might have mandated SAIC reduce its ownership, by 2010 a 51.33% share of the Korean company had become a 10% one. The 2009 Ssangyong failure saw riot police quell protesting Ssangyong workers who staged a 77-day-long sit in. SAIC may have benefitted from exposure to some technology from Mercedes that Ssangyong controlled during this time. In 2010, SAIC produced 3.58 million units, the largest output of any China-based automaker that year. In February 2011, SAIC unveiled Maxus. On 13 April 2011, mass production resumed at the MG Motor UK Longbridge plant as the first MG 6 to be produced in the United Kingdom came off the production line; this plant is little more than a CKD factory on a par with similar setups in Africa and other developing nations. In 2011, SAIC produced 3.97 million vehicles, the largest output of any China-based automaker that year. In June 2012, SAIC's United States-based subsidiary Shanghai Automotive Industries Corp USA, Inc. opened a new North American Operations Center in Birmingham, Michigan.
The opening ceremony was attended by the Governor of Michigan Rick Snyder, Oakland County Executive L. Brooks Patterson, senior executives from General Motors and SAIC Motor; the 30,000-square-foot, three-story facility will house nearly 100 staff and focus on sourcing componen
People's Liberation Army
The Chinese People's Liberation Army is the armed forces of the People's Republic of China and its founding and ruling political party, the Communist Party of China. The PLA consists of five professional service branches: the Ground Force, Air Force, Rocket Force, the Strategic Support Force. Units around the country are assigned to one of five theater commands by geographical location; the PLA is the world's largest military force and constitutes the second largest defence budget in the world. It is one of the fastest modernising military powers in the world and has been termed as a potential military superpower, with significant regional defense and rising global power projection capabilities. China is the third largest arms exporter in the world; the PLA is under the command of the Central Military Commission of the CPC. It is obliged to follow the principle of civilian control of the military, although in practical terms this principle has been implemented in such a way as to ensure the PLA is under the absolute control of the Communist Party.
Its commander in chief is the Chairman of the Central Military Commission. The Ministry of National Defense, which operates under the State Council, does not exercise any authority over the PLA and is far less powerful than the CMC. Military service is compulsory by law. In times of national emergency, the People's Armed Police and the People's Liberation Army militia act as a reserve and support element for the PLAGF. Former CMC chairman Hu Jintao had defined the missions of the PLA as: To consolidate the ruling status of the Communist Party To ensure China's sovereignty, territorial integrity, domestic security to continue national development To safeguard China's national interests To help maintain world peace The People's Liberation Army was founded on 1 August 1927 during the Nanchang uprising when troops of the Kuomintang rebelled under the leadership of Zhu De, He Long, Ye Jianying and Zhou Enlai after the massacre of the Communists by Chiang Kai-shek, they were known as the Chinese Workers' and Peasants' Red Army, or the Red Army.
Between 1934 and 1935, the Red Army survived several campaigns led against it by Chiang Kai-Shek and engaged in the Long March. During the Second Sino-Japanese War from 1937 to 1945, the Communist military forces were nominally integrated into the National Revolutionary Army of the Republic of China forming two main units known as the Eighth Route Army and the New Fourth Army. During this time, these two military groups employed guerrilla tactics avoiding large-scale battles with the Japanese with some exceptions while at the same time consolidating their ground by absorbing nationalist troops and paramilitary forces behind Japanese lines into their forces. After the Japanese surrendered in 1945, the Communist Party merged the Eighth Route Army and New Fourth Army, renaming the new million-strong force the "People's Liberation Army", they won the Chinese Civil War, establishing the People's Republic of China in 1949. The PLA saw a huge reorganisation with the establishment of the Air Force leadership structure in November 1949 followed by the Navy leadership the following April.
In 1950, the leadership structures of the artillery, armoured troops, air defence troops, public security forces, worker–soldier militias were established. The chemical warfare defence forces, the railroad forces, the communications forces, the strategic forces, as well as other separate forces, were established on, all these depended on the leadership of the Communist Party and the National People's Congress via the Central Military Commission. During the 1950s, the PLA with Soviet assistance began to transform itself from a peasant army into a modern one. Part of this process was the reorganisation that created thirteen military regions in 1955; the PLA contained many former National Revolutionary Army units and generals who had defected to the PLA. Ma Hongbin and his son Ma Dunjing were the only two Muslim generals who led a Muslim unit, the 81st corps, to serve in the PLA. Han Youwen, a Salar Muslim general defected to the PLA. In November 1950, some units of the PLA under the name of the People's Volunteer Army intervened in the Korean War as United Nations forces under General Douglas MacArthur approached the Yalu River.
Under the weight of this offensive, Chinese forces drove MacArthur's forces out of North Korea and captured Seoul, but were subsequently pushed back south of Pyongyang north of the 38th Parallel. The war served as a catalyst for the rapid modernization of the PLAAF. In 1962, the PLA ground force fought India in the Sino-Indian War, achieving all objectives. Prior to the Cultural Revolution, military region commanders tended to remain in their posts for long periods of time; as the PLA took a stronger role in politics, this began to be seen as somewhat of a threat to the party's control of the military. The longest-serving military region commanders were Xu Shiyou in the Nanjing Military Region, Yang Dezhi in the Jinan Military Region, Chen Xilian in the Shenyang Military Region, Han Xianchu in the Fuzhou Military Region; the establishment of a professional military force equipped with modern weapons and doctrine was the last of the Four Modernizations announced by Zhou Enlai and supported by Deng Xiaoping.
In keeping with Deng's mandate to reform, the PLA has demobilized millions o
The Rover 75 is an executive car, produced by British car manufacturers Rover Group and by MG Rover, under the Rover marque. The Rover 75 was available with front-wheel drive in either a saloon or estate body style and latterly, in long-wheelbase form and a rear-wheel drive, V8-engined specification. In 2001, an MG-branded version was launched by MG Rover, called the MG ZT. Rover 75s were built by the Rover Group at Cowley, for just a year. After owner BMW divested its interests in Rover, the 75 was built by the new MG Rover Group at their Longbridge site in Birmingham; the Rover 75 was unveiled to the public at the 1998 Birmingham Motor Show, with deliveries commencing in February 1999. Production of the Rover and MG badged models ceased on 8 April 2005 when manufacturer MG Rover Group entered administration; the 75 was well received and it is considered to be one of the Rover brand's best models. The Rover 75 started life as part of a group of three new designs for the company under the guidance of Richard Woolley.
Of these only the 75 concept progressed. The initial aim was to re-skin the Rover 600 but following the BMW takeover in 1994, it was decided that this platform would not be re-used but replaced by an new model, scheduled for launch in the late 1990s. Work on the new model, codenamed R40, progressed well with little operational interference from BMW. Revolutionary new design processes were adopted, including the 3D virtual reality assembly simulation "ebuild" techniques, ensuring the car would achieve class leading build quality when series production started; the Rover 75 was first shown to the public at the Birmingham Motor Show on 20 October 1998. Although a number of early production models were registered over the next four months while the S-prefix registration plates were still in force, it did not go on sale until 17 June 1999, it had been extensively tested and applauded by the motoring press. Under the lauded styling was a range of diesel engines from 1.8 - to 2.5-litre sizes. Petrol engines provided were Rover's 4-cylinder K series in 1.8-litre guise and the quad cam KV6, offered in either short-stroke 2.0 or revised 2.5-litre formats.
The 2.0-litre was dropped on introduction of the 1.8-litre turbo for emissions purposes. Transmissions on all models were either the Getrag 283 5-speed manual, supplied from the company's new facility in Bari, Italy, or the JATCO 5-speed automatic unit—one of the first transverse engine deployments made with this feature. Braking was in the form of all-round discs, complemented with a Bosch 5.7 4-channel ABS system and electronic brake force distribution. The parking brake was a cable operated drum integral within the rear discs. Suspension was a MacPherson strut arrangement at the front, anchored by lower alloy L-arms; the wide spacing of the mounting points, compliant bushings and a perimeter subframe gave the model a cushioned yet precise ride with relaxed handling that could be tuned for different markets or model derivatives such as the MG ZT. The rear suspension, after a period of uncertainty during development, was a version of BMW's Z-Axle arrangement first featured on the 1988 Z1 sports car.
At the time of the launch there had been speculation within the media that the Rover 75 used the BMW 5 Series platform due to the overall size of the model, the apparent presence of a transmission tunnel and the use of the parent company's rear suspension system. This was in fact not the case: Rover engineers had used the concept of incorporating a central tunnel, explored by BMW as part of their own research into front-wheel-drive chassis design, which would have been a departure from the BMW tradition of rear-wheel drive on the majority of its models; as the 75 took shape, this core engineering was passed over to Rover and evolved into the Rover 75 structure. The tunnel concept, along with the rear suspension system, was used by the Rover engineers for the design of the Mini. At launch the Rover 75 attracted praise for its styling and design integrity; some critics of the car labelled its styling too "retro", suggesting it had been designed with an older buyer in mind, was not sporting enough when compared to the competition.
However, the 75 won a series of international awards including various "most beautiful car" awards, including one in Italy. Assembly took place at Cowley but in 2000, following the sale of the company by BMW to Phoenix Venture Holdings, production was moved to Longbridge in Birmingham, England. 2001 saw the introduction of the Rover 75 Tourer, swiftly followed by the MG ZT and MG ZT-T, more sporting interpretations of the model, differentiated by modified, sporting chassis settings and colour and trim derivatives. Between 2000 and 2003, there were few changes to the range: the most significant was the replacement of the 2-litre V6 engine by a low-pressure-turbocharged version of the 1.8-litre 4-cylinder engine. The introduction of the'greener' 1.8-litre turbo benefited British company car drivers who are taxed on carbon dioxide emissions. A customisation programme, was launched, allowing buyers to order their car in a wider range of exterior paint colours and finishes, different interior trims and with optional extras installed during production.
Rather it was offered for sale in Mexico, making it the first Rover to be sold in the Americas since the Sterling. From June 2002 a factor
IVECO S.p. A. an acronym for Industrial Vehicles Corporation, is an Italian industrial vehicle manufacturing company based in Turin and controlled by CNH Industrial Group. It designs and builds light and heavy commercial vehicles, quarry/construction site vehicles and intercity buses and special vehicles for applications such as firefighting, off-road missions, the military and civil defence; the name Iveco first appeared in 1975 after a merger of Italian and German brands. Its production plants are in Europe, Russia, Africa and China, it has 5,000 points of sales and service in over 160 countries; the worldwide output of the company amounts to around 150,000 commercial vehicles with a turnover of about €10,000,000,000. Iveco was incorporated on January 1, 1975, with the merger of five different brands: Fiat Veicoli Industriali, OM, Lancia Veicoli Speciali and Magirus-Deutz. Following the merger, the newly founded Iveco began rationalizing its product range, manufacturing plants and sales network, while keeping the original brands.
From 1975 to 1979, the Iveco range included 200 basic models and 600 versions spanning from 2.7 tons of GVW for a light vehicle to over 40 tons for heavy vehicles, as well as buses and engines. In 1977 the light to medium-weight Iveco Zeta range was introduced, replacing the twenty-year-old OM Lupetto. Integrating the Fiat-OM range with the Unic and Magirus lineups was completed by 1980. Iveco moved in to work on increasing engine development. In 1978 Iveco launched the first product in the range of the Daily. In 1980 Iveco built the first turbo diesel engine for heavy industrial vehicles. In this decade the corporate strategy was oriented towards brand promotion and led to the sponsorship of sports events, such as the 1980 Olympic Games in Moscow, the Davis Cup in 1982, multiple championship boxing matches, the Jacques Cousteau expeditions in the Amazon basin in 1983 and the Raid Pigafetta, during which the Iveco-Fiat 75 PC 4x4 was first to make a full circle of the globe. Two new divisions were formed: bus diesel engines and firefighting vehicles.
In 1984 Iveco launched the TurboStar, a heavy on-road vehicle that became a best-seller in Italy and an important player in the European market, selling a total of 50,000 in seven years. In 1985 Iveco made the first light diesel engine with direct injection. From 1986, Iveco S.p. A. held a 52% stake in Iveco Ford Truck Ltd, a joint venture with Ford of Europe's truck division. Ford plants took over production and sales of the major vehicles in the Iveco range and continued production of the Ford Cargo. In the mid-1980s, which produces dumpers and construction site/quarry vehicles in Piacenza, became part of Iveco Group. In 1989 the first diesel engine with EGR to reduce polluting emissions compatible with commercial vehicles was produced and the new Daily launched that same year was fitted with it. In 1990, the group purchased 60% control of the Spanish industrial company ENASA, which owned the industrial vehicle builder Pegaso. In the 1990s, the EuroCargo, EuroTech, EuroTrakker and EuroStar vehicles represented a total facelift for the range.
The EuroCargo and the EuroTech were named "Truck of the Year" in 1992 and 1993 and, for the first time, this recognition was awarded to the same manufacturer for two years in a row. The English company Seddon Atkinson was purchased in 1991 and brought its long heritage of special vehicles for the construction and refuse collection industries; that same year, the first TurboDaily assembly line was inaugurated at the Nanjing Motor Corporation in China. In 1992, Iveco took over the primary constructor of industrial vehicles in Australia to form Ital called International Trucks Australia. In 2000 it was renamed Iveco Trucks Australia Limited. In 1996 firefighting activities in Germany were structured under the company Iveco Magirus Brandschutztechnik GmbH; the following year, these activities were boosted by the arrival of an Austrian company, Löhr, which became Löhr Magirus. In 1998 Cursor 8 was launched, followed the next year by Cursor 10, the first diesel engine with a variable geometry turbine and the first common rail diesel engine for heavy industrial vehicles.
The 125th anniversary of the presentation of the first Magirus ladder was celebrated together with the delivery of the five-thousandth Magirus aerial ladder produced since the Second World War. In 2003 Iveco bought out Irisbus part of a joint venture with Renault. In 2004 the Iveco Motors brand was born, which became an umbrella for the production of engines, the following year it was incorporated into the newly founded Fiat Powertrain Technologies. At the end of 2004, an agreement was reached between the Chinese company Saic. In 2006 Iveco sponsored the Winter Olympic Games in Turin with a fleet of 1,200 Iveco Irisbus buses; the year after, Iveco became sponsor of the New Zealand's rugby team. In 2009 Iveco became the trucks and commercial Vehicle supplier for the Moto GP, together with the historical sponsorship to the Ferrari Racing Team, for which it supplies the vehicles that transport the single-seaters at all the Formula 1 World Championship races. On January 1, 2011, Fiat Industrial was formed, incorporating Iveco and FPT Industrial.
In September of the same year, the Fiat Industrial Village was inaugurated in Turin, a multipurpose centre belonging to Fiat Industrial and created for the sales and product presentation for the Iveco, New Holland and FPT Industrial brands. On January 15, 2012, Iveco won the 33rd edition of the Dakar
The Honda Domani is a car made by Honda and marketed in east Asia, including Japan. The car was mutually developed during Rover's collaboration with Honda, it was introduced in November 1992, replacing the Concerto in Honda's lineup, although that model lasted until 1995 in Europe. The Domani was another example of Honda taking one product and selling multiple versions at different dealership sales channels in Japan, called Honda Clio for the more upscale Domani, Honda Integra SJ at Honda Verno locations from 1996 to 2000, while Honda Primo sold the mechanically identical but aesthetically different Japanese: Civic Ferio, along with the Civic three and five door hatchbacks. "Domani" is Italian for "tomorrow". It is mechanically identical to the early 1990s version of the Honda Civic and production ended in September 2000; the Domani saloon had 1.5 and 1.8 engines at first a 1.6i petrol engine onwards from 1993. Trim levels were DX, LX and EX. In Japan, it was offered as a four door sedan only.
In Europe, five door hatchback and wagon variants were available, replacing the Concerto sedan and five door hatchback. The United Kingdom received two VTi trims of the Domani, chassis codes MB6 and MC2 with the 1.8l DOHC VTEC B18C4. The Japanese version was available with Honda's Real Time Four Wheel Drive System borrowed from the Honda CR-V; the Honda Domani has a close relative in the saloon of the Rover 400, with which it shared all its main components. Renamed the Rover 45 when facelifted in the end of 1999, it was sold as the MG ZS from August 2001; the Rover/MG variant was produced until Rover went into administration in April 2005, by which time the design was thirteen years old. In Japan, the Domani was rebadged as the Isuzu Gemini. A Canadian market version of the second generation Domani was built alongside the Civic in Alliston, called the Acura 1.7 EL. This car was exported back to Japan and Taiwan as the Honda Domani. In Japan, the Domani was replaced by the Honda Fit Aria as the compact sedan at Honda Clio dealerships for model year 2002.
Honda Domani Manual
Isuzu Motors Ltd. trading as Isuzu, is a Japanese commercial vehicle and diesel engine manufacturing company headquartered in Tokyo. Its principal activity is the production and sale of Isuzu commercial vehicles and diesel engines, it has a number of subsidiaries, including Anadolu Isuzu, Sollers-Isuzu, SML Isuzu, Jiangxi Isuzu Motors, Isuzu Astra Motor Indonesia, Isuzu Malaysia, Isuzu UK, Isuzu South Africa, Isuzu Philippines, Taiwan Isuzu Motors, Isuzu Vietnam, Isuzu Motors India and BYD Isuzu. Isuzu has assembly and manufacturing plants in Fujisawa, as well as in the Tochigi and Hokkaidō prefectures. Isuzu-branded vehicles are sold in most commercial markets worldwide. Isuzu's primary market focus is on commercial diesel-powered truck and construction, while their Japanese competitor Yanmar focuses on commercial-level powerplants and generators. By 2009, Isuzu had produced over 21 million diesel engines, which can be found in vehicles all over the world. Isuzu diesel engines are used by dozens of vehicle manufacturers, including General MotorsThe name Isuzu translates into English as "fifty bells".
Isuzu Motors' history began in 1916, when Tokyo Ishikawajima Shipbuilding and Engineering Co. Ltd. planned a cooperation with the Tokyo Gas and Electric Industrial Co. to build automobiles. The next step was taken in 1918, when a technical cooperation with Wolseley Motors Limited was initiated, yielding exclusive rights to the production and sales of Wolseley vehicles in East Asia. In 1922 came the first Japan-produced passenger car, a Wolseley model, the A9; the CP truck followed two years later. In 1933, Ishikawajima Automotive Works merged with DAT Automobile Manufacturing Inc. and changed its name to Automobile Industries Co. Ltd; the products of this company, marketed as "Sumiya" and "Chiyoda", were renamed Isuzu in 1934, following a meeting with the Japanese Government's Ministry of Trade and Industry. The word Isuzu translated into English means "fifty bells"—hence the focus on "bell" in both the Bellel and the Bellett. In 1937 Automobile Industries was reorganized and formed into a new company, Tokyo Automobile Industries Co. Ltd.
It was founded with a capital of ¥1,000,000. Only in 1949 was Isuzu adopted as the company name. Meanwhile, in 1942, Hino Heavy Industries was split off from Isuzu. Truck production began anew with the permission of the occupation authorities. Beginning in 1953 the Hillman Minx passenger car is produced under license of Rootes Group; the Minx remained in production until 1962, after the 1961 introduction of Isuzu's first own car, the Bellel. Being a small producer making cars which were somewhat too large and pricey for the Japanese market at the time, Isuzu spent some time looking for a commercial partner. Under pressure from MITI, who were attempting to limit the number of automobile manufacturers in Japan, a cooperation with Fuji Heavy Industries began in 1966; this joint sales-service collaboration was seen as the first step towards an eventual merger. The Subaru 1000 was shown in Isuzu's 1967 annual vehicle brochure, as a suitable complement to the larger Isuzu lineup; this tie-up was over by 1968.
This ended more by 1969, the next year an short-lived collaboration was entered with Nissan. A few months in September 1971, what was to prove a more durable capital agreement was signed with General Motors; the first result of GM taking a 34% stake in Isuzu was seen in 1972, when the Chevrolet LUV became the first Isuzu-built vehicle to be sold in the United States. To symbolize the new beginning, Isuzu developed a new logo for 1974, with two vertical pillars as stylized representations of the first syllable in いすゞ. In 1974 Isuzu introduced the Gemini, co-produced with General Motors as the T-car, it was sold in the United States as Buick's Opel by Isuzu, in Australia as the Holden Gemini. As a result of the collaboration, certain American GM products were sold to Japanese customers through Isuzu dealerships. Holden's Statesman was briefly sold with Isuzu badging in Japan during the seventies. Isuzu exports increased as a result of being able to use GM networks, from 0.7% of production in 1973 to 35.2% by 1976.
As a result of the GM joint venture, Isuzu engines were used by existing GM divisions. In 1981 Isuzu began selling consumer and commercial vehicles under their own brand in the United States; the Isuzu P'Up was the first model sold to consumers as an Isuzu, rather than as a Chevrolet or Buick. Isuzu's president Toshio Okamoto initiated a collaboration with small-car expert Suzuki to develop a global small car for GM, the S-car. A three-way agreement of co-ownership was signed in August 1981, with Isuzu and Suzuki exchanging shares and General Motors taking a 5% share of Suzuki. Following on from this, in 1985 Isuzu and GM established the IBC Vehicles venture in the United Kingdom, producing locally built versions of Isuzu and Suzuki light vans. During this pe