All-India Muslim League
The All-India Muslim League was a political party established in 1906 in the British Indian Empire. Its strong advocacy for the establishment of a separate Muslim-majority nation-state, Pakistan led to the partition of British India in 1947 by the British Empire; the party arose out of a literary movement begun at The Aligarh Muslim University in which Syed Ahmad Khan was a central figure. It remained an elitist organisation until 1937 when the leadership began mobilising the Muslim masses and the league became a popular organisation. In the 1930s, the idea of a separate nation-state and influential philosopher Sir Muhammad Iqbal's vision of uniting the four provinces in North-West British India further supported the rationale of the two-nation theory. With global events leading up to World War II and the Congress party's effective protest against the United Kingdom unilaterally involving India in the war without consulting the Indian people, the Muslim League went on to support the British war efforts.
The Muslim League played a decisive role in the 1940s, becoming a driving force behind the division of India along religious lines and the creation of Pakistan as a Muslim state in 1947. After the partition and subsequent establishment of Pakistan, the Muslim League continued as a minor party in India where it was part of the government. In Bangladesh, the Muslim League was revived in 1976 but it was reduced in size, rendering it insignificant in the political arena. In India, the Indian Union Muslim League and in Pakistan the Pakistan Muslim League became the original successors of the All-India Muslim League. Despite efforts by the pioneers of the Congress to attract Muslims to their sessions the majority of the Muslim leadership, such as Sir Syed Ahmed Khan and Syed Ameer Ali, rejected the notion that India's "two distinct communities" could be represented by the Congress. In 1886, Sir Syed founded the Muhammadan Educational Conference, but a self-imposed ban prevented it from discussing politics.
Its original goal was to advocate for British education science and literature, among India's Muslims. The conference, in addition to generating funds for Sir Syed's Aligarh Muslim University, motivated the Muslim upper class to propose an expansion of educational uplift elsewhere, known as the Aligarh Movement. In turn, this new awareness of Muslim needs helped stimulate a political consciousness among Muslim elites, who went on to form the All-India Muslim League; the formation of a Muslim political party on the national level was seen as essential by 1901. The first stage of its formation was the meeting held at Lucknow in September 1906, with the participation of representatives from all over India; the decision for re-consideration to form the all-Indian Muslim political party was taken and further proceedings were adjourned until the next meeting of the All India Muhammadan Educational Conference. The Simla Deputation reconsidered the issue in October 1906 and decided to frame the objectives of the party on the occasion of the annual meeting of the Educational Conference, scheduled to be held in Dhaka.
Meanwhile, Nawab Salimullah Khan published a detailed scheme through which he suggested the party to be named All-India Muslim Confederacy. Pursuant upon the decisions taken earlier at the Lucknow meeting and in Simla, the annual meeting of the All-India Muhammadan Educational Conference was held in Dhaka from 27 December until 30 December 1906. Three thousand delegates attended, headed by both Nawab Waqar-ul-Mulk and Nawab Muhasan-ul-Mulk, in which they explained its objectives and stressed the unity of Muslims under the banner of an association, it was formally proposed by Nawab Salimullah Khan and supported by Hakim Ajmal Khan, Maulana Muhammad Ali Jauhar, Zafar Ali Khan, Syed Nabiullah, a barrister from Lucknow, Syed Zahur Ahmad, an eminent lawyer, as well as several others. The Muslim League's insistence on separate electorates and reserved seats in the Imperial Council were granted in the Indian Councils Act after the League held protests in India and lobbied London; the draft proposals for the reforms communicated on 1 October 1908 provided Muslims with reserved seats in all councils, with nomination only being maintained in Punjab.
The communication displayed how much the Government had accommodated Muslim demands and showed an increase in Muslim representation in the Imperial and provincial legislatures. But the Muslim League's demands were only met in UP and Madras. However, the Government did accept the idea of separate electorates; the idea had not been accepted by the Secretary of State, who proposed mixed electoral colleges, causing the Muslim League to agitate and the Muslim press to protest what they perceived to be a betrayal of the Viceroy's assurance to the Simla deputation. On 23 February Morley told the House of Lords that Muslims demanded separate representation and accepted them; this was the League's first victory. But the Indian Councils Bill did not satisfy the demands of the Muslim League, it was based on the October 1908 communique. The Muslim League's London branch opposed the bill and in a debate obtained the support of several parliamentarians. In 1909 the members of the Muslim League organised a Muslim protest.
The Reforms Committee of Minto's council believed that Muslims had a point and advised Minto to discuss with some Muslim leaders. The Government offered a few more seats to Muslims in compromise but would not agree to satisfy the League's demand. Minto believed that the Muslims had been given enough while Morley was still not certain because of the pressure Muslims could apply on the government; the Muslim League's central committee once ag
India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle
Muslims are people who follow or practice Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion. Muslims consider the Quran, their holy book, to be the verbatim word of God as revealed to the Islamic prophet and messenger Muhammad; the majority of Muslims follow the teachings and practices of Muhammad as recorded in traditional accounts. "Muslim" is an Arabic word meaning "submitter". The largest denomination of Islam are Sunni Muslims who constitute 85-90% of the total Muslim population, followed by the Shia who make up most of the remainder of Muslims; the beliefs of Muslims include: that God is eternal and one. The religious practices of Muslims are enumerated in the Five Pillars of Islam: the declaration of faith, daily prayers, fasting during the month of Ramadan and the pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in a lifetime. To become a Muslim and to convert to Islam, it is essential to utter the Shahada, one of the Five Pillars of Islam, a declaration of faith and trust that professes that there is only one God and that Muhammad is God's messenger.
It is a set statement recited in Arabic: lā ʾilāha ʾillā-llāhu muḥammadun rasūlu-llāh "There is no god but Allah, Muhammad is the messenger of God."In Sunni Islam, the shahada has two parts: la ilaha illa'llah, Muhammadun rasul Allah, which are sometimes referred to as the first shahada and the second shahada. The first statement of the shahada is known as the tahlīl. In Shia Islam, the shahada has a third part, a phrase concerning Ali, the first Shia Imam and the fourth Rashid caliph of Sunni Islam: وعليٌ وليُّ الله, which translates to "Ali is the wali of God; the word muslim is the active participle of the same verb of which islām is a verbal noun, based on the triliteral S-L-M "to be whole, intact". A female adherent is a muslima; the plural form in Arabic is muslimūn or muslimīn, its feminine equivalent is muslimāt. The ordinary word in English is "Muslim", it is sometimes transliterated as "Moslem", an older spelling. The word Mosalman is a common equivalent for Muslim used in South Asia.
Until at least the mid-1960s, many English-language writers used the term Mahometans. Although such terms were not intended to be pejorative, Muslims argue that the terms are offensive because they imply that Muslims worship Muhammad rather than God. Other obsolete terms include Muslimist. Musulmán/Mosalmán is modified from Arabic, it is the origin of the Spanish word musulmán, the German Muselmann, the French word musulman, the Polish words muzułmanin and muzułmański, the Portuguese word muçulmano, the Italian word mussulmano or musulmano, the Romanian word musulman and the Greek word μουσουλμάνος. In English it has become archaic in usage. Apart from Persian, Polish, Portuguese and Greek, the term could be found, with obvious local differences, in Armenian, Pashto, Hindi, Marathi, Turkish, Uzbek, Azeri, Hungarian, Bosnian, Russian, Ukrainian, Romanian and Sanskrit; the Muslim philosopher Ibn Arabi said: A Muslim is a person who has dedicated his worship to God... Islam means making one's religion and faith God's alone.
The Qur'an describes many prophets and messengers within Judaism and Christianity, their respective followers, as Muslim: Adam, Abraham, Jacob and Jesus and his apostles are all considered to be Muslims in the Qur'an. The Qur'an states that these men were Muslims because they submitted to God, preached His message and upheld His values, which included praying, charity and pilgrimage. Thus, in Surah 3:52 of the Qur'an, Jesus' disciples tell him, "We believe in God. In Muslim belief, before the Qur'an, God had given the Tawrat to Moses, the Zabur to David and the Injil to Jesus, who are all considered important Muslim prophets; the most populous Muslim-majority country is Indonesia, home to 12.7% of the world's Muslims, followed by Pakistan and Egypt. About 20 % of the world's Muslims lives in the Middle North Africa. Sizable minorities are found in India, Russia, the Americas and parts of Europe; the country with the highest proportion of self-described Muslims as a proportion of its total population is Morocco.
Converts and immigrant communities are found in every part of the world. Over 75–90% of Muslims are Sunni; the second and third largest sects and Ahmadiyya, make up 10–20%, 1% respectively. With about 1.8 billion followers a quarter of earth's population, Islam is the second-largest and the fastest-growing religion in the world. Due to the young age and high fertilit
Sikhs are people associated with Sikhism, a monotheistic religion that originated in the 15th century, in the Punjab region in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, based on the revelation of Guru Nanak. The term "Sikh" has its origin in the Sanskrit words शिष्य, meaning a student. A Sikh, according to Article I of the Sikh Rehat Maryada, is "any human being who faithfully believes in One Immortal Being; the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent has been the historic homeland of the Sikhs, was ruled by the Sikhs for significant parts of the 18th and 19th centuries. Today, the Punjab state in northwest India has a majority Sikh population, sizeable communities of Sikhs exist around the world. Many countries, such as the United Kingdom, recognize Sikhs as a designated religion on their censuses; the American non-profit organization United Sikhs has sought to have Sikh included on the U. S. census as an ethnicity, arguing that Sikhs "self-identify as an'ethnic minority'" and believe "that they are more than just a religion".
Male Sikhs have "Singh" as their middle or last name, female Sikhs have "Kaur" as their middle or last name. Sikhs who have undergone the Khanḍe-kī-Pahul may be recognized by the five Ks: Kesh, uncut hair, kept covered by a turban. Guru Nanak, founder of Sikhism, was born to Mehta Kalu and Mata Tripta, in the village of Talwandi, now called Nankana Sahib, near Lahore. Guru Nanak was social reformer. However, Sikh political history may be said to begin with the death of the fifth Sikh guru, Guru Arjan Dev, in 1606. Religious practices were formalised by Guru Gobind Singh on 30 March 1699. Gobind Singh initiated five people from a variety of social backgrounds, known as the Panj Piare to form the Khalsa, or collective body of initiated Sikhs. During the period of Mughal rule in India several Sikh gurus were killed by the Mughals for opposing their persecution of minority religious communities including Sikhs. Sikhs subsequently militarized to oppose Mughal rule. After defeating the Afghan and Mughal, sovereign states called Misls were formed, under Jassa Singh Ahluwalia.
The Confederacy was unified and transformed into the Sikh Empire under Maharaja Ranjit Singh Bahadur, characterised by religious tolerance and pluralism, with Christians and Hindus in positions of power. The empire is considered the zenith of political Sikhism, encompassing Kashmir and Peshawar. Hari Singh Nalwa, the commander-in-chief of the Sikh Khalsa Army in the North West Frontier, expanded the confederacy to the Khyber Pass, its secular administration implemented military and governmental reforms. After the annexation of the Sikh kingdom by the British, the latter recognized the martial qualities of the Sikhs and Punjabis in general and started recruiting from that area. During the 1857 Indian mutiny, the Sikhs stayed loyal to the British; this resulted in heavy recruiting from Punjab to the colonial army for the next 90 years of the British Raj. The distinct turban that differentiates a Sikh from other turban wearers is a relic of the rules of the British Indian Army; the British colonial rule saw the emergence of many reform movements in India including Punjab.
This included 1879 of the First and Second Singh Sabha respectively. The Sikh leaders of the Singh Sabha worked to offer a clear definition of Sikh identity and tried to purify Sikh belief and practice; the part of British colonial rule saw the emergence of the Akali movement to bring reform in the gurdwaras during the early 1920s. The movement led to the introduction of Sikh Gurdwara Bill in 1925, which placed all the historical Sikh shrines in India under the control of Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee; the months leading up to the partition of India in 1947 were marked by conflict in the Punjab between Sikhs and Muslims. This caused the religious migration of Punjabi Sikhs and Hindus from West Punjab, mirroring a similar religious migration of Punjabi Muslims from East Punjab; the 1960s saw growing animosity between Sikhs and Hindus in India, with the Sikhs demanding the creation of a Punjab state on a linguistic basis similar to other states in India. This was promised to Sikh leader Master Tara Singh by Jawaharlal Nehru, in return for Sikh political support during negotiations for Indian independence.
Although the Sikhs obtained the Punjab, they lost Hindi-speaking areas to Himachal Pradesh and Rajasthan. Chandigarh was made a union territory and the capital of Haryana and Punjab on 1 November 1966. Sikh leader Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale triggered violence in the Punjab; the prime minister Indira Gandhi ordered an operation to remove Bhindranwale from the Golden Temple in Operation Blue Star. This led to her assassination by her Sikh bodyguards. Gandhi's assassination resulted in an explosion of violence against Sikh communities and the killing of thousands of Sikhs throughout India. Since 1984, relations between Sikhs and Hindus have moved toward a rapprochement aided by economic prosperity. However, a 2002 claim by the Hindu right-wing Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh that "Sikhs are Hindus" disturbed Sikh sensibilities. During the 1999 Vaisakhi, Sikhs worldwide celebrated the 300th anniversary of the creation of the Khalsa. Canada Post honoured Sikh Canadians with a
Udasi is a religious sect of ascetic sadhus centred in northern India. It is based on the teachings of Sri Chand, the son of Guru Nanak, the founder and the first Guru of Sikhism; the Udasis were key interpreters of the Sikh philosophy and the custodians of important Sikh shrines until the Akali movement. They brought a large number of people into the Sikh fold during the 18th and the early 19th centuries. However, their religious practicies border on a syncretism of Hinduism; when the Singh Sabha, dominated by Khalsa Sikhs, redefined the Sikh identity in the early 20th century, the Udasi mahants were expelled from the Sikh shrines. Since the Udasis have regarded themselves as Hindus rather than Sikhs; the word "udasi" is derived from the Sanskrit word udas, may signify indifference to or renunciation of worldly concerns. Although Guru Nanak emphasized the importance of a social life, his son Sri Chand propagated asceticism and celibacy; the Udasis gained prominence during the Sikh rule in northern India: before the advent of the Sikh rule, they had around a dozen centres.
The Udasis played an important role in propagating the Sikh philosophy, during the 18th and the early 19th centuries, their teachings attracted a large number of people to the Sikh fold. Before the emergence of the Singh Sabha Movement in the late 19th century, they controlled the important Sikh shrines, including the Harimandir Sahib. However, during the Akali movement of the 20th century, the Khalsa Sikhs expelled them from the Sikh shrines, accusing them of vices and of indulging in ritual practicies that were against the teachings of the Sikh gurus; the Sikh Gurdwara Reform Act, 1925 defined the term "Sikh" in a way that excluded the syncretist groups like the Udasis, the Nanakpanthis and Sanatanis. Subsequently, the Udasis identified themselves as Hindus rather than Sikhs; the Udasis do not reject the Sikh Gurus, but attach greater importance to the line of succession from Guru Nanak through Sri Chand to the Udasi mahants. They interpret the message of Guru Granth Sahib in Vedantic terms.
They do not abide by the Khalsa's Rehat Maryada. The Udasis worship the panchayatana, the five Hindu deities: Shiva, Durga and Surya. Traditionally, there were four Udasi centres with each controlling a certain preaching area. There is an Udasi gurudwara in Amritsar, near the Harimandir Sahib. Today's Udasi are predominantly located in northwestern India around Punjab Haryana and cities like Haridwar and New Delhi, they are divided into three major groups: Niya Udasi Panchayati Akarda Bara Udasi Panchayati Akarda Nirmal Udasi Panachayati Akarda Dhanadeva – an ancient inscription found in an Udasi shrine Sects of Sikhism Udasis
The Akali movement called the Gurdwara Reform Movement, was a campaign to bring reform in the gurdwaras in India during the early 1920s. The movement led to the introduction of the Sikh Gurdwara Bill in 1925, which placed all the historical Sikh shrines in India under the control of Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee; the Akalis participated in the Indian independence movement against the British Government, supported the non-cooperation movement against them. The term Akali derives from the word Akal used in the Sikh scriptures. By the early 20th century, a number of Sikh gurdwaras in British India were under the control of the Udasi mahants or managers appointed by the Governors; the main aim of the Akali movement was to have the Sikh gurdwaras released from the control of the traditional clergy, which had become powerful and ritualized. The Akali movement was started in 1920 by the Singh Sabha's political wing; the jathas led by Kartar Singh Jhabbar played a major role in the movement.
The first shrine chosen for reform was the Babe di Ber gurdwara in Sialkot. It was under the control of the widow of the mahant Harnam Singh, she resisted the takeover of the gurdwara by the Akalis, as it was her only source of income, but relented after she was offered a pension. The control of the gurdwara was transferred to an elected committee headed by Baba Kharak Singh; the next major target of the Akalis was the holiest shrine of the Sikhs. The priest of the Golden Temple had refused to allow low-caste Hindu converts to offer prayers in the shrine. Kartar Singh Jhabbar walked to the Akal Takht in the temple premises, urging the Sikhs to give up the caste-based restrictions and reform the gurdwaras. On 28 June 1920, the Golden Temple came under the control of an elected committee called Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee. Next, the Akalis headed to Hasan Abdal, where Gurdwara Panja Sahib was under the control of Mahant Mitha Singh. Singh allowed sale of cigarettes inside the gurdwara, was disliked by the Sikhs.
The Akalis led by Karatar Singh Jhabbar took control of the gurdwara on 20 November 1920. However, the local Hindus, who frequented the gurdwara for worship, opposed this takeover. Around 5-6 thousand of them surrounded the gurdwara on the night of the Akali takeover, but were dispersed by the police; the next day, around 200-300 Hindu women squatted at the Gurdwara. The gurdwara was successfully brought under the authority of the SGPC; the Akalis took control of the Gurdwara Sacha Sauda at Chuhar Kana. They turned their attention to the Gurdwara Sri Tarn Taran Sahib, whose clergymen were accused of allowing dancing girls and drinking inside the shrine's premises; the clergymen were accused of spreading the teachings of Arya Samaj, a Hindu reform movement some of whose leaders had criticized Sikhism. The Akalis, led by Kartar Singh, arrived at the gurdwara, performed ardas and declared that the gurdwara was now under their control; the clergymen attacked the Akalis with crude bricks while the latter were sleeping.
Next day, the Sikhs from the surrounding villages took control of the Gurdwara. Following this, the Akalis led by Kartar Singh took control of five more gurdwaras, including the Gurdwara Guru ka Bagh near Amritsar. A section of Akalis rejected the peaceful methods adopted by SGPC, formed the breakaway Babbar Akali movement to seize the control of the gurdwaras using violent methods. In 1921, the Akalis turned their focus to the gurdwara at Nankana Sahib, the birthplace of the first Sikh Guru Nanak; the gurdwara was under the control of a mahant called Narain Das, accused of allowing immoral activities in the temple premises. One of the clergymen at the gurdwara had raped the 13-year-old daughter of a Hindu devotee from Sindh; when the Akalis tried to take over the gurdwara on 20 February 1921, the Pashtun guards of the Mahant attacked them, killing 130 people in what came to be known as the Nankana massacre. Two days Mahatma Gandhi and the Governor of the Punjab province visited the site, accompanied by a number of Sikh and Hindu leaders.
Gandhi sympathized with the Sikhs and said that the Mahant had "out-Dyered Dyer."The British Government, finding itself under immense political pressure, agreed to transfer the control of the gurdwara to the Akalis on 3 March 1921. Narain Das and 26 of his henchmen were arrested. Amid the ongoing agitations, the SGPC urged the British Government to release the protestors and legalize its control of the gurdwaras. On 1 May 1921, the influential Sikh leaders passed a resolution for launching a passive resistance movement; the next day, a Sikh-Hindu conference was organized during the Punjab Congress Provincial Congress at Rawalpindi. The Jagat Guru Shankaracharya urged the Hindus to join the Sikhs in the struggle for taking control of the gurdwaras from mahants with personal interests. On 11 May, a number of Akali jathas were asked to proceed to designated gurdwaras to take over their control; the Government meanwhile launched a "Gurdwara Bill" to facilitate the settlement of the gurdwara disputes.
The Bill provided setting up a Board of Commissioners for the management of the gurdwaras. However, the SGPC objected to the Government's right to appoint the Board members, the bill was postponed. In On 17 November 1922, the "Sikh Gurdwaras and Shrines Bill" was introduced in the Punjab Legislative Assembly. All the Sikh and the Hindu members opposed the bill. In 1923, the Akalis decided to take over the Gurdwara Gangsar at Jaitu in the Nabha State; the erstwhile
The Tribune (Chandigarh)
The Tribune is an Indian English-language daily newspaper published from Amritsar, Chandigarh, New Delhi and Ludhiana. It was founded on 2 February 1881, in Lahore, by Sardar Dyal Singh Majithia, a philanthropist, is run by a trust comprising five persons as trustees, it is a major Indian newspaper with a worldwide circulation. In India, it is among the leading English daily for Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, the Union Territory of Chandigarh; the present editor of The Tribune is Rajesh Ramachandran. He was appointed on 14 May 2018, he was editor-in-chief of Outlook magazine. Ramachandran succeeded Harish Khare, appointed editor-in-chief of the Tribune Group of newspapers on 1 June 2015, serving until 15 March 2018; the Tribune has two sister publications: Punjabi Tribune. R. K. Singh is the Editor of Dainik Tribune and Sahitya Akademi Award winner and prominent Punjabi playwright Swaraj Bir Singh is the editor of the Punjabi Tribune; the online edition of The Tribune was launched in July 1998, the online editions of the Punjabi Tribune and Dainik Tribune were launched on 16 August 2010.
All three newspapers are published by the Tribune Trust. Narinder Nath Vohra is the president of the Tribune Trust, which comprises S. S. Sodhi, S. S. Mehta, Naresh Mohan, Gurbachan Jagat as trustees; the Tribune has had Kali Nath Roy, Prem Bhatia, Hari Jai Singh, H. K. Dua, Raj Chengappa among others, as its editors-in-chief in the past. Similar to most Indian newspapers, The Tribune receives the majority of its revenue from advertisements over subscriptions. Official website Facebook - The Tribune Twitter - The Tribune Instagram - The Tribune YouTube Channel - The Tribune