In scientific nomenclature, a synonym is a scientific name that applies to a taxon that goes by a different scientific name, although the term is used somewhat differently in the zoological code of nomenclature. For example, Linnaeus was the first to give a scientific name to the Norway spruce, which he called Pinus abies; this name is no longer in use: it is now a synonym of the current scientific name, Picea abies. Unlike synonyms in other contexts, in taxonomy a synonym is not interchangeable with the name of which it is a synonym. In taxonomy, synonyms have a different status. For any taxon with a particular circumscription and rank, only one scientific name is considered to be the correct one at any given time. A synonym cannot exist in isolation: it is always an alternative to a different scientific name. Given that the correct name of a taxon depends on the taxonomic viewpoint used a name, one taxonomist's synonym may be another taxonomist's correct name. Synonyms may arise whenever the same taxon is named more than once, independently.
They may arise when existing taxa are changed, as when two taxa are joined to become one, a species is moved to a different genus, a variety is moved to a different species, etc. Synonyms come about when the codes of nomenclature change, so that older names are no longer acceptable. To the general user of scientific names, in fields such as agriculture, ecology, general science, etc. A synonym is a name, used as the correct scientific name but, displaced by another scientific name, now regarded as correct, thus Oxford Dictionaries Online defines the term as "a taxonomic name which has the same application as another one, superseded and is no longer valid." In handbooks and general texts, it is useful to have synonyms mentioned as such after the current scientific name, so as to avoid confusion. For example, if the much advertised name change should go through and the scientific name of the fruit fly were changed to Sophophora melanogaster, it would be helpful if any mention of this name was accompanied by "".
Synonyms used in this way may not always meet the strict definitions of the term "synonym" in the formal rules of nomenclature which govern scientific names. Changes of scientific name have two causes: they may be taxonomic or nomenclatural. A name change may be caused by changes in the circumscription, position or rank of a taxon, representing a change in taxonomic, scientific insight. A name change may be due to purely nomenclatural reasons, that is, based on the rules of nomenclature. Speaking in general, name changes for nomenclatural reasons have become less frequent over time as the rules of nomenclature allow for names to be conserved, so as to promote stability of scientific names. In zoological nomenclature, codified in the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, synonyms are different scientific names of the same taxonomic rank that pertain to that same taxon. For example, a particular species could, over time, have had two or more species-rank names published for it, while the same is applicable at higher ranks such as genera, orders, etc.
In each case, the earliest published name is called the senior synonym, while the name is the junior synonym. In the case where two names for the same taxon have been published the valid name is selected accorded to the principle of the first reviser such that, for example, of the names Strix scandiaca and Strix noctua, both published by Linnaeus in the same work at the same date for the taxon now determined to be the snowy owl, the epithet scandiaca has been selected as the valid name, with noctua becoming the junior synonym. One basic principle of zoological nomenclature is that the earliest published name, the senior synonym, by default takes precedence in naming rights and therefore, unless other restrictions interfere, must be used for the taxon. However, junior synonyms are still important to document, because if the earliest name cannot be used the next available junior synonym must be used for the taxon. For other purposes, if a researcher is interested in consulting or compiling all known information regarding a taxon, some of this may well have been published under names now regarded as outdated and so it is again useful to know a list of historic synonyms which may have been used for a given current taxon name.
Objective synonyms refer to taxa with same rank. This may be species-group taxa of the same rank with the same type specimen, genus-group taxa of the same rank with the same type species or if their type species are themselves objective synonyms, of family-group taxa with the same type genus, etc. In the case of subjective synonyms, there is no such shared type, so the synonymy is open to taxonomic judgement, meaning that th
The little penguin is the smallest species of penguin. It grows to an average of 33 cm in height and 43 cm in length, though specific measurements vary by subspecies, it is found on the coastlines of southern Australia and New Zealand, with possible records from Chile. In Australia, they are called fairy penguins because of their small size. In New Zealand, they are more known as little blue penguins or blue penguins owing to their slate-blue plumage; the little penguin was first described by German naturalist Johann Reinhold Forster in 1781. Several subspecies are known; the holotypes of the subspecies E. m. variabilis and Eudyptula minor chathamensis are in the collection of the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa. The white-flippered penguin is sometimes considered a subspecies, sometimes a distinct species, sometimes a morph. Genetic analyses indicate that the Australian and Otago little penguins may constitute a distinct species. In this case the specific name minor would devolve on it, with the specific name novaehollandiae suggested for the other populations.
This interpretation suggests that E. novaehollandiae individuals arrived in New Zealand between AD 1500 and 1900 while the local E. minor population had declined, leaving a genetic opening for a new species. Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA evidence suggests the split between Eudyptula and Spheniscus occurred around 25 million years ago, with the ancestors of the white-flippered and little penguins diverging about 2.7 million years ago. Like those of all penguins, the little penguin's wings have developed into flippers used for swimming; the little penguin grows to between 30 and 33 cm tall and weighs about 1.5 kg on average. The head and upper parts are blue in colour, with slate-grey ear coverts fading to white underneath, from the chin to the belly, their flippers are blue in colour. The dark grey-black beak is 3–4 cm long, the irises pale silvery- or bluish-grey or hazel, the feet pink above with black soles and webbing. An immature individual will have lighter upperparts. Like most seabirds, they have a long lifespan.
The average for the species is 6.5 years, but flipper ringing experiments show in exceptional cases up to 25 years in captivity. The little penguin breeds along the entire coastline of New Zealand, southern Australia. Australian colonies exist in New South Wales, Tasmania, South Australia, Western Australia. Little penguins have been reported from Chile and South Africa, but it is unclear whether these birds were vagrants; as new colonies continue to be discovered, rough estimates of the world population are around 350,000-600,000 animals. Overall, little penguin populations in New Zealand have been decreasing; some colonies have gone extinct and others continue to be at risk. Some new colonies have been established in urban areas; the species is not considered endangered in New Zealand, with the exception of the white-flippered subspecies found only on Banks Peninsula and nearby Motunau Island. Since the 1960s, the mainland population has declined by 60-70%. Australian little penguin colonies exist on offshore islands, where they are protected from feral terrestrial predators and human disturbance.
Colonies are found from Port Stephens in northern New South Wales around the southern coast to Fremantle, Western Australia. An endangered population of little penguins exists in Sydney's North Harbour; the population is protected under the NSW Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 and has been managed in accordance with a Recovery Plan since the year 2000. The population once has decreased to around 60 pairs of birds; the decline is believed to be due to loss of suitable habitat, attacks by foxes and dogs and disturbance at nesting sites. The largest colony in New South Wales is on Montague Island. Up to 8000 breeding pairs are known to nest there each year. A population of about 5,000 breeding pairs exists on Bowen Island; the colony has increased from 500 pairs in 1979 and 1500 pairs in 1985. During this time, the island was leased; the island was vacated in 1986 and is controlled by the federal government. In South Australia, many little penguin colony declines have been identified across the state.
In some cases, colonies have declined to extinction, while others have declined from thousands of animals to few. A report released in 2011 presented evidence supporting the listing of the statewide population or the more monitored sub-population from Gulf St. Vincent as Vulnerable under South Australia's National Parks & Wildlife Act 1972; as of 2014, the little penguin is not listed as a species of conservation concern, despite ongoing declines at many colonies. Tasmanian little penguin population estimates range from 110,000–190,000 breeding pairs of which less than 5% are found on mainland Tasmania. Ever-increasing human pressure is predicted to result in the extinction of colonies on mainland Tasmania; the largest colony of little penguins in Victoria is located at Phillip Island, where the nightly'parade' of penguins across Summerland Beach has been a major tourist destination, more a major conser
Wikispecies is a wiki-based online project supported by the Wikimedia Foundation. Its aim is to create a comprehensive free content catalogue of all species. Jimmy Wales stated that editors are not required to fax in their degrees, but that submissions will have to pass muster with a technical audience. Wikispecies is available under the GNU Free Documentation License and CC BY-SA 3.0. Started in September 2004, with biologists across the world invited to contribute, the project had grown a framework encompassing the Linnaean taxonomy with links to Wikipedia articles on individual species by April 2005. Benedikt Mandl co-ordinated the efforts of several people who are interested in getting involved with the project and contacted potential supporters in early summer 2004. Databases were evaluated and the administrators contacted, some of them have agreed on providing their data for Wikispecies. Mandl defined two major tasks: Figure out how the contents of the data base would need to be presented—by asking experts, potential non-professional users and comparing that with existing databases Figure out how to do the software, which hardware is required and how to cover the costs—by asking experts, looking for fellow volunteers and potential sponsorsAdvantages and disadvantages were discussed by the wikimedia-I mailing list.
The board of directors of the Wikimedia Foundation voted by 4 to 0 in favor of the establishment of a Wikispecies. The project is hosted at species.wikimedia.org. It was merged to a sister project of Wikimedia Foundation on September 14, 2004. On October 10, 2006, the project exceeded 75,000 articles. On May 20, 2007, the project exceeded 100,000 articles with a total of 5,495 registered users. On September 8, 2008, the project exceeded 150,000 articles with a total of 9,224 registered users. On October 23, 2011, the project reached 300,000 articles. On June 16, 2014, the project reached 400,000 articles. On January 7, 2017, the project reached 500,000 articles. On October 30, 2018, the project reached 600,000 articles, a total of 1.12 million pages. Wikispecies comprises taxon pages, additionally pages about synonyms, taxon authorities, taxonomical publications, institutions or repositories holding type specimen. Wikispecies asks users to use images from Wikimedia Commons. Wikispecies does not allow the use of content.
All Species Foundation Catalogue of Life Encyclopedia of Life Tree of Life Web Project List of online encyclopedias The Plant List Wikispecies, The free species directory that anyone can edit Species Community Portal The Wikispecies Charter, written by Wales
ARKive was a global initiative with the mission of "promoting the conservation of the world's threatened species, through the power of wildlife imagery", which it did by locating and gathering films and audio recordings of the world's species into a centralised digital archive. Its priority was the completion of audio-visual profiles for the c. 17,000 species on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. The project was an initiative of a UK-registered educational charity, based in Bristol; the technical platform was created by Hewlett-Packard, as part of the HP Labs' Digital Media Systems research programme. ARKive had the backing of leading conservation organisations, including BirdLife International, Conservation International, International Union for Conservation of Nature, the United Nations' World Conservation Monitoring Centre, the World Wide Fund for Nature, as well as leading academic and research institutions, such as the Natural History Museum, it was a member of the Institutional Council of the Encyclopedia of Life.
Two ARKive layers for Google Earth, featuring endangered species and species in the Gulf of Mexico were produced by Google Earth Outreach. The first of these was launched in April 2008 by Sir David Attenborough; the website closed on 15 February 2019. The project formally was launched on 20 May 2003 by its patron, the UK-based natural history presenter, Sir David Attenborough, a long-standing colleague and friend of its chief instigator, the late Christopher Parsons, a former Head of the BBC Natural History Unit. Parsons never lived to see the fruition of the project, succumbing to cancer in November 2002 at the age of 70. Parsons identified a need to provide a centralised safe haven for wildlife films and photographs after discovering that many such records are held in scattered, non-indexed, collections with little or no public access, sometimes in conditions that could lead to loss or damage, he believed the records could be a powerful force in building environmental awareness by bringing scientific names to life.
He saw their preservation as an important educational resource and conservation tool, not least because extinction rates and habitat destruction could mean that images and sounds might be the only legacy of some species’ existence. His vision of a permanent, refuge for audio-visual wildlife material won immediate support from many of the world’s major broadcasters, including the BBC, international state broadcasting corporations and National Geographic magazine; the initial feasibility study for creating ARKive was carried out in the late 1980s by conservationist John Burton, but at the time the costs of the technology needed were too far too high, so it was over a decade after the technology had caught up with Christopher Parson's vision, that the project was able to get off the ground. After capital development funds of £2m were secured from the Heritage Lottery Fund in 1997 and New Opportunities Fund in 2000, work on building ARKive began as part of the UK's Millennium celebrations, using advanced computerised storage and retrieval technology devised for the project by Hewlett-Packard, with an initial capacity of up to 74 terabytes of data, using redundant hardware and multiple copies of media stored at multiple sites.
Media was digitised to the highest available quality without compression and encoded to open standards. A prototype site was online as early as April 1999. There were several design iterations before the formal launch. By the launch date, the project team had researched, copied and authenticated image and fact files of 1,000 animals and fungi, many of them critically endangered. More multi-media profiles are added every month, starting with British flora and fauna and with species included on the Red List – that is, species that are believed to be closest to extinction, according to research by the World Conservation Union. By January 2006, the database had grown to 2,000 species, 15,000 still images and more than 50 hours of video. By 2010, over 5,500 donors had contributed photos of more than 12,000 species. In February 2019, Wildscreen announced that they "...have had to make the hard decision to close the Arkive website on 15 February 2019", due to funding issues. On that date the website was replaced with a short statement, concluding: The complete Arkive collection of over 100,000 images and videos is now being stored securely offline for future generations.
The site was Sunday Times website of the year for 2005. It was a 2010 Webby Award honoree for its outstanding calibre of work, in the'Education' category, a 2010 Association of Educational Publishers'Distinguished Achievement Award' winner, in the category for websites for 9-12 year olds. Catalogue of Life Encyclopedia of Life List of online encyclopedias Nature documentary Official ARKive site Technical specifications from Hewlett-Packard Memorandum of Understanding with Encyclopedia of Life
Lake Monger is a large urban wetland on the Swan Coastal Plain in suburban Perth, Western Australia nestled between the suburbs of Leederville and Glendalough. Located less than 5 kilometres from the city of Perth and situated alongside the Mitchell Freeway, it runs north-west to south-east towards the Swan River and consists of 70 hectares of open shallow water with an island of 1.3 hectares in the south-west corner. The 110 hectares of lake and the surrounding parklands are known as the Lake Monger Reserve; the lake is used extensively for recreation and is a major tourist attraction with up to 12000 visitors per week. Activities include bird exercise. A 3.8-kilometre paved walking/cycling track encircles the lake. Car parking, playground equipment, barbecue facilities are provided; the indigenous Noongar people of the south-western region call the area Keiermulu which translates to'the home fires or camp', or Lake Galup or Lake Kalup. After European settlement, it became known as either Large Lake or Triangle Lake before being named Monger's Lake in 1831.
In April 1932 it was changed to its current name of Lake Monger. Little is known about the use of the lake by the Noongars prior to the British settlement other than the area was known to be within the area inhabited by those people. Given its geographical features, it could have been used as a significant camping and hunting site with black swans and other wildfowl as well as turtles, frogs and mudfish hunted as food. Associated with the lake is the Wagyl, part of Noongar mythology; the myth describes the track of a serpent being, who in his journey towards the sea, deviates from his route and emerges from the ground which gives rise to Lake Monger. The lake and a significant part of the reserve are registered with the Department of Indigenous Affairs as an Aboriginal heritage site of historic and mythological significance to the Aboriginal people; the lake was part of a series of freshwater wetlands running north from the Swan River along the coastal plain for 50 kilometres. Lake Monger was grouped with the Georgiana Lake and Lake Sutherland and Herdsman Lake and together the area made up what was known as The Great Lakes District.
European settlement led to many of the wetlands areas being drained for land reclamation to take advantage of the fertile soil for farming enterprises, for expansion of parks and recreation areas. Lake Monger and Herdsman Lake are the last two major wetlands remaining close to the city; the City of Perth itself sits on an area of reclaimed wetlands. It is thought that between 49% and 80% of the wetlands on the coastal plain have been drained, filled or cleared since 1832. Other lakes and swamps in the immediate northern vicinity of the early Perth township were Lake Kingsford, Lake Irwin and further north were Stone's Lake, Lake Poullet, Lake Thomson and Lake Henderson. Further north still lay Smith's Lake. Many of these lakes formed a natural interconnected drainage system which found its way into the Swan River at East Perth through Claise Brook. In 1833, water draining from Lakes Kingsford, Irwin and Henderson was used to drive a water-driven mill located in Mill Street. In 1829, a British expedition established the Swan River Colony and in 1830, Lake Monger was the site of a minor skirmish between white settlers and a Noongar man by the name of Midgegooroo.
By 1832, the lands around the lake had been subdivided into eight lots: a southern one was acquired by John Henry Monger and described as 200 acres of Perthshire Location Ae abutting Lake Monger. William H. Leeder took up adjoining land grants at Perthshire Locations Ac and Ad, to which he added Locations 1, Ax and Ay; this area is now known as the suburb of Leederville. From 1850 to 1868, the arrival of convicts swelled the population and market gardening on the northern side of the city expanded to meet the greater demand for food. By the 1870s, "Perth was surrounded by gardens in a fan which spread from Cole’s garden in the east to Leeder’s in the west". On 9 August 1874 John Herold and his stepson George Wansbrough drowned when their flat-bottomed boat capsized. Herold was heard telling Wansbrough to be careful of how he moved, lest he capsize the boat, shortly before they disappeared. On 16 February 1876 Mary Anne Costello drowned while bathing on a school picnic. Another girl, bathing with her was rescued.
On 5 December 1876, Jemmy, an aboriginal, drowned after wading into the river to retrieve a duck he'd shot. In December 1894, young schoolboy Michael John Maley was found dead at the base of a tree near the lake by his brother, it was supposed he climbed the tree and lost his hold. He died from internal injuries. On 21 October 1901 Francis George Hatch both drowned whilst boating together. In 1902, the Leederville Council appointed a board under the Parks and Reserves Act 1896 to manage the lake. In 1909, construction of a drain was completed which connected the lake with the Swan River and which allowed the water level to be managed; this drain still operates today. In 1912, the lake had
Whanganui spelled Wanganui, is a city on the west coast of the North Island of New Zealand. The Whanganui River, New Zealand's longest navigable waterway, runs from Mount Tongariro to the sea. Whanganui is part of the Manawatu-Wanganui region. Like several New Zealand centres, it was designated a city until administrative reorganisation in 1989, is now run by a District Council. Although the city was called Wanganui from 1854, in February 2009, the New Zealand Geographic Board recommended the spelling be changed to "Whanganui". In December 2009, the government decided that while either spelling was acceptable, Crown agencies would use the Whanganui spelling. On 17 November 2015, Land Information New Zealand announced that Wanganui District would be renamed to Whanganui District; this changed the official name of the District Council, because Whanganui is not a city but a district, the official name of the urban area as well. Whanganui is located on the South Taranaki Bight, close to the mouth of the Whanganui River.
It is 200 kilometres north of Wellington and 75 kilometres northwest of Palmerston North, at the junction of State Highways 3 and 4. Most of the city lies on the river's northwestern bank, due to the greater extent of flat land; the river is crossed by four bridges – Cobham Bridge, City Bridge, Dublin Street Bridge and Aramoho Railway Bridge. Both Mount Ruapehu and Mount Taranaki can be seen from Durie Hill and other vantage points around the city; the suburbs within Whanganui include: Northeast: Wanganui East, Bastia Hill, Aramoho East: Durie Hill South: Pūtiki West: Gonville, Tawhero Northwest: Springvale, St. Johns Hill, Otamatea The area around the mouth of the Whanganui river was a major site of pre-European Māori settlement; the pā named Pūtiki is home to the Ngāti Tūpoho hapū of the iwi Te Āti Haunui-a-Pāpārangi. It took its name from the legendary explorer Tamatea Pōkai Whenua, who sent a servant ashore to find flax for tying up his topknot. In the 1820s coastal tribes in the area assaulted the Kapiti Island stronghold of Ngāti Toa chief Te Rauparaha.
Te Rauparaha retaliated in 1830 slaughtering the inhabitants. The first European traders arrived in 1831, followed in 1840 by missionaries Octavius Hadfield and Henry Williams who collected signatures for the Treaty of Waitangi. On 20 June 1840, the Revd John Mason, Mrs Mason, Mr Richard Matthews and his wife Johanna arrived to establish a mission station of the Church Missionary Society; the Revd Richard Taylor joined the CMS mission station in 1843. The Revd Mason drowned on 5 January 1843. By 1844 the brick church built by Mason was inadequate to meet the needs of the congregation and it had been damaged in an earthquake. A new church was built under the supervision of Taylor, with the timber supplied by each pā on the river in proportion to its size and number of Christians. After the New Zealand Company had settled Wellington it looked for other suitable places for settlers. Edward Wakefield, son of Edward Gibbon Wakefield, negotiated the sale of 40,000 acres in 1840, a town named Petre – after Lord Petre, one of the directors of the New Zealand Company – was established four kilometres from the river mouth.
The settlement was threatened in 1846 by a chief from up the Whanganui River. The British military arrived on 13 December 1846 to defend the township. Two stockades, the Rutland and York, were built to defend the settlers. Two minor battles were fought on 19 May and 19 July 1847 and after a stalemate the up river iwi returned home. By 1850 Te Mamaku was receiving Christian instruction from Revd Taylor. There were further incidents in 1847 when four members of the Gilfillan family were murdered and their house plundered; the name of the city was changed to Wanganui on 20 January 1854. The early years of the new city were problematic. Purchase of land from the local tribes had been haphazard and irregular, as such many Māori were angered with the influx of Pākehā onto land that they still claimed, it was not until the town had been established for eight years that agreements were reached between the colonials and local tribes, some resentment continued. Wanganui grew after this time, with land being cleared for pasture.
The town was a major military centre during the New Zealand Wars of the 1860s, although local Māori at Pūtiki led by Te Keepa Te Rangihiwinui remained friendly to settlers. In 1871 a town bridge was built, followed six years by a railway bridge at Aramoho. Wanganui was linked by rail to both New Plymouth and Wellington by 1886; the town was incorporated as a Borough on 1 February 1872, declared a city on 1 July 1924. Wanganui's biggest scandal happened in 1920, when Mayor Charles Mackay shot and wounded a young poet, Walter D'Arcy Cresswell, blackmailing him over his homosexuality. Mackay served seven years in prison and his name was erased from the town's civic monuments, while Cresswell was praised as a "wholesome-minded young man". Mackay's name was restored to the foundation stone of the Sarjeant Gallery in 1985; the Whanganui River catchment is seen as a sacred area to Māori, the Whanganui region is still seen as a focal point for any resentment over land ownership. In 1995, Moutoa Gardens in Wanganui, known to local Māori as Pakaitore, were occupied for 79 days in a peaceful protest by the Whanganui iwi over land claims.
Wanganui was the site of the New Zealand Police Law Enforcement System from 1976 to 1995. An early Sperry mainframe computer-based intelligence and data manage
Nycticorax is a genus of night herons. The name Nycticorax means "night raven" and derives from the Ancient Greek nuktos "night" and korax, "raven", it refers to the nocturnal feeding habits of this group of birds, the croaking crow-like call of the best known species, the black-crowned night heron. These are medium-sized herons which are migratory in the colder parts of their ranges. Adults are short-necked short-legged and stout herons. Young birds are brown, flecked with white and grey, are quite similar to each other in the extant species. At least some of the extinct Mascarenes taxa appear to have retained this juvenile plumage in adult birds. Night herons nest in colonies on platforms of sticks in a group of trees, or on the ground in protected locations such as islands or reed beds. Three to eight eggs are laid, they stand at the water's edge, wait to ambush prey at night. They eat small fish, frogs, aquatic insects, small mammals. During the day they rest in trees or bushes. In addition to the species listed below, the night herons of the genera Nyctanassa and Gorsachius were placed in Nycticorax, but today all major authorities consider them separate.
Black-crowned night heron, Nycticorax nycticorax Rodrigues night heron, Nycticorax megacephalus Réunion night heron, Nycticorax duboisi Mauritius night heron, Nycticorax mauritianus Ascension night heron, Nycticorax olsoni Niue night heron, Nycticorax kalavikai ʻEua night heron, Nycticorax sp. Lifuka night heron, Nycticorax sp. - may be same as ʻEua species Nankeen night heron or rufous night heron, Nycticorax caledonicus Bonin nankeen night heron, Nycticorax caledonicus crassirostris In addition, the following taxa are known from fossil bones: Nycticorax sp. Nycticorax fidens