Bridgetown, Western Australia
Bridgetown is a town in the South West region of Western Australia 270 kilometres south of Perth on the Blackwood River at the intersection of South Western Highway with Brockman Highway to Nannup and Augusta. The area was known as Geegelup, believed to mean "place of gilgies" in the Noongar Aboriginal language, referring to the fresh water crustaceans that inhabit the area; however discovered research made available through the Bridgetown Tourist Centre suggests the actual meaning of Geegelup may be "place of spears". In 1857, Edward Godfrey Hester and John Blechynden settled in the area. In 1861, convicts built the road from Donnybrook into the area. Bridgetown's name was first proposed by surveyor Thomas Carey in 1868, for two reasons - "as it is at a bridge and the Bridgetown was the first ship to put in at Bunbury for the wool from these districts", was approved and gazetted on 9 June 1868. From until about 1885, many buildings including the primary school, post office and two hotels were constructed, many of which are still standing today.
In 1885, the Bridgetown Agricultural Society was formed and local farmers produced sheep, dairy products, timber and nuts. The gold rush from 1892 onwards brought prosperity to the town and saw a considerable increase in settlement. In 1907, a number of significant buildings including the police station were erected; until the 1980s, the land surrounding Bridgetown was exclusively used for broadacre agriculture and improved pasture. From the late 1970s, the area became attractive to tourists as a tranquil and picturesque country town an accessible distance from Perth; some people, attracted by the aesthetic qualities and rural lifestyle on offer, sought to move to the town permanently, this resulted in a strong demand for residential and hobby farm allotments, at a time when there was, coincidentally, a global downturn in agricultural markets. Many farmers sold up, much of the most aesthetically pleasing land was subdivided and sold to urban refugees; the demographic change had a profound impact on the town's industry, replacing demand for farm services with demand for services in the tourism and recreation sectors.
However the dramatic increase in infrastructure such as housing and power lines, has detracted from the rural aesthetic that attracted the urban refugees in the first place, therefore has the potential to lead to the rejection of the locality by the next wave of urban refugees. In 2009 a bushfire destroyed at least three properties in the area. Bridgetown is the seat of the Shire of Bridgetown-Greenbushes and the centre of a productive agricultural district. Many buildings in the town centre are over a century old; the town has a Jigsaw Gallery and Museum, which claims to host the only jigsaw collection of its kind in the Southern Hemisphere, a primary school and high school, district hospital, shire offices, agricultural showground, shopping facilities, accommodation for travellers and numerous picnic spots along the Blackwood River. The rural residential area of Kangaroo Gully to the town's east has grown since the 1990s; each year, Bridgetown hosts many events including these: May: Festival of Country Gardens June to August: Bridgetown in the winter festival.
Shops are adorned with many events and workshops. October: Blackwood Marathon October: Blackwood Valley Wine Show November: Bridgetown Garden Festival November: Blues at Bridgetown music festival November: agricultural show November: Festival of Country Gardens Bridgetown experiences a cool Mediterranean climate Emily Barker, singer-songwriter Jon Doust and comedian Robyn McSweeney, politician Tom O'Dwyer, cricketer David Reid, politician Deborah Robertson and poet Fred Riebeling, politician Len Pascoe, cricketer Shire of Bridgetown-Greenbushes Bridgetown-Greenbushes Visitor Centre Blues at Bridgetown Blackwood Marathon Festival of Country Gardens Blackwood River Valley Bridgetown's climate statistics Bridgetown's daily weather statistics https://web.archive.org/web/20080718194116/http://www.btownfilms.com/ Bridgetown Film Festival January
Bushfires in Australia
Bushfires frequenT t events during the warmer months of the year, due to Australia's hot, dry climate. Each year, such fires impact extensive areas. On one hand, they can cause property loss of human life. Certain native flora in Australia have evolved to rely on bushfires as a means of reproduction, fire events are an interwoven and an essential part of the ecology of the continent. For thousands of years, Indigenous Australians have used fire to foster grasslands for hunting and to clear tracks through dense vegetation. Major firestorms that result in severe loss of life are named based on the day on which they occur, such as Ash Wednesday and Black Saturday; some of the most intense and deadly bushfires occur during droughts and heat waves, such as the 2009 Southern Australia heat wave, which precipitated the conditions during the 2009 Black Saturday bushfires in which 173 people lost their lives. Other major conflagrations include the 1983 Ash Wednesday bushfires, the 2003 Eastern Victorian alpine bushfires and the 2006 December Bushfires.
In 2013 the non-profit Climate Council reported that Global warming is increasing the frequency and severity of bushfires. The word "bushfire" builds on the concept of "the bush". Bushfires in Australia are defined as uncontrolled, non-structural fires burning in a grass, bush, or forested area. Australia, being a geographically and meteorogically diverse continent, experiences many types of bushfires. There are two main categories, depending on local topography. Hilly/mountainous fires – burn in hilly, mountainous or alpine areas which are densely forested; the land is less accessible and not conducive to agriculture, thus many of these densely forested areas have been saved from deforestation and are protected by national and other parks. The steep terrain increases the intensity of a firestorm. Where settlements are located in hilly or mountainous areas, bushfires can pose a threat to both life and property. Flat/grassland fires – burn along flat plains or areas of small undulation, predominantly covered in grasses or scrubland.
These fires can move fanned by high winds in flat topography, they consume the small amounts of fuel/vegetation available. These fires pose less of a threat to settlements as they reach the same intensity seen in major firestorms as the land is flat, the fires are easier to map and predict, the terrain is more accessible for firefighting personnel. Many regions of predominantly flat terrain in Australia have been completely deforested for agriculture, reducing the fuel loads which would otherwise facilitate fires in these areas. Common causes of bushfires include lightning, arcing from overhead power lines, accidental ignition in the course of agricultural clearing and welding activities, campfires and dropped matches, sparks from machinery, controlled burn escapes; the natural fire regime in Australia was altered by the arrival of humans. Fires became more frequent, fire-loving species—notably eucalypts—greatly expanded their range, it is assumed that a good deal of this change came about as the result of deliberate action by early humans, setting fires to clear undergrowth or drive game.
Plants have evolved a variety of strategies to survive bushfires, or encourage fire as a way to eliminate competition from less fire-tolerant species. Some native animals are adept at surviving bushfires. In 2009, a standardised Fire Danger Rating was adopted by all Australian states. During the fire season the Bureau of Meteorology provides fire weather forecasts and by considering the predicted weather including temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and dryness of vegetation, fire agencies determine the appropriate Fire Danger Rating. In 2010, following a national review of the bush fire danger ratings, new trigger points for each rating were introduced for grassland areas in most jurisdictions. See for example the following glossaryFire Danger Ratings are a feature of weather forecasts and alert the community to the actions they should take in preparation of the day. Ratings are broadcast via newspapers, radio, TV, the internet; the Australasian Fire Authorities Council is the peak body responsible for representing fire, emergency services and land management agencies in the Australasian region.
The Rural Fire Service is a volunteer-based firefighting agency and operates as part of the Queensland Fire and Emergency Services. The New South Wales Rural Fire Service is a volunteer-based firefighting,agency and statutory body of the Government of New South Wales; the Country Fire Service is a volunteer based fire service in the state of South Australia. The CFS operates as a part of Emergency Services Commission. Bushfires tend to occur near Adelaide. In Victoria, the Country Fire Authority provides firefighting and other emergency services to country areas and regional townships within the state, as well as large portions of the outer suburban areas and growth corridors of Melbourne not covered by the Metropolitan Fire Brigade. Responsibility for fire suppression and management, including planned burning on public land such as State Forests and National Parks, which makes up about 7.1 million hectares or about one third of the State, sits with the Department of Environment, Water an
Eucalyptus marginata known as jarrah, djarraly in Noongar language and as Swan River mahogany, is a plant in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae and is endemic to the south-west of Western Australia. It is a tree with rough, fibrous bark, leaves with a distinct midvein, white flowers and large, more or less spherical fruit, its hard, dense timber is insect resistant. The timber has been utilised for cabinet-making and railway sleepers. Jarrah is a tree. Older specimens have a lignotuber and roots, it is a stringybark with rough, greyish-brown, vertically grooved, fibrous bark which sheds in long flat strips. The leaves are arranged alternately along the branches, narrow lance-shaped curved, 8–13 cm long and 1.5–3 cm broad, shiny dark green above and paler below. There is a distinct midvein, spreading a marginal vein separated from the margin; the stalked flower buds are arranged in umbels of between 4 and 8, each bud with a narrow, conical cap 5–9 mm long. The flowers 1–2 cm in diameter, with many white stamens and bloom in spring and early summer.
The fruit are spherical to barrel-shaped, 9–20 mm long and broad. Eucalyptus marginata was first formally described in 1802 by James Edward Smith, whose description was published in Transactions of the Linnean Society of London. Smith noted that his specimens had grown from seeds brought from Port Jackson and noted a resemblance to both Eucalyptus robusta and E. pilularis. The specific epithet is a Latin word meaning "furnished with a border". Smith did not provide an etymology for the epithet but did note that, compared to E. robusta "the margin is more thickened". Eucalyptus marginata occurs in the south-west corner of Western Australia where the rainfall isohyet exceeds 600 mm, it is found inland as far as Mooliabeenee and Narrogin and in the south as far east as the Stirling Range. Its northern limit is Mount Peron near Jurien Bay but there are outliers at Kulin and Tutanning in the Pingelly Shire; the plant takes the form of a mallee in places like Mount Lesueur and in the Stirling Range but it is a tree and in southern forests sometimes reaches a height of 40 metres.
It grows in soils derived from ironstone and is found within its range, wherever ironstone is present. Jarrah is an important element in its ecosystem, providing numerous habitats for animal life – birds and bees – while it is alive, in the hollows that form as the heartwood decays; when it falls, it provides shelter to ground-dwellers such as a carnivorous marsupial. Jarrah has shown considerable adaptation to different ecologic zones – as in the Swan Coastal Plain and further north, to a different habitat of the lateritic Darling Scarp. Jarrah is vulnerable to dieback caused by the oomycete Phytophthora cinnamomi. In large sections of the Darling Scarp there have been various measures to reduce the spread of dieback by washing down vehicles, restricting access to areas of forest not yet infected. Jarrah produces a dark, tasty honey, but its wood is its main use, it is a heavy wood, with a specific gravity of 1.1 when green. Its long, straight trunks of richly coloured and beautifully grained termite-resistant timber make it valuable for cabinet making, flooring and outdoor furniture.
The finished lumber has an attractive grain. When fresh, jarrah is quite workable but when seasoned it becomes so hard that conventional wood-working tools are near useless on it, it is used for cabinet making and furniture although in the past it was used in general construction, railway sleepers and piles. In the 19th century, famous roads in other countries were paved with jarrah blocks covered with asphalt. Jarrah wood is similar to that of Karri, Eucalyptus diversicolor. Both trees are found in the southwest of Australia, the two woods are confused, they can be distinguished by cutting an unweathered splinter and burning it: karri burns to a white ash, whereas jarrah forms charcoal. Most of the best jarrah has been logged in southwestern Australia. A large amount was exported to the United Kingdom, where it was cut into blocks and covered with asphalt for roads. One of the large exporters in the late nineteenth century was M. C. Davies who had mills from the Margaret River to the Augusta region of the southwest, ports at Hamelin Bay and Flinders Bay.
The local poet Dryblower Murphy wrote a poem, "Comeanavajarrah", published in The Sunday Times of May 1904, about the potential to extract alcohol from jarrah timber. Jarrah has become more prized, supports an industry that recycles it from demolished houses. So, in 2004, old 4-by-2-inch recycled jarrah was advertised in Perth papers for under $1.50 per metre. Larger pieces of the timber were produced in the early history of the industry, from trees of great age, these are recovered from the demolition of older buildings. Offcuts and millends and fire-affected jarrah sell as firewood for those using wood for heating in Perth, 1-tonne loads can exceed $160 per load. Jarrah tends to work well in slow combustion stoves and closed fires and generates a greater heat than most other available woods. Jarrah is used for percussion instruments and guitar inlays; because of its remarkable resistance to rot, jarrah is used to make hot tubs. Eucalyptus margina
Indigenous Australians are the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples of Australia, descended from groups that existed in Australia and surrounding islands before British colonisation. The time of arrival of the first Indigenous Australians is a matter of debate among researchers; the earliest conclusively human remains found in Australia are those of Mungo Man LM3 and Mungo Lady, which have been dated to around 50,000 years BP. Recent archaeological evidence from the analysis of charcoal and artefacts revealing human use suggests a date as early as 65,000 BP. Luminescence dating has suggested habitation in Arnhem Land as far back as 60,000 years BP. Genetic research has inferred a date of habitation as early as 80,000 years BP. Other estimates have ranged up to 100,000 years and 125,000 years BP. Although there are a number of commonalities between Indigenous Aboriginal Australians, there is a great diversity among different Indigenous communities and societies in Australia, each with its own mixture of cultures and languages.
In present-day Australia these groups are further divided into local communities. At the time of initial European settlement, over 250 languages were spoken. Aboriginal people today speak English, with Aboriginal phrases and words being added to create Australian Aboriginal English; the population of Indigenous Australians at the time of permanent European settlement is contentious and has been estimated at between 318,000 and 1,000,000 with the distribution being similar to that of the current Australian population, the majority living in the south-east, centred along the Murray River. A population collapse principally from disease followed European settlement beginning with a smallpox epidemic spreading three years after the arrival of Europeans. Massacres and war by British settlers contributed to depopulation; the characterisation of this violence as genocide is controversial and disputed. Since 1995, the Australian Aboriginal Flag and the Torres Strait Islander Flag have been among the official flags of Australia.
The word aboriginal has been in the English language since at least the 16th century to mean, "first or earliest known, indigenous". It comes from the Latin word aborigines, derived from origo; the word was used in Australia to describe its indigenous peoples as early as 1789. It soon became employed as the common name to refer to all Indigenous Australians. While the term Indigenous Australians, has grown since the 1980s to be more inclusive of Torres Strait Islander people, many Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples dislike it, feeling that it is too generic and removes their identity. Being more specific, for example naming the language group, is considered best practice and most respectful. Terms that are considered disrespectful include Aborigine and ATSI The broad term Aboriginal Australians includes many regional groups that identify under names from local Indigenous languages; these include: Murrawarri people -- see Murawari language. Anindilyakwa on Groote Eylandt off Arnhem Land.
These larger groups may be further subdivided. It is estimated that before the arrival of British settlers, the population of Indigenous Australians was 318,000–750,000 across the continent; the Torres Strait Islanders possess a heritage and cultural history distinct from Aboriginal traditions. The eastern Torres Strait Islanders in particular are related to the Papuan peoples of New Guinea, speak a Papuan language. Accordingly, they are not included under the designation "Aboriginal Australians"; this has been another factor in the promotion of the more inclusive term "Indigenous Australians". Six percent of Indigenous Australians identify themselves as Torres Strait Islanders. A further 4% of Indigenous Australians identify themselves as having both Torres Strait Islander and Aboriginal heritage; the Torres Strait Islands comprise over 100 islands which were annexed by Queensland in 1879. Many Indigenous organisations incorporate the phrase "Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander" to highlight the distinctiveness and importance of Torres Strait Islanders in Australia's Indigenous population.
Eddie Mabo was from "Mer" or Murray Island in the Torres Strait, which the famous Mabo decision of 1992 involved. The term "black" has been used to refer to Indigenous Australians since European settlement. While related to skin colour, the term is used today to indicate Aboriginal he
Drift (2013 Australian film)
Drift is a 2013 Australian film about the birth of the surf industry in the 1970s. It was shot in Western Australia and co-directed by Morgan O'Neill and Ben Nott and starring Sam Worthington, Xavier Samuel and Myles Pollard. Set in a remote town on Australia's spectacular and rugged coastline in the early'70s, Drift tells the story of two brothers at the genesis of the modern surf industry. Determined to escape a life of factory work and petty crime, headstrong older brother Andy and his wayward surf prodigy younger brother Jimmy form a volatile alliance. With their seamstress mother Kat they fashion custom-made Drift wetsuits and new shorter surfboards out of their back yard garage, their fledgling business generates a powerful buzz amongst the hard-core local surfers, but the brothers’ progressive ideas are soon at odds with their conservative town and find themselves embroiled in a violent feud with a drug-dealing biker gang looking to manipulate Drift's early success. Enter JB, an infamous surf filmmaker and Lani, his gorgeous Hawaiian companion who drift into town just as the brothers' business and troubles begin to escalate.
The travellers embody the era's anti-establishment vibe and are skeptical, but soon realize if the brothers can survive and stay true to their surfing roots, they might be part of something greater than they imagined. Based on true stories from the era, Drift is the action filled story of a complex family of outsiders who struggle to escape their troubled past to forge a successful future…stumbling upon the worldwide multibillion-dollar cultural movement we know today. Xavier Samuel as Jimmy Myles Pollard as Andy Sam Worthington as JB Lesley-Ann Brandt as Lani Robyn Malcolm as Kat Maurie Ogden as Percy Aaron Glenane as Gus Tim Duffy wrote an early script in 2007. Myles Pollard became attached as actor and producer and asked Sam Worthington, with whom he had attended Drama School, to star. Worthington expressed interest but at the time was unable to commit given his international film schedule. Morgan O'Neill came on board as co-director with Ben Nott. Worthington became available and agreed to play a support role and funding was obtained from Screen Australia, Screen West, Screen NSW, Tourism WA and Fulcrum Media Finance.
Shooting took 31 days in August–September 2011 in south west Western Australia. The film was released in Australia in early 2013. On its opening weekend it earned $268,570 at the box office making an average of $1,918 across 140 screens. Still playing in Australian cinemas in its twelfth week of release, it's grossed over $938,000. Official selection Hamptons Film Festival 2013 Official selection Newport Beach Film Festival 2013 Official selection Maui International Film Festival 2013 Official selection Rincon International Film Festival 2013 Critical response has been strong, including positive reviews from some of Australia's most respected critics. "An entertaining ride with startling cinematography" - Roger Moore, McClatchy - Tribune News Service. "Four Stars" - Margaret At The Movies. ABC1. "I had a ball. It's funny and truthful... and the surfing takes your breath away" - Paul Byrnes, The Sydney Morning Herald. "Great story, great cast... 5 stars... Best Aussie film since The Castle" - Jason Davis, Weekend Sunrise Seven Network.
"Pollard and Samuel are excellent" - The Australian. "O’Neill’s story of innovation against the odds and young manhood continually surprises and engages" - Daniel Murphy, Empire "Four Stars" - The Australian. "Exquisitely shot and warmly crafted" - Erin Free, FilmInk. "Thrilling... compelling" - Nick Dent, Time Out Sydney. "The best surfing I've seen in a feature film" - Stu Nettle, Swellnet. "Drift is that rare thing: an Australian surf film with not just spectacular wave action but an engaging story" - Garry Maddox, Sydney Morning Herald. Official website Drift on IMDb Review at The Australian Drift at Hopscotch Films Drift at At the Movies Review at Sydney Morning Herald Review at Filmink Article at Sydney Morning Herald Review at Time Out
Daily News (Perth, Western Australia)
The Daily News a successor of The Inquirer and The Inquirer and Commercial News, was an afternoon daily English language newspaper published in Perth, Western Australia, from 1882 to 1990, though its origin is traceable from 1840. A Saturday edition was published as the Western Mail, which became the Weekend Mail and, in the 1960s, the Weekend News which ceased to be published in the mid-1980s. One of the early newspapers of the Western Australian colony was The Inquirer, established by Francis Lochee and William Tanner on 5 August 1840. Lochee became sole proprietor and editor in 1843 until May 1847 when he sold the operation to the paper's former compositor Edmund Stirling. In July 1855, The Inquirer merged with the established Commercial News and Shipping Gazette, owned by Robert John Sholl, as The Inquirer & Commercial News, it ran under the joint ownership of Sholl. Sholl departed and, from April 1873, the paper was produced by Stirling and his three sons, trading as Stirling & Sons. Edmund Stirling retired five years and his three sons took control as Stirling Bros and Co, Ltd.
Stirling Bros launched the Daily News on 26 July 1882. After 28 June 1901 The Commercial News was incorporated into the Daily News. A Saturday edition, published as the Western Mail, was popular in country areas; this newspaper became the Weekend Mail and, in the 1960s, the Weekend News. It was closed in the mid-1980s; the Weekend Magazine of the Daily News was incorporated into The West Australian. Competition from television evening news resulted in losses in circulation and eventual cessation of most Australian afternoon newspapers; the Daily News came to be a wholly owned subsidiary of West Australian Newspapers itself a subsidiary of the Melbourne-based Herald and Weekly Times organisation. In the late 1980s, WAN was acquired by the ill-fated Bond Corporation's subsidiary the Bell Group. In 1986, Holmes à Court sold the Daily News to a small company headed by businessman Simon Hadfield; the newspaper moved to a renovated pie factory on the outskirts of the CBD. Its last issue was on 11 September 1990.
Former staff hold 5-yearly reunions. On 2 May 1990, British publishing magnate Robert Maxwell's UK-based Mirror Group bought 14.9 per cent of Bell from the group's managing director, David Aspinall. However, the deal did not proceed, being opposed by the federal government under its media foreign ownership policy; the Government of Western Australia legislated to retrospectively place the Daily News beyond the jurisdiction of the Trade Practices Commission—a move which the Liberal Opposition condemned as prejudicial to Commonwealth-State relations. The paper was defunct and in receivership, owing over $15 million to The West Australian for production costs. WAN was the subject of a successful stock-market float in 1992, following closure of the Daily News. Alfred Carson John Cornell James Cruthers Frank Devine Alison Fan Kim Hagdorn Bill Lang Alan Langoulant Arthur Lovekin Paul Murray Amanda Platell Paul Rigby Kirwan Ward In November 1893, William John Hardy joined the Daily News as the first pictorial engraver in the state.
His first engraving was of Reverend Dr Llewelyn D. Bevan. Prior to Mr Hardy's arrival illustrations were sourced from Sydney. By late 1894 photographic processes replaced illustrating the news with engraved works; the Daily News was published from 26 July 1882 to 11 September 1990. The paper incorporated the Morning Herald from 6 July 1886 and the Inquirer and Commercial News from 28 June 1901. A Saturday edition ran from 6 August 1960 to 29 March 1986, titled Weekend News. From 19 February 1966 to 3 April 1971 there was an additional Saturday colour supplement, titled Weekend Magazine. Other supplements include: Fremantle News, 28 April 1949 to 7 April 1971 Fremantle-Cockburn News, 14 April 1971 to 24 May 1984 North of the River News, 2 December 1959 to 22 February 1961 Metro, March 1987 to April 1987, a 16-page colour supplement in Wednesday's Daily News. Issues of this newspaper have been digitised as part of the Australian Newspapers Digitisation Program, a project of the National Library of Australia in cooperation with the State Library of Western Australia.
Hard copy and microfilm copies of the Daily News are available in at the State Library of Western Australia. List of newspapers in Australia List of newspapers in Western Australia The West Australian Western Mail Available at Trove: Daily News The Inquirer The Inquirer and Commercial News
The Noongar are a constellation of peoples of Indigenous Australian descent who live in the south-west corner of Western Australia, from Geraldton on the west coast to Esperance on the south coast. Noongar country is now understood as referring to the land occupied by 14 different groups: Amangu, Yued, Koreng, Njakinjaki, Pibelmen, Wardandi, Whadjuk and Wudjari; the members of the collective Noongar cultural block descend from peoples who spoke several languages and dialects that were mutually intelligible. What is now classed as the Noongar language is a member of the large Pama-Nyungan language family. Contemporary Noongar speak Australian Aboriginal English laced with Noongar words and inflected by its grammar. Most contemporary Noongar trace their ancestry to more than one of these groups; the 2001 census figures showed that 21,000 people identified themselves as indigenous in the south-west of Western Australia. The endonym of the Noongar comes from a word meaning "man" or "person". At the time of European settlement it is believed that the peoples of what became the Noongar community spoke thirteen dialects, of which five still had speakers with some living knowledge of their respective versions of the language.
No speakers use it over the complete range of everyday speaking situations, the full resources of the language are available only to a few individuals. The Noongar peoples had variously, according to their territory, to adapt to four different Mediterranean-type climatic zones, with dry spells varying from as few as three to as many as eleven months. Tribes were spread over three different geological systems: the coastal plains, the plateau, the plateau margins, all areas characterized by infertile soil; the north was characterized by casuarina and melaleuca thickets, the south by mulga scrubland but it supported dense forest stands. Several rivers ran to the coast and with lakes and wetlands provided the Noongar with their distinctive food and vegetation resources, depend on locality. Noongar made a living by hunting and trapping a variety of game, including kangaroos and wallabies. An extensive range of edible wild plants were available, including yams and wattle seeds. Nuts of the zamia palm, eaten during the Djeran season required extensive treatment to remove its toxicity, for women may have had a contraceptive effect.
The forebears of the Noongar, as early as 10,000 BP, utilised quartz, replacing chert flint for spear and knife edges, when the chert deposit was submerged by sea level rise during the Flandrian transgression. Before the arrival of Europeans, the Noongar population has been variously estimated at between 6,000 and some tens of thousands. Colonisation by the British brought both violence and new diseases, taking a heavy toll on the population; the Noongar, like many other Aboriginal peoples, saw the arrival of Europeans as the returning of deceased people imagining them as relatives who deserved accommodation. As they approached from the west, the newcomers were called djaanga, meaning "white spirits". Relations were cordial. Matthew Flinders recognized the success of his three-week sojourn as due in good part to Noongar diplomacy, Noongar rituals celebrated their reception of the newcomers in a ceremonial form; when settlement became more established, misunderstandings over the obligations of reciprocity – some of the most productive land was being taken on the Upper Swan – led to sporadic clashes.
An example of such misunderstandings was the Noongar land-management practice of setting fires in early summer, mistakenly seen as an act of hostility by the settlers. Conversely, the Noongar saw the settlers' livestock as fair game to replace the dwindling stocks of native animals shot indiscriminately by settlers; the only area that resisted the usurpation of native land for any time was the area around the Murray River, which blocked expansion of the tiny settlement at Mandurah for half a decade. In June 1832 a Whadjuk leader, Yagan of good standing among the settler authorities and known in the colony for his handsome bearing, "tall, well-fashioned..of pleading countenance", together with his father Midgegooroo and brother Monday, declared an outlaw after undertaking a series of food raids and revenge attacks in retaliation for some 16 Whadjuk, killed since the establishment of the settlement. Caught and imprisoned, he escaped and was let alone, as though informally reprieved as a native version of William Wallace.
His father was caught, killed without trial by a military firing squad. Yagan himself, with a bounty on his head, was ambushed soon afterwards by an 18-year-old settler youth, after he had stopped 2 settlers and asked for flour, his corpse was decapitated and the skull sent to England for display in fairgrounds. Yagan is now considered a Noongar hero, by many to have been one of the first indigenous resistance fighters. Matters escalated with conflicts between the settlement of Thomas Peel and the Pindjarup people, resulting in the Pinjarra massacre. Struggles with Balardong people in the Avon Valley continued until violently suppressed by Lieutenant Henry William St Pierre Bunbury. Notwithstanding this violence, extraordinary acts of goodwill existed. In the same year, 1834, the Swan River Noongar couple and Molly Dobbin, alerted to the fact a European child had gone missing, covered 22 miles in 10 hours tracking his spoor