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Nantes

Nantes is a city in Loire-Atlantique on the Loire, 50 km from the Atlantic coast. The city is the sixth-largest in France, with a population of 303,382 in Nantes and a metropolitan area of nearly 950,000 inhabitants. With Saint-Nazaire, a seaport on the Loire estuary, Nantes forms the main north-western French metropolis, it is the administrative seat of the Loire-Atlantique department and the Pays de la Loire région, one of 18 regions of France. Nantes belongs and culturally to Brittany, a former duchy and province, its omission from the modern administrative region of Brittany is controversial. Nantes was identified during classical antiquity as a port on the Loire, it was the seat of a bishopric at the end of the Roman era before it was conquered by the Bretons in 851. Although Nantes was the primary residence of the 15th-century dukes of Brittany, Rennes became the provincial capital after the 1532 union of Brittany and France. During the 17th century, after the establishment of the French colonial empire, Nantes became the largest port in France and was responsible for nearly half of the 18th-century French Atlantic slave trade.

The French Revolution resulted in an economic decline, but Nantes developed robust industries after 1850. Deindustrialisation in the second half of the 20th century spurred the city to adopt a service economy. In 2012, the Globalization and World Cities Research Network ranked Nantes as a Gamma world city, it is the fourth-highest-ranking city in France, after Paris and Marseille. The Gamma category includes cities such as Algiers, Porto and Leipzig. Nantes has been praised for its quality of life, it received the European Green Capital Award in 2013; the European Commission noted the city's efforts to reduce air pollution and CO2 emissions, its high-quality and well-managed public transport system and its biodiversity, with 3,366 hectares of green space and several protected Natura 2000 areas. Nantes is named after a tribe of Gaul, the Namnetes, who established a settlement between the end of the second century and the beginning of the first century BC on the north bank of the Loire near its confluence with the Erdre.

The origin of the name "Namnetes" is uncertain, but is thought to come from the Gaulish root *nant- or from Amnites, another tribal name meaning "men of the river". Its first recorded name was by the Greek writer Ptolemy, who referred to the settlement as Κονδηούινκον and Κονδιούινκον —which might be read as Κονδηούικον —in his treatise, Geography; the name was latinised during the Gallo-Roman period as Condevincum, Condevicnum and Condivincum. Although its origins are unclear, "Condevincum" seems to be related to the Gaulish word condate "confluence"; the Namnete root of the city's name was introduced at the end of the Roman period, when it became known as Portus Namnetum "port of the Namnetes" and civitas Namnetum "city of the Namnetes". Like other cities in the region, its name was replaced during the fourth century with a Gaulish one. Nantes' name continued to evolve, becoming Nanetiæ and Namnetis during the fifth century and Nantes after the sixth, via syncope. Nantes is pronounced, the city's inhabitants are known as Nantais.

In Gallo, the oïl language traditionally spoken in the region around Nantes, the city is spelled Naunnt or Nantt and pronounced identically to French, although northern speakers use a long. In Breton, Nantes is known as Naoned or an Naoned, the latter of, less common and reflects the more-frequent use of articles in Breton toponyms than in French ones. Nantes' historical nickname was "Venice of the West", a reference to the many quays and river channels in the old town before they were filled in during the 1920s and 1930s; the city is known as la Cité des Ducs "the City of the Dukes " for its castle and former role as a ducal residence. The first inhabitants of what is now Nantes settled during the Bronze Age than in the surrounding regions, its first inhabitants were attracted by small iron and tin deposits in the region's subsoil. The area exported tin, mined in Piriac, as far as Ireland. After about 1,000 years of trading, local industry appeared around 900 BC. Nantes may have been the major Gaulish settlement of Corbilo, on the Loire estuary, mentioned by the Greek historians Strabo and Polybius.

Its history from the seventh century to the Roman conquest in the first century BC is poorly documented, there is no evidence of a city in the area before the reign of Tiberius in the first century AD. During the Gaulish period it was the capital of the Namnetes people, who were allied with the Veneti in a territory extending to the northern bank of the Loire. Rivals in the area included the Pictones, who controlled the area south of the Loire in the city of Ratiatum until the end of the second century AD. Ratiatum, founded under Augustus, developed more than Nantes and was a major port in the region. Nantes began to grow; because tradesmen favoured inland roads rather than Atlantic routes, Nantes never became a large city under Roman occupation. Although it lacked a

Nigerian Electricity Regulatory Commission

Nigerian Electricity Regulatory Commission is an independent regulatory body with authority for the regulation of the electric power industry in Nigeria. NERC was formed in 2005 under the Obasanjo administration’s economic reform agenda through the Electric Power Sector Reform Act, 2005 for formation and review of electricity tariffs, transparent policies regarding subsidies, promotion of policies that are efficient and environmentally friendly, including forming and enforcing of standards in the creation and use of electricity in Nigeria. NERC was instituted to regulate the tariff of Power Generating companies owned or controlled by the government, any other generating company which has a license for power generation and transmission of energy, distribution of electricity. Electric power generation in Nigeria began in 1896. In 1929, the Nigeria Electric Supply Company was established. In 1951, the Electric Corporation of Nigeria was established to take over the assets of NESCO. In 1962, NDA was established to develop the hydropower potentials in Nigeria.

In 1972, ECN and NDA were merged to form NEPA, which metamorphosized to Power Holding Company of Nigeria, as a holding company for its imminent unbundling and subsequent privatization. The Federal Ministry of Power oversees the electric power sector in Nigeria, it served both as the regulator. The electric power sector in Nigeria started with the Niger Dams Authority which controlled the Dams around Shiroro and River Niger. Due to abysmal power crises in the whole of Nigeria, the government of President Olusegun Obasanjo made efforts through the National Council for Privatisation/Bureau for Public Service (under the leadership of Nasir Ahmad el-Rufai to reform the sector which has seen no investment or major government attention since the 1980s; the NERC was formed through the EPSRAct of 2005 and it was inaugurated on 30 October 2007 with Ramsome Owan as its first Chairman/CEO. Dr. Ransome Owan, a US trained scientist who once worked for GE, was appointed for a five-year term as the executive Chairman of NERC.

On his team included other Nigerians living in Diaspora who came in to work for NERC. NERC was given additional responsibilities for setting up and administering a fund called “Power Consumer Assistance Fund” which shall subsidize underprivileged power consumers in Nigeria, it had the mandate to regulate the rural systems and determine the contribution rates to be sent to the Rural Electrification Fund. The Commission's powers and duties are provided for in the EPSRAct 2005, ushered the privatization of electric power services in Nigeria, unbundling of the defunct National Electricity Power Authority /Power Holding Company of Nigeria. NERC’s primary duty is protect the interests of consumers, issue licenses to operators/investors and review electricity tariffs and where possible promote competition; the Commission's main objective is to protect existing and future consumers' interests in relation to electricity generated and that conveyed by distribution or transmission systems. Consumers' interests are their interests taken as a whole, including their interests in affordable tariffs and safe and available electricity supply, the reduction of greenhouse gases to them.

The Nigerian Electricity Regulatory Commission is governed by a tenured Board of Commissioners, headed by a Chairman. The Nigerian President nominates one nominee Commissioner to represent his/her geopolitical zone in the country for a fixed tenure of 4 years, renewable once only; the Chairman/CEO, has a period of 5 years renewable once only. The nominees are duly screened by the Nigerian Senate; the Board of Commission of NERC issues orders on electricity matters in Nigeria. It issues final license to investors/operators, it settles industrial disputes through its ADR mechanism in an open hearing. NERC is divided into seven Divisions: Office of the Chairman/CEO, Engineering and Safety Division and Management Services Division and Consumer Affairs Division, Legal Licensing and Enforcement Division, Market Competition and Rates Division, the Renewable Energy/Research and Development Division; the Electric Power Sector Reform Act of 2005 established NERC's authority to impose mandatory reliability standards on the transmission system and to impose penalties on companies that manipulate the electricity markets.

Since Independence from the UK, Nigeria has built 12 power plants. Nigeria produces as much electricity as North Dakota for 249 times more people, with blackouts 320 times per year per information from the World Bank; the EPSRAct of 2005 gave NERC additional responsibilities as outlined in NERC's Wide Important Goals. As part of that responsibility, NERC: Regulates the generation, transmission and marketing of electricity in Nigeria and with Nigeria. Monitors and investigates energy markets. In recent years, the NERC has been promoting the voluntary formation of Independent Electric Transmission Networks and I

Evans House

Evans House may refer to: in the United States Evans-Kirby House, Arkansas, listed on the National Register of Historic Places in Boone County Evans House, listed on the NRHP in Phoenix Byers-Evans House, Colorado, listed on the NRHP in downtown Denver Anne Evans Mountain Home, Colorado, Listed on the NRHP in Clear Creek County Ebenezer Evans House, Connecticut, listed on the NRHP in Hartford County George Evans House, Delaware, listed on the NRHP in New Castle County John Evans House, Delaware, listed on the NRHP in New Castle County J. B. Evans House, Delray Beach, listed on the NRHP in Palm Beach County Wheeler-Evans House, Florida, listed on the NRHP in Seminole County D. L. Evans, Sr. Bungalow, Malad City, listed on the NRHP in Oneida County Cole-Evans House, Indiana, listed on the NRHP in Hamilton County Edward B. and Nettie E. Evans House, Des Moines, listed on the NRHP in Polk County Henry and Elizabeth Adkinson Evans House, Iowa, listed on the NRHP in Madison County Evans House, Listed on the NRHP in Pulaski County Thomas P. Evans House, Kentucky, Listed on the NRHP in Monroe County Hudson-Evans House, Michigan, listed on the NRHP Musgrove Evans House, Michigan, listed on the NRHP Christmas Gift Evans House, Montana, listed on the NRHP Smith-Buntura-Evans House, Mississippi, listed on the NRHP in Adams County Dr. Carroll D. and Lorena R. North Evans House, Nebraska, listed on the NRHP in Platte County Amos Evans House, New Jersey, listed on the NRHP in Burlington County Stokes-Evans House, New Jersey, listed on the NRHP in Burlington County William and Susan Evans House, New Jersey, listed on the NRHP in Burlington County Evans-Cooper House, Pine Grove, New Jersey, Listed on the NRHP in New Jersey Evans-Gaige-Dillenback House, New York, listed on the NRHP Cornelius H. Evans House, New York, Listed on the NRHP E. Hervey Evans House, North Carolina, listed on the NRHP in North Carolina Mohrman-Jack-Evans House, Ohio, listed on the NRHP in Ohio Vaugh-Stacy-Evans Farm Historic District, Ohio, listed on the NRHP in Ohio Evans-Holton-Owens House, Ohio, listed on the NRHP in Ohio Wilson Bruce Evans House, Ohio, listed on the NRHP Evans House, listed on the NRHP in Vinton County Richard W. Evans House, Ohio, Listed on the NRHP in Ohio Ann Cunningham Evans House, Pennsylvania, Listed on the NRHP in Pennsylvania William and Mordecai Evans House, Limerick Township, Listed on the NRHP in Pennsylvania Benjamin Evans House, Pennsylvania, Listed on the NRHP in Pennsylvania Evans-Russell House, South Carolina, listed on the NRHP Brown-Evans House, South Dakota, listed on the NRHP in Walworth County John and Coralin Evans Ranch, South Dakota, listed on the NRHP in Meade County Robert H. Evans House, South Dakota, Listed on the NRHP in Lawrence County Green-Evans House, Tennessee, listed on the NRHP in Moore County Winston Evans House, Tennessee, listed on the NRHP in Bedford County J. W. Evans House, Texas, Listed on the NRHP in Taylor County Britton-Evans House, Corpus Christi, listed on the NRHP in Nueces County Annie Laurie Evans Hall, Prairie View, listed on the NRHP in Waller County Evans House No.

2, Prices Fork, listed on the NRHP Evans House, listed on the NRHP Evans-Tibbs House, Washington, D. C. listed on the NRHP John Evans House, West Virginia, listed on the NRHP Jonathan H. Evans House, Wisconsin, listed on the NRHP in Grant County