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Nantes Cathedral

Nantes Cathedral, or the Cathedral of St. Peter and St. Paul of Nantes, is a Roman Catholic church located in Nantes, Pays de la Loire, France; the cathedral is in the Gothic architectural tradition. Construction of the church began in 1434, on the site of a Romanesque cathedral, took 457 years to finish reaching completion in 1891, it has been listed since 1862 as a monument historique by the French Ministry of Culture. The reconstruction of the cathedral commenced during the early to mid-15th century during a time when Nantes and Brittany were commercially prosperous, initiating such large-scale architectural projects on a wide scale owing to the opportunist and skilful diplomatic policy of John V in a period of political turmoil and conflict with England; the cathedral's foundation stone was laid on 14 April 1434, by John V, Duke of Brittany and Jean de Malestroit, Bishop of Nantes. The first architect in charge was Guillaume de Dammartin, replaced by Mathurin Rodier; the construction began with the aisles of the nave and its lateral chapels.

Leniaud et al. divide the building process in five phases. The first phase took place between c. 1470. In this period the west façade and the tower bay were built, as were the south aisle of the nave with its chapels, the south arcade pillars; the bases of those pillars resemble the ones of the choir of Mont-Saint-Michel, begun after 1444. The arms of Duke John, who died in 1442, were placed in the staircase to the balcony, above the ducal portal, on the south side of the southern tower bay; the vaults in the belfry of that tower were decorated with the arms of Bishop Guillaume de Malestroit. The triforium of the tower bay was constructed in an earlier and different style than the one of the nave proper. Bronze decoration of the central portal's doors was undertaken in 1482; the second phase took place from c. 1470 to c. 1490. During this time the nave, the north aisle and its chapels were built, they were completed by 1485 or later. The west wall of the north transept and the north-west crossing pier up to capital height, were constructed in this period.

In the third phase, c.1500–1516, the glass in the great west window was installed, as a gift from Queen Anne. In 1500 took place the vaulting of the first bay of the nave. From 1508 to 1516 the eastern bay of the south aisle of the nave and its chapel was completed and vaulted; the financial support came from Bishop Guillaume Guegen and the architect was Jacques Drouet. The last phase is the post-medieval one, it spanned from c.1626 to 1630 and led to the completion of the nave high vaulting and the construction of the nave flyers. The south transept was completed sometime between 1631 and 1637 or later, in a sympathetic Gothic style. Louis Le Vau recommended to the Chapter at Nantes, in about 1650, to build the choir in a Gothic style; the rest of the north transept and the choir, under the direction of St. Felix Seheult, were finished between 1840 and 1891, at a time of keen revival of the Catholic faith; the long wait was due to the fact that the former Romanesque church was standing right next to the city's protective walls, which had to be taken down before completing the choir, while destroying the remains of the previous cathedral as it was covered by the larger, new one.

The edifice was damaged by Allied bombing during World War II, on 15 June 1944. On 28 January 1972, a gigantic fire started on the roof. Firemen managed to bring it under control, but the timber frame was damaged and many other damages were inflicted; this event led to what was undoubtedly the most complete interior restoration of a cathedral in France. The elevation and the regularity of the plan of the cathedral are French. Still the majority of the details are Late Gothic, e.g. the absence of capitals, the plinths with concave sides and separated bases for the shafts, the Flamboyant tracery, the masking of the piers by shafts. Height of the towers – 63 m Height of the roof – 49 m Height of nave – 37.5 m Interior width – 38.5 m Interior length – 103 m Length of the chancel – 30 m The facade of the Cathedral of Nantes is dominated by two large towers, stretching up above the top terrace. It presents several remarkable characteristics, e.g. the presence of an external pulpit, designed to preach to the crowd assembled on the square, the presence of five richly decorated gates, three of them on the façade and two to the sides.

The plain façade is compensated for by the polish of the interior of the building. The whiteness of the stone, accentuated by recent restoration work, the imposing dimensions of the nave and the aisles and the effect of the immense inner column create a Gothic atmosphere inside the cathedral. Inside the cathedral are the tomb of Francis II, Duke of Brittany and of his wife Marguerite de Foix, made at the beginning of the 16th century by Michel Colombe and Jean Perréal; the cathedral houses the cenotaph of General de Lamoricière, a monument set up in 1878 in papal homage to him. In front of the cathedral, on 5 September 1661, on the order of Louis XIV, Nicolas Fouquet was arrested by d'Artagnan. Cocke, T. H. Gothique Moderne: The Use of Gothic in Seventeenth Century France, In P. Crossley and

Weapons Storage and Security System

Weapons Storage and Security System is a system including electronic controls and vaults built into the floors of Protective Aircraft Shelters on several United States and NATO military airfields all over the world. These vaults are used for safe special weapons storage of tactical B61 nuclear bombs; the system was called within NATO the Weapon Security and Survivability System or Weapons Survivability and Security System. During the Cold War era on the US and NATO bases used by the Quick Reaction Alert readiness forces numbers of bombs were stored in a secured weapon storage area located on or in the vicinity of the base. The'specials' were located in nuclear weapon bunkers. Transporting them to and from the Quick Reaction Alert area during exercises and for logistic reasons always required a convoy with a large number of security forces which included a Security Alert Team, Backup Alert and Reserve Force team; the WS3 system consists of electronic monitoring and control systems. One vault can hold up to four nuclear weapons and in the lowered position provides ballistic protection through its hardened lid and reinforced sidewalls.

The WS3 system allowed storage directly underneath the aircraft intended to carry the bombs. The location inside the aircraft shelter increased the weapon survivability in case of any kind of attack and prevented monitoring of preparations to use the weapons; the electronic systems include various classified sensors, electronic data-transmission and security equipment such as video, motion detectors, closed circuit TV coupled with thermal imaging devices. These facilities enabled remote controlled weapon safety and made the large security forces obsolete. Deployment of the WS3 system was authorized in 1988, they were in widespread use by 1995. 215 WS3 vaults were built for the United States Air Forces in Europe at 13 sites in seven countries. Additionally 34 WS3 vaults were built for the Royal Air Force to store the WE.177 nuclear bomb. Bechtel National Inc. Main contractor for the construction program Mannesmann Anlagenbau, Düsseldorf, Germany subcontractor mechanical system parts. Paul Sparaco, WS3 Sustainment Program, U.

S. Air Force, retrieved 2010-10-09 Hans M. Kristensen, U. S. Nuclear Weapons in Europe, Natural Resources Defense Council, retrieved 2006-05-23 Nuclear Information: US nuclear weapons in Europe, Friends of the Earth, Flanders & Brussels Image of a WS3 vault holding British WE.177 nuclear bombs

Lincolnshire Community Health Services

Lincolnshire Community Health Services is an NHS organisation providing adult and children's community health services, such as district nursing and health visiting, in Lincolnshire. Its headquarters is in Sleaford; the Trust was established in 2011 as part of the Transforming Community Services initiative. It runs urgent care centres in Skegness and Louth, minor injuries units in Gainsborough and Spalding, a minor illness and injury unit in Peterborough, a walk in centre in Lincoln and GP Out-of-hours services across the county, it launched an occupational health musculoskeletal physiotherapy service in February 2015. The Children’s Therapy Service runs a web site with advice about child development, they offer advice and reassurance for parents whose children are starting school. Macmillan nurses are based at Spalding, it was named by the Health Service Journal as one of the top hundred NHS trusts to work for in 2015. At that time it had 1997 full-time equivalent staff and a sickness absence rate of 4.71%.

72 % of staff recommend it as a place for 56 % recommended it as a place to work. The Care Quality Commission rated it “outstanding” in September 2018, they said that "Without exception all staff were complimentary of the chief executive, his visibility and accessibility and leadership of the trust." Trust website