Brigantia was a goddess in Celtic religion of Late Antiquity. Through interpretatio Romana, she was equated with Victoria; the tales connected to the characters of Brigid and Saint Brigid in Irish mythology and legend have been argued to be connected to Brigantia although the figures themselves remain distinct. The name is derived from Proto-Celtic *Brigantī and means "The High One", cognate with the Old Irish name Brigit, the Old High German personal name Burgunt, the Sanskrit word Bṛhatī "high", an epithet of the Hindu dawn goddess Ushas, Avestan bǝrǝzaitī; the ultimate source is Proto-Indo-European *bʰr̥ǵʰéntih₂, derived from the root *bʰerǵʰ-. Seven inscriptions to Brigantia are known, all from Britain. At Birrens and Galloway, in Scotland, is an inscription: Brigantiae s Amandus / arcitectus ex imperio imp. Brigantia is assimilated to Victoria in two inscriptions, one from Castleford in Yorkshire and one from Greetland near Halifax in Yorkshire; the may be dated to 208 AD by mention of the consuls: D Vict Brig / et num Aauugg / T Aur Aurelian/us d d pro se / et suis s mag s // Antonin / III et Geta / cossAt Corbridge on Hadrians Wall - in antiquity, Coria - Brigantia has the divine epithet Caelestis and is paired with Jupiter Dolichenus: Iovi aeterno / Dolicheno / et caelesti / Brigantiae / et Saluti / C Iulius Ap/olinaris / | leg VI iuss deiThere is an inscription at Irthington, Yorkshire DEAE NYMPHAE BRIGANTIAE—"divine nymph Brigantia".
Garret Olmstead noted numismatic legends in Iberian script, BRIGANT_N inscribed on a Celtiberian coin, suggesting a cognate Celtiberian goddess. At Birrens, archaeologists have found a Roman-era stone bas-relief of a female figure; the inscription mentioned above assures the identification of the statue as Brigantia rather than Minerva. A statue found in Brittany seems to depict Brigantia with the attributes of Minerva. There are several placenames deriving from'Brigantium', the neuter form of the same adjective of which the feminine became the name of the goddess. Association of these with the goddess is however dubious, since the placenames are explained as referring to a "high fort" or "high place" in the literal sense. Lisa Bitel noted a wide spread through toponymy: The town of Bregenz, at the eastern end of Lake Constance in Austria, retains the older name of Brigantion, a tribal capital of a people called the Brigantii after a goddess Brigant; the rivers Brent in England, Braint in Wales, Brigid in Ireland are all related linguistically and maybe religiously to the root Brig/Brigant...
Ptolemy, a second-century geographer, did mention a tribe calling itself the Brigantes in Leinster. But nothing remains of the Irish Brigantes except this single tribal name on a Greek's map, the river Brigid, much literary references to saints and supernatural figures named Brigit. Other towns which may preserve this theonym include Brigetio in Hungary Brianconnet and Briançon, both in Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, France. In antiquity, Briançon was the first town on the Via Domitia, it is attested by an inscriptions mentioning munic Bri/gantione geniti. At Brianconnet, an inscription mentions ord Brig. There, oak trees were venerated; the ancient name of Bragança in Trás-os-Montes, was Brigantia. The inhabitants today are still called brigantinos. Braga is another town in Portugal, it is the capital of the district of the same name in the province of Minho. A short distance up the coast, the cities of A Coruña and Betanzos in present-day Galicia were named Brigantia and Brigantium. According to the Lebor Gabála Érenn Breogán found the city called Brigantia, built a tower there from the top of which his son Íth glimpses Ireland and sets sail across the Celtic Sea to invade and settle it.
Brigantes, Celtic tribe associated with Northern England Isurium Brigantum Breton language Breton people Année Epigraphique, yearly volumes. Bitel, Lisa M. "St. Brigit of Ireland: From Virgin Saint to Fertility Goddess" on-line) Claus, Manfredd. Online epigraphic search tool Ellis, Peter Berresford Dictionary of Celtic Mythology Oxford Paperback Reference, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-508961-8 Gree, Miranda The Gods of the Celts. Stroud, Sutton Publishing. ISBN 0-7509-1581-1 Green, Miranda Celtic Goddesses: Warriors and Mothers New York, pp 195–202. MacKillop, James Dictionary of Celtic Mythology. Oxford, Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-280120-1. Olmstead, Garret The Gods of the Celts and Indo-Europeans Budapest, pp 354–361 Roman Inscriptions of Britain. Wood, Juliette The Celts: Life and Art. Thorsons. ISBN 0-00-76
In architecture, a tympanum is the semi-circular or triangular decorative wall surface over an entrance, door or window, bounded by a lintel and arch. It contains sculpture or other imagery or ornaments. Most architectural styles include this element. In ancient Greek and Christian, tympana contain religious imagery, when on religious buildings. A tympanum over a doorway is often the most important, or only, location for monumental sculpture on the outside of a building. In classical architecture, in classicising styles from the Renaissance onwards, major examples are triangular; these shapes influence the typical compositions of any sculpture within the tympanum. Bands of molding surrounding the tympanum are referred to as the archivolt. In medieval French architecture the tympanum is supported by a decorated pillar called a trumeau. Church architecture Gable Pediment Portal Sculpted tympanums Chartres Cathedral, West Front, Central Portal Tympanum of the last Judgment - western portal of the abbey-church of Saint Foy
Cernunnos is the conventional name given in Celtic studies to depictions of the "horned god" of Celtic polytheism. Cernunnos was a Celtic god of fertility, animals and the underworld; the name itself is only attested once, on the 1st-century Pillar of the Boatmen, but he appears all over Gaul, among the Celtiberians. Cernunnos is depicted with the antlers of a stag, seated cross-legged, associated with animals, holding or wearing torcs; this deity is known from over 50 examples in the Gallo-Roman period in north-eastern Gaul. Not much is known about the god from literary sources, details about his name, his followers or his significance in Celtic religion are unknown. Speculative interpretations identify him as a god of life or fertility; the theonym ernunnos appears on the Pillar of the Boatmen, a Gallo-Roman monument dating to the early 1st century CE, to label a god depicted with stag's antlers in their early stage of annual growth. Both antlers have torcs hanging from them; the name has been compared to a divine epithet Carnonos in a Celtic inscription written in Greek characters at Montagnac, Hérault.
A Gallo-Latin adjective carnuātus, "horned," is found. The Proto-Celtic form of the theonym is reconstructed as either *Cerno-on-os or *Carno-on-os; the augmentative -on- is characteristic of theonyms, as in Maponos, Epona and Sirona. Maier states. Gaulish karnon "horn"is cognate with Latin cornu and Germanic *hurnaz, English horn from Proto-Indo-European *k̑r̥no-; the etymon karn- "horn" appears in both Gaulish and Galatian branches of Continental Celtic. Hesychius of Alexandria glosses the Galatian word karnon as "Gallic trumpet", that is, the Celtic military horn listed as the carnyx by Eustathius of Thessalonica, who notes the instrument's animal-shaped bell; the root appears in the names of Celtic polities, most prominent among them the Carnutes, meaning something like "the Horned Ones," and in several personal names found in inscriptions. The name Cernunnos occurs only on the "Pillar of the Boatmen", now displayed in the Musée National du Moyen Age in Paris. Constructed by Gaulish sailors in 14 CE, it was discovered in 1710 within the foundations of the cathedral of Notre-Dame de Paris, site of ancient Lutetia, the civitas capital of the Celtic Parisii.
The distinctive stone pillar is an important monument of Gallo-Roman religion. Its low reliefs depict and label by name several Roman deities such as Jupiter and Castor and Pollux, along with Gallic deities such as Esus and Tarvos Trigaranus; the name Cernunnos can be read on 18th century drawings of the inscriptions, but the initial letter has been obscured since, so that today only a reading ernunnos can be verifiedAdditional evidence is given by one inscription on a metal plaque from Steinsel-Rëlent in Luxembourg, in the territory of the Celtic Treveri. This inscription read; the Gaulish inscription from Montagnac reads αλλετνος καρνονου αλσοεας, with the last word a place name based on Alisia, "service-tree" or "rock". The god labelled ernunnos on the Pillar of the Boatmen is depicted with stag's antlers in their early stage of annual growth. Both antlers have torcs hanging from them; the lower part of the relief is lost, but the dimensions suggest that the god was sitting cross-legged, providing a direct parallel to the antlered figure on the Gundestrup cauldron.
In spite of the name Cernunnos being attested nowhere else, it is used in Celtological literature as describing all comparable depictions of horned/antlered deities. This "Cernunnos" type in Celtic iconography is portrayed with animals, in particular the stag, frequently associated with the ram-horned serpent, less bulls and rats; because of his frequent association with creatures, scholars describe Cernunnos as the "Lord of the Animals" or the "Lord of Wild Things", Miranda Green describes him as a "peaceful god of nature and fruitfulness". The Pilier des nautes links him with sailors and with commerce, suggesting that he was associated with material wealth as does the coin pouch from the Cernunnos of Rheims —in antiquity, the civitas capital of the Remi tribe—and the stag vomiting coins from Niedercorn-Turbelslach in the lands of the Treveri; the god may have symbolized the fecundity of the stag-inhabited forest. Other examples of "Cernunnos" images include a petroglyph in Val Camonica in Cisalpine Gaul.
The antlered human figure has been dated as late as the 4th. An antlered child appears on a relief from Vendeuvres, flanked by serpents and holding a purse and a torc; the best known image appears on the Gundestrup cauldron found on Jutland, dating to the 1st century BCE, thought to depict Celtic subject matter though regarded as of Thracian workmanship. Among the Celtiberians, horned or antlered figures of the Cernunnos type include a "Janus-like" god from Candelario with two faces and two small horns; the horns are taken to represent "aggressive power, genetic vigor and fecundity."Divine representations of the Cernunnos type are exceptions to the often-expressed view that the Celts only began to picture their gods in human form after the Roman conquest of Gaul. Th
Matres and Matronae
The Matres and Matronae were female deities venerated in Northwestern Europe, of whom relics are found dating from the first to the fifth century. They are depicted on votive offerings and altars that bear images of goddesses, depicted entirely in groups of three, that feature inscriptions and were venerated in regions of Germania, Eastern Gaul, Northern Italy that were occupied by the Roman army from the first to the fifth century. Matres appear on votive reliefs and inscriptions in other areas occupied by the Roman army, including southeast Gaul, as at Vertillum. Matres and Matronae appear depicted on both stones with inscriptions and without, both as altars and votives. All depictions are frontal, they appear exclusively in threes with at least one figure holding a basket of fruit in her lap, the women are either standing or sitting. In some depictions, the middle figure is depicted with loose hair and wearing a headband, the other two wear head dresses. In addition, snakes and nappies appear.
Other motifs include depictions of sacrifice—including burning incense and bowls filled with fruit—and decorations of fruits and trees. In most cases, the votive stones and altars are not found singularly, but rather in groups around temple buildings and cult centers. Scholars connect the Germanic Matres with the dísir and norns attested in 13th century sources; the motif of triple goddesses was widespread in ancient Europe. Rudolf Simek comments that the loose hair may point to maidenhood, whereas the head dresses may refer to married women, the snakes may refer to an association with the souls of the dead or the underworld, the children and nappies seem to indicate that the Matres and Matronae held a protective function over the family, as well as a particular function as midwives. Information about the religious practices surrounding the Matres is limited to the stones on which their depictions and inscriptions are found, of which over 1,100 exist. Motifs include depictions of sacrifice—including burning incense and bowls filled with fruit—and decorations of fruits and trees.
In most cases, the votive stones and altars are not found singularly, but rather in groups around temple buildings and cult centers. R. Pascal theorizes that The Three Marys may be Christianized versions of the Matronae. Dea Matrona Mōdraniht Nehalennia Suleviae
Art is a diverse range of human activities in creating visual, auditory or performing artifacts, expressing the author's imaginative, conceptual ideas, or technical skill, intended to be appreciated for their beauty or emotional power. In their most general form these activities include the production of works of art, the criticism of art, the study of the history of art, the aesthetic dissemination of art; the three classical branches of art are painting and architecture. Music, film and other performing arts, as well as literature and other media such as interactive media, are included in a broader definition of the arts; until the 17th century, art referred to any skill or mastery and was not differentiated from crafts or sciences. In modern usage after the 17th century, where aesthetic considerations are paramount, the fine arts are separated and distinguished from acquired skills in general, such as the decorative or applied arts. Though the definition of what constitutes art is disputed and has changed over time, general descriptions mention an idea of imaginative or technical skill stemming from human agency and creation.
The nature of art and related concepts, such as creativity and interpretation, are explored in a branch of philosophy known as aesthetics. In the perspective of the history of art, artistic works have existed for as long as humankind: from early pre-historic art to contemporary art. One early sense of the definition of art is related to the older Latin meaning, which translates to "skill" or "craft," as associated with words such as "artisan." English words derived from this meaning include artifact, artifice, medical arts, military arts. However, there are many other colloquial uses of all with some relation to its etymology. Over time, philosophers like Plato, Aristotle and Kant, among others, questioned the meaning of art. Several dialogues in Plato tackle questions about art: Socrates says that poetry is inspired by the muses, is not rational, he speaks approvingly of this, other forms of divine madness in the Phaedrus, yet in the Republic wants to outlaw Homer's great poetic art, laughter as well.
In Ion, Socrates gives no hint of the disapproval of Homer. The dialogue Ion suggests that Homer's Iliad functioned in the ancient Greek world as the Bible does today in the modern Christian world: as divinely inspired literary art that can provide moral guidance, if only it can be properly interpreted. With regards to the literary art and the musical arts, Aristotle considered epic poetry, comedy, dithyrambic poetry and music to be mimetic or imitative art, each varying in imitation by medium and manner. For example, music imitates with the media of rhythm and harmony, whereas dance imitates with rhythm alone, poetry with language; the forms differ in their object of imitation. Comedy, for instance, is a dramatic imitation of men worse than average. Lastly, the forms differ in their manner of imitation—through narrative or character, through change or no change, through drama or no drama. Aristotle believed that imitation is natural to mankind and constitutes one of mankind's advantages over animals.
The more recent and specific sense of the word art as an abbreviation for creative art or fine art emerged in the early 17th century. Fine art refers to a skill used to express the artist's creativity, or to engage the audience's aesthetic sensibilities, or to draw the audience towards consideration of more refined or finer work of art. Within this latter sense, the word art may refer to several things: a study of a creative skill, a process of using the creative skill, a product of the creative skill, or the audience's experience with the creative skill; the creative arts are a collection of disciplines which produce artworks that are compelled by a personal drive and convey a message, mood, or symbolism for the perceiver to interpret. Art is something that stimulates an individual's thoughts, beliefs, or ideas through the senses. Works of art can be explicitly made for this purpose or interpreted on the basis of images or objects. For some scholars, such as Kant, the sciences and the arts could be distinguished by taking science as representing the domain of knowledge and the arts as representing the domain of the freedom of artistic expression.
If the skill is being used in a common or practical way, people will consider it a craft instead of art. If the skill is being used in a commercial or industrial way, it may be considered commercial art instead of fine art. On the other hand and design are sometimes considered applied art; some art followers have argued that the difference between fine art and applied art has more to do with value judgments made about the art than any clear definitional difference. However fine art has goals beyond pure creativity and self-expression; the purpose of works of art may be to communicate ideas, such as in politically, spiritually, or philosophically motivated art. The purpose may be nonexistent; the nature of art has been described by philosopher Richard Wollheim as "one of the most elusive of the traditional problems of human culture". Art has been defined as a vehicle for the expression or communication of emotions and ideas, a means for exp
Dīs Pater was a Roman god of the underworld. Dis was associated with fertile agricultural land and mineral wealth, since those minerals came from underground, he was equated with the chthonic deities Pluto and Orcus. Dīs Pater was shortened to Dīs and this name has since become an alternative name for the underworld or a part of the underworld, such as the City of Dis of Dante's The Divine Comedy, which comprises Lower Hell, it is thought that Dīs Pater was a Celtic god. This confusion arises from the second-hand citation of one of Julius Caesar's comments in his Commentaries on the Gallic Wars, where he says that the Gauls all claimed descent from Dīs Pater. However, Caesar's remark is a clear example of interpretatio Romana: what Caesar meant was that the Gauls all claimed descent from a Gaulish god that reminded him of the Roman Dīs Pater, a scholia on the Pharsalia equates Dis Pater with Taranis, the chief sky deity in the Gaulish religion. Different possible candidates exist for this role in Celtic religion, such as Gaulish Sucellus, Irish Donn and Welsh Beli Mawr, among others.
In De Natura Deorum, Cicero derives the name of Dīs Pater from the Latin dives, suggesting a meaning of "father of riches", directly corresponding to the name Pluto, Pluto being how Plouton is spelled is Latin.. According to some 19th century authors, many of Cicero's etymological derivations are not to be taken and may indeed have been intended ironically. Alternatively, he may be a secondary reflex of the same god as Jupiter. Dīs Pater became associated with death and the underworld because mineral wealth such as gems and precious metals came from underground, wherein lies the realm of the dead, i.e. Hades' domain. In being conflated with Pluto, Dīs Pater took on some of the latter's mythological attributes, being one of the three sons of Saturn and Ops, along with Jupiter and Neptune, he ruled the dead beside his wife, Proserpina. In literature, Dīs Pater's name was used as a symbolic and poetic way of referring to death itself. In 249 BC and 207 BC, the Roman Senate under senator Lucius Catellius ordained special festivals to appease Dīs Pater and Proserpina.
Every hundred years, a festival was celebrated in his name. According to legend, a round marble altar, Altar of Dīs Pater and Proserpina, was miraculously discovered by the servants of a Sabine called Valesius, the ancestor of the first consul; the servants were digging in the Tarentum on the edge of the Campus Martius to lay foundations following instructions given to Valesius's children in dreams, when they found the altar 20 feet underground. Valesius reburied the altar after three days of games. Sacrifices were offered to this altar during the Ludi Saeculares or Ludi Tarentini, it may have been uncovered for each occasion of the games, to be reburied afterwards, a chthonic tradition of worship. It was rediscovered in 1886–87 beneath the Corso Vittorio Emanuele in Rome. In addition to being considered the ancestor of the Gauls, Dīs Pater was sometimes identified with the Sabine god Soranus. In southern Germany and the Balkans, Dīs Pater had Aericura, as a consort. Dīs Pater was associated with foreign deities in the shortened form of his name, Dis.
Demeter Dievas Dyaus Pita Hades Tiwaz Zeus Crom Media related to Dīs Pater at Wikimedia Commons
Celtic mythology is the mythology of Celtic polytheism, the religion of the Iron Age Celts. Like other Iron Age Europeans, the early Celts maintained a polytheistic mythology and religious structure. For Celts in close contact with Ancient Rome, such as the Gauls and Celtiberians, their mythology did not survive the Roman Empire, their subsequent conversion to Christianity and the loss of their Celtic languages, it is through contemporary Roman and Christian sources that their mythology has been preserved. The Celtic peoples who maintained either political or linguistic identities left vestigial remnants of their ancestral mythologies that were put into written form during the Middle Ages. Although the Celtic world at its height covered much of western and central Europe, it was not politically unified nor was there any substantial central source of cultural influence or homogeneity. Inscriptions of more than three hundred deities equated with their Roman counterparts, have survived, but of these most appear to have been genii locorum, local or tribal gods, few were worshiped.
However, from what has survived of Celtic mythology, it is possible to discern commonalities which hint at a more unified pantheon than is given credit. The nature and functions of these ancient gods can be deduced from their names, the location of their inscriptions, their iconography, the Roman gods they are equated with, similar figures from bodies of Celtic mythology. Celtic mythology is found in a number of distinct, if related, subgroups corresponding to the branches of the Celtic languages: Ancient Celtic religion mythology in Goidelic languages, represented chiefly by Irish mythology Mythological Cycle Ulster Cycle Fenian Cycle Cycles of the Kings mythology in Brittonic languages Welsh mythology Cornish mythology Breton mythology As a result of the scarcity of surviving materials bearing written Gaulish, it is surmised that the most of the Celtic writings were destroyed by the Romans, although a written form of Gaulish using Greek and North Italic alphabets was used. Julius Caesar attests to the literacy of the Gauls, but wrote that their priests, the druids, were forbidden to use writing to record certain verses of religious significance while noting that the Helvetii had a written census.
Rome introduced a more widespread habit of public inscriptions, broke the power of the druids in the areas it conquered. Although early Gaels in Ireland and parts of modern Wales used the Ogham script to record short inscriptions, more sophisticated literacy was not introduced to Celtic areas that had not been conquered by Rome until the advent of Christianity. Indeed, many Gaelic myths were first recorded by Christian monks, albeit without most of their original religious meanings; the oldest body of myths stemming from the Heroic Age is found only from the early medieval period of Ireland. As Christianity began to take over, the gods and goddesses were eliminated as such from the culture. What has survived includes material dealing with the Tuatha Dé Danann and the Fomorians, which forms the basis for the text Cath Maige Tuired "The Battle of Mag Tuireadh", as well as portions of the history-focused Lebor Gabála Érenn; the Tuatha Dé represent the functions of human society such as kingship and war, while the Fomorians represent chaos and wild nature.
The leader of the gods for the Irish pantheon appears to have been the Dagda. The Dagda was the figure on which male humans and other gods were based because he embodied ideal Irish traits. Celtic gods were considered to be a clan due to their lack of specialization and unknown origins; the particular character of the Dagda was as a figure of burlesque lampoonery in Irish mythology, some authors conclude that he was trusted to be benevolent enough to tolerate jokes at his own expense. Irish tales depict the Dagda as a figure of power, armed with a club. In Dorset there is a famous outline of an ithyphallic giant known as the Cerne Abbas Giant with a club cut into the chalky soil. While this was produced in modern times, it was long thought to be a representation of the Dagda; this has been called into question by recent studies which show that there may have been a representation of what looks like a large drapery hanging from the horizontal arm of the figure, leading to suspicion that this figure represents Hercules, with the skin of the Nemean lion over his arm and carrying the club he used to kill it.
In Gaul, it is speculated that the Dagda is associated with Sucellus, the striker, equipped with a hammer and cup. The Morrígan was a tripartite battle goddess of the Celts of Ancient Ireland, she was known as the Morrígan, but the different sections she was divided into were referred to as Nemain and Badb, with each representing different aspects of combat. She is most known for her involvement in the Táin Bó Cúailnge