Copia: The American Center for Wine, Food & the Arts was a non-profit museum and educational center in downtown Napa, dedicated to wine and the arts of American culture. The center and funded by vintners Robert and Margrit Mondavi, was open from 2001 to 2008; the 78,632-square-foot museum had galleries, two theaters, classrooms, a demonstration kitchen, a restaurant, a rare book library, a 3.5-acre vegetable and herb garden. The main and permanent exhibition of the museum, "Forks in the Road", explained the origins of cooking through to modern advances; the museum's establishment benefited the city of Napa and the development and gentrification of its downtown. Copia hosted its opening celebration on November 18, 2001. Among other notable people, Julia Child helped fund the venture, which established a restaurant named Julia's Kitchen. Copia struggled to achieve its anticipated admissions, had difficulty in repaying its debts. Proceeds from ticket sales and donations attempted to support Copia's payoff of debt, educational programs and exhibitions, but were not sufficient.
After numerous changes to the museum to increase revenue, Copia closed on November 21, 2008. Its library was donated to Napa Valley College and its Julia Child cookware was sent to the National Museum of American History; the 12-acre property had been for sale since its closure. The college opened its campus, the Culinary Institute of America at Copia, which houses the CIA's new Food Business School; the original name for the museum was the American Center for Wine and the Arts, though before opening it was additionally named after Copia, the Roman goddess of wealth and plenty. According to Joseph Spence in Polymetis, Copia is a name used to describe the goddess Abundantia in poetry, was referred to as Bona Copia in Ovid's Metamorphoses; the city of Napa has not received as many wine country tourists as the cities north of it. A $300 million flood management project around the turn of the 21st century to widen the Napa River and raise bridges prompted building developments. In the early 2000s, a large development was completed in the downtown area, as well as several hotels.
Copia and the nearby Oxbow Public Market were two large developments constructed around that time to increase tourist and media focus on the city of Napa. The museum opened in two months after the September 11 attacks; the museum's visitor attendance was much lower than. From the late 1800s to around the 1990s, the Rossi-Massa-Vallerga Garden stood at Copia's site. At the time the site was constructed, it was part of Rancho Entre Napa, a large land grant given while California was a Mexican province; the site consisted of garden. The complex consisted of about eight structures—houses, wagon sheds, a barn—arranged around a central space without any dominant building; the oldest of these dated to around 1880. The layout was unique within the city of Napa, may have been unique within California; the site differentiated from most agricultural sites by facing away from the road, with no distinct difference between middle-class and workers' houses, in size, finishing, or location. Many of the buildings shared walls or were built abutting each other, two of the houses were built over a single basement.
Between 1872 and 1880, Giovanni and Antonio Rossi, cousins born in Italy, began operating a vegetable garden on the property. Italian immigrant Giuseppe Vallerga purchased the property and farmed it to supply his produce stand and delivery service. Vegetable production ceased in 1957 upon his death, his son, Joe Vallerga built a grocery store on part of the site, the Vallerga family continued to own the property until the 1990s. In 1996, the city of Napa's Cultural Heritage Commission published a staff report which described the site as being eligible for the National Register of Historic Places; the commission described the site as an "important part of the Italian presence and heritage in Napa County" and recognized the garden as an authentic representation of Italian landscape organization, a distinctive feature of the city's cultural landscape, an influence on the city's agricultural development in the late 1800s and early 1900s. In 1988, vintner Robert Mondavi, his wife Margrit Mondavi, other members of the wine industry began to look into establishing an institution in Napa County to educate and celebrate American excellence and achievements in the culinary arts, visual arts, winemaking.
Three organizations supported the museum: the University of California at Davis, the Cornell University School of Hotel Administration, the American Institute of Wine & Food. In 1993, Robert Mondavi bought and donated the land for Copia for $1.2 million, followed by a lead gift of $20 million. Mondavi chose the downtown Napa location with urging from his wife. James Polshek was hired by the foundation as the architect for the building in October 1994. Subsequently, the "Founding Seventy", supporters from Napa Valley and the surrounding Bay Area, made substantial donations. Initial financing for Copia was $55 million, along with a $78 million bond prior to opening in 2001; when the organization purchased the property, it was an empty lot next to a tire store. Construction of the facility triggered the development of hotels, restaurants, an
Napa is the largest city and the county seat of Napa County, in California's Wine Country. It is the principal city of the Napa County Metropolitan Statistical Area, with a population of 80,011 as of the 2010 census, it is the second-largest city in California's Wine Country, after Santa Rosa. Napa was incorporated as a city in 1872; the name "Napa" was derived from the name given to a southern Nappan village whose native people shared the area with elk, deer and cougars for many centuries, according to Napa historian Kami Santiago. At the time of the first recorded exploration into Napa Valley in 1823, the majority of the inhabitants consisted of Native American Indians. Padre José Altimira, founder of Mission San Francisco Solano in Sonoma, led the expedition. Spanish priests converted some natives. American farmers began arriving in the 1830s. Before California was granted statehood in 1849, the Napa Valley was in the Territory of California's District of Sonoma. In 1850 when counties were first organized, Napa became one of the original counties of California.
At the time, its boundaries included Lake County to the north. By this time, the indigenous people were either working as field laborers or living in small bands in the hills surrounding the valley. Tensions between the white settlers and Native Americans broke into war in 1850, with a white man's death resulting in soldiers hunting down and killing all the natives they could find, driving the remainder north toward Clear Lake. In 1851, the first courthouse was erected. By 1870, the Native American population consisted of only a few laborers and servants working for the white settlers; the City of Napa was founded by Nathan Coombs in 1847. It was not the plan of General Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo, he had paid to survey for a township down river at Soscol Landing where riverboats could turn around. The Napa town site was surveyed by James M. Hudspeth on property Coombs had received from Nicolas Higuera, original holder of the Rancho Entre Napa Mexican land grant; the first business establishment in the town was a saloon built by Harrison Pierce, a former miller at the Bale Grist Mill.
Napa's first general store was opened a year in 1848 by Joseph P. Thompson; the first record of a ship navigating the river was the Susana in 1842. John Sutter's schooner the Sacramento landed in 1844 to pick up a load of lime and deliver passengers. By 1850 the Dolphin became the first passenger steamship to navigate the Napa River in order to open another path of commerce. In the mid-1850s, Napa's Main Street rivaled that of many larger cities, with as many as 100 saddle horses tied to the fences on an average afternoon. John Patchett opened the first commercial winery in the county in 1859; the vineyard and wine cellar were located in an area, now within the city limits of Napa. The Lyceum movement established an agricultural society was started; the Napa Reporter founded by Alexander J. Cox in 1856 published its first weekly edition on July 4 of that year; the Napa Valley Register founded by J. I. Horrell and L. Hoxie Strong made its debut on August 10, 1863 with weekly publications until becoming a daily newspaper in 1872.
Nathan Coombs and many other important city founders and builders are buried nearby in Tulocay Cemetery. Many Bear Flag Riders are buried here with their adversary Salvador Vallejo. At the entrance is the tomb of Mary Pleasant, considered the Mother of Civil Rights in California; the California Gold Rush of the late 1850s expanded Napa City. After the first severe winter in the gold fields, miners sought refuge in the young city from snow, cold and disease. A tent city was erected along Main Street. There was plenty of work in the valley for disillusioned miners. Many cattle ranches were maintained, the lumber industry had expanded. Sawmills in the valley were in operation cutting up timber, hauled by team to Napa, shipped out on the river to Benicia and San Francisco. In 1858 the great silver rush began in Napa Valley, miners eagerly flocked to the eastern hills. In the 1860s, mining carried on, in a large scale, with quicksilver mines operating in many areas of Napa County; the most noted mine was the Silverado Mine, near the summit of Mount Saint Helena.
The mine was immortalized by Robert Louis Stevenson in his classic The Silverado Squatters. At this time, the first wave of rural, foreign laborers from coastal villages of China's Canton province arrived in California, at Napa County mines. Global investment bankers and national trading companies British, imported this first wave of workers to do the manual jobs needed to build the area's infrastructure. In contrast, the 49ers were literate, Anglo-Americans "from the East" concerned about the rights of labor. Gold rush wages were high with California enjoying an "island" demand for workers; this condition set in motion a clash. The opportunistic "Socialist" Kearny led the Party to control the state government in the 1870s; these predominately Irish-German born newcomers passed the "anti-stick" legislation that led to the 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act by the US Congress. The racial difference against the Chinese, the end of slavery in Brazil, the civil war in the United States, saw the need to recruit a new group for doing the work to expand global trade and commerce.
For investors in Northern European ports engaged in Atlantic Ocean commerce, this reality changed the source of labor to Southern Europeans Catholic. The next wave of cheap laborers came from coastal provinces. In the 1880s, thes
Milliken Creek (California)
Milliken Creek is an 11.9-mile-long stream in Napa County, tributary to the Napa River. There are 7,300 acres in this watershed, of which 90 acres are developed as vineyards. Milliken Creek rises on the western slopes of the east side of the Napa Valley and flows through the Silverado Country Club property. Much of this watershed property had once been part of the Mexican land grant Rancho Yajome, granted to General Mariano G. Vallejo. Most of this watershed was wilderness area to at least 1869, thereafter the lower watershed was begun to be developed as pasture and grazing agricultural uses. In a 1989 stream survey by Earth Metrics, the steelhead fishery was found to be robust up to and including the Silverado Country Club. List of watercourses in the San Francisco Bay Area Napa River watershed
San Francisco the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural and financial center of Northern California. San Francisco is the 13th-most populous city in the United States, the fourth-most populous in California, with 884,363 residents as of 2017, it covers an area of about 46.89 square miles at the north end of the San Francisco Peninsula in the San Francisco Bay Area, making it the second-most densely populated large US city, the fifth-most densely populated U. S. county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. San Francisco is part of the fifth-most populous primary statistical area in the United States, the San Jose–San Francisco–Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area; as of 2017, it was the seventh-highest income county in the United States, with a per capita personal income of $119,868. As of 2015, San Francisco proper had a GDP of $154.2 billion, a GDP per capita of $177,968. The San Francisco CSA was the country's third-largest urban economy as of 2017, with a GDP of $907 billion.
Of the 500+ primary statistical areas in the US, the San Francisco CSA had among the highest GDP per capita in 2017, at $93,938. San Francisco was ranked 14th in the world and third in the United States on the Global Financial Centres Index as of September 2018. San Francisco was founded on June 29, 1776, when colonists from Spain established Presidio of San Francisco at the Golden Gate and Mission San Francisco de Asís a few miles away, all named for St. Francis of Assisi; the California Gold Rush of 1849 brought rapid growth, making it the largest city on the West Coast at the time. San Francisco became a consolidated city-county in 1856. San Francisco's status as the West Coast's largest city peaked between 1870 and 1900, when around 25% of California's population resided in the city proper. After three-quarters of the city was destroyed by the 1906 earthquake and fire, San Francisco was rebuilt, hosting the Panama-Pacific International Exposition nine years later. In World War II, San Francisco was a major port of embarkation for service members shipping out to the Pacific Theater.
It became the birthplace of the United Nations in 1945. After the war, the confluence of returning servicemen, significant immigration, liberalizing attitudes, along with the rise of the "hippie" counterculture, the Sexual Revolution, the Peace Movement growing from opposition to United States involvement in the Vietnam War, other factors led to the Summer of Love and the gay rights movement, cementing San Francisco as a center of liberal activism in the United States. Politically, the city votes along liberal Democratic Party lines. A popular tourist destination, San Francisco is known for its cool summers, steep rolling hills, eclectic mix of architecture, landmarks, including the Golden Gate Bridge, cable cars, the former Alcatraz Federal Penitentiary, Fisherman's Wharf, its Chinatown district. San Francisco is the headquarters of five major banking institutions and various other companies such as Levi Strauss & Co. Gap Inc. Fitbit, Salesforce.com, Reddit, Inc. Dolby, Weebly, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Pinterest, Uber, Mozilla, Wikimedia Foundation and Weather Underground.
It is home to a number of educational and cultural institutions, such as the University of San Francisco, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco State University, the De Young Museum, the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, the California Academy of Sciences. As of 2019, San Francisco is the highest rated American city on world liveability rankings; the earliest archaeological evidence of human habitation of the territory of the city of San Francisco dates to 3000 BC. The Yelamu group of the Ohlone people resided in a few small villages when an overland Spanish exploration party, led by Don Gaspar de Portolà, arrived on November 2, 1769, the first documented European visit to San Francisco Bay. Seven years on March 28, 1776, the Spanish established the Presidio of San Francisco, followed by a mission, Mission San Francisco de Asís, established by the Spanish explorer Juan Bautista de Anza. Upon independence from Spain in 1821, the area became part of Mexico. Under Mexican rule, the mission system ended, its lands became privatized.
In 1835, Englishman William Richardson erected the first independent homestead, near a boat anchorage around what is today Portsmouth Square. Together with Alcalde Francisco de Haro, he laid out a street plan for the expanded settlement, the town, named Yerba Buena, began to attract American settlers. Commodore John D. Sloat claimed California for the United States on July 7, 1846, during the Mexican–American War, Captain John B. Montgomery arrived to claim Yerba Buena two days later. Yerba Buena was renamed San Francisco on January 30 of the next year, Mexico ceded the territory to the United States at the end of the war. Despite its attractive location as a port and naval base, San Francisco was still a small settlement with inhospitable geography; the California Gold Rush brought a flood of treasure seekers. With their sourdough bread in tow, prospectors accumulated in San Francisco over rival Benicia, raising the population from 1,000 in 1848 to 25,000 by December 1849; the promise of great wealth was so strong that crews on arriving vessels deserted and rushed off to the gold fields, leaving behind a forest of masts in San Francisco harbor.
Some of these 500 abandoned ships were used at times as storeships and hotels.
Calistoga is a city in Napa County, in California's Wine Country. During the 2010 census, the population was 5,155; the Upper Napa Valley was once the home of a significant population of Indigenous People, called the Wappo during the Spanish colonial era of the late 18th century. With abundant oak trees providing acorns as a food staple and the natural hot springs as a healing ground Calistoga was the site of several villages. Following Mexican Independence, mission properties were secularized and disposed of by the Mexican government with much of the Napa Valley being partitioned into large ranchos in the 1830s and 1840s; the first Anglo settlers began arriving in the 1840s, with several taking up lands in the Calistoga area. Samuel Brannan was the leader of a Mormon settlement expedition on the ship Brooklyn landing in Yerba Buena in 1846, he published the California Star. Following the discovery of gold in Coloma, Brannan pursued many business ventures, which made him California's first millionaire and became a leader in San Francisco's Committee of Vigilance.
Fascinated by Calistoga's natural hot springs, Brannan purchased more than 2,000 acres with the intent to develop a spa reminiscent of Saratoga Springs in New York. "The name of Calistoga was given to the place by Mr. Brannan, it was his boast that he was going to make the place the Saratoga of California, so he spliced the names and called it Cal toga, the middle syllable for euphony. The place had been called Hot Springs by the few Americans, Agua Caliente by the Spaniards and Indians." A writer claimed that Brannan intended to say "I'll make this place the Saratoga of California," but it came out "the Calistoga of Sarifornia". His Hot Springs Resort surrounding Mt Lincoln with the Spa/Hotel located at what is now Indian Springs Resort, opened to California's rich and famous in 1862. In 1868 Brannan's Napa Valley Railroad Company's track was completed to Calistoga; this provided an easier travel option for ferry passengers making the journey from San Francisco. With the addition of railroad service, Calistoga became not only a destination, but the transportation hub for the upper valley and a gateway to Lake and Sonoma Counties.
A 6-meter diorama of this early Calistoga can be seen in the Sharpsteen Museum. Calistoga's economy was based on mining tourism. One of the early visitors was Robert Louis Stevenson, yet to write his great novels, he had just married Fanny Vandegrift in San Francisco in May 1880, the couple honeymooned at the Calistoga Hot Springs Hotel days later. Desiring to stay in the area, they moved from the hotel to an abandoned cabin at the nearby Silverado Mine on Mount Saint Helena. While working on other stories Stevenson kept a journal which became the Silverado Squatters describing many local features and characters. Calistoga made national headlines in 1881 when Anson Tichenor claimed that he had invented a way to extract gold from the waters of the hot springs. Tichenor's invention was soon proved to be a fraud. In 1920, Giuseppe Musante, a soda fountain and candy store owner in Calistoga, was drilling for a cold water well at the Railway Exchange when he tapped into a hot water source. In 1924 he began selling Calistoga Sparkling Mineral Water.
The company became a major player in the bottled water business after Elwood Sprenger bought the small bottling plant in 1970 known today as Calistoga Water Company. Calistoga was named a Distinctive Destination by the National Trust for Historic Preservation in 2001. Scenes from the Disney movie Bedtime Stories starring Adam Sandler were filmed in Calistoga in June 2008.. In 1964 the Hanley wildfire raced down the western slope of Mt St Helena and burned all the way to the outskirts of Santa Rosa. 30 miles to the west. In 2017, the Tubbs Fire, which killed at least 19 people, started off of Highway 128 and Bennett Lane in Calistoga; the fire led to the evacuation of the entire population of Calistoga. The 2017 Tubbs Fire took the same path as the 1964 Hanley Fire According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.6 square miles, 99.30% of it land and 0.70% of it water. According to National Weather Service records, Calistoga has cool, wet winters with temperatures dropping to freezing on an average of 34.1 days.
Summers are very dry, with daytime temperatures reaching 90 °F or higher on an average of 72.8 days, but nights are cool, dropping into the lower fifties. Average January temperatures range from 59.8 °F to 36.8 °F. Average July temperatures range from 92.3 °F to 53.1 °F. The record high temperature of 111 °F occurred on July 23, 2006; the record low temperature of 12 °F was recorded on December 22, 1990. Calistoga has a hot-summer Mediterranean climate according to the Köppen climate classification system. Average annual rainfall is 37.56 inches with measurable precipitation falling on an average of 63 days each year. The wettest year was 1983 with 75.38 inches and the driest year was 1976 with 12.43 inches. The most rainfall in one month was 32.06 inches in February 1986. The most rainfall in 24 hours was 8.10 inches on February 17, 1986. Snow falls in the nearby mountains during the winter months, but is rare in Calistoga. On January 3, 1974, 3.0 inches of snow fell in the city. The 2010 United States Census reported that Calistoga had a population of 5,155.
The population density was 1,972.4 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Calistoga was 3
North American beaver
The North American beaver is one of two extant beaver species. It is native to North America and introduced to Patagonia in South America and some European countries. In the United States and Canada, the species is referred to as "beaver", though this causes some confusion because another distantly related rodent, Aplodontia rufa, is called the "mountain beaver". Other vernacular names, including American beaver and Canadian beaver, distinguish this species from the other extant beaver species, Castor fiber, native to Eurasia; the North American beaver is an official animal symbol of Canada and is the official state mammal of Oregon. This beaver is the largest rodent in North America and competes with its Eurasian counterpart, the European beaver, for being the second-largest in the world, both following the South American capybara; the European species is larger on average but the American has a larger known maximum size. Adults weigh from 11 to 32 kg, with 20 kg being typical. In New York, the average weight of adult male beavers was 18.9 kg, while non-native females in Finland averaged 18.1 kg.
However, adults of both sexes averaged 16.8 kg in Ohio. The species seems to conform to Bergmann's rule. In the Northwest Territory, adults weighed a median of 20.5 kg. The American beaver is smaller in average body mass than the Eurasian species; the head-and-body length of adult North American beavers is 74–90 cm, with the tail adding a further 20–35 cm. Old individuals can exceptionally exceed normal sizes, weighing more than 40 kg or as much as 50 kg. Like the capybara, the beaver is semiaquatic; the beaver has many traits suited to this lifestyle. It has a large, paddle-shaped tail and large, webbed hind feet; the unwebbed front paws are smaller, with claws. The eyes are covered by a nictitating membrane; the nostrils and ears are sealed. A thick layer of fat under its skin insulates the beaver from its coldwater environment; the beaver's fur consists of short, fine inner hairs. The fur has a range of colors, but is dark brown. Scent glands near the genitals secrete an oily substance known as castoreum, which the beaver uses to waterproof its fur.
Before their near-extirpation by trapping in North America, beavers were ubiquitous and lived from the arctic tundra to the deserts of northern Mexico, from the Atlantic to the Pacific Oceans. Physician naturalist Edgar Alexander Mearns' 1907 report of beaver on the Sonora River may be the earliest report on the southernmost range of this North American aquatic mammal. However, beavers have been reported both and contemporaneously in Mexico on the Colorado River, Bavispe River, San Bernardino River in the states of Sonora and Chihuahua. Beavers are active at night, they are excellent may remain submerged up to 15 minutes. More vulnerable on land, they tend to remain in the water, they use their flat, scaly tail both to signal danger by slapping the surface of the water and as a location for fat storage. They construct their homes, or "lodges", out of sticks, twigs and mud in lakes and tidal river deltas; these lodges may be surrounded by water. Beavers are well known for building dams across streams and constructing their lodges in the artificial ponds which form.
When building in a pond, the beavers first make a pile of sticks and eat out one or more underwater entrances and two platforms above the water surface inside the pile. The first is used for drying off. Towards winter, the lodge is plastered with mud which, when it freezes, has the consistency of concrete. A small air hole is left in the top of the lodge; the purpose of the dam is to create deepwater refugia enabling the beaver to escape from predators. When deep water is present in lakes, rivers, or larger streams, the beaver may dwell in a bank burrow and bank lodge with an underwater entrance; the beaver dam is constructed using branches from trees the beavers cut down, as well as rocks and mud. The inner bark, twigs and leaves of such trees are an important part of the beaver's diet; the trees are cut down using their strong incisor teeth. Their front paws are used for digging and carrying and placing materials; the sound of running water dictates where a beaver builds its dam. Besides providing a safe home for the beaver, beaver ponds provide habitat for waterfowl and other aquatic animals.
Their dams can help reduce flooding. However, beaver dams are not permanent and depend on the beavers' continued presence for their maintenance. Beavers concentrate on building and repairing dams in the fall in preparation for the coming winter. In northern areas, they do not repair breaches in the dam made by otters, sometimes breach the dam themselves and lower the water level in the pond to create more breathing space under the ice or get easier access to trees below the dam. In a 1988 study in Alberta, Canada, no beavers repaired "sites of water loss" during the winter. Of 178 sites of water loss, beavers repaired 78 when water was opened, did not repair 68; the rest were repaired. Beavers are best known for their dam-building, they maintain their pond-habitat by reacting to the sound of running water, damming it up with tree branches and mud. Early ecologists believed that this dam-building was an amazi
San Pablo Bay
San Pablo Bay is a tidal estuary that forms the northern extension of San Francisco Bay in the East Bay and North Bay regions of the San Francisco Bay Area in northern California. Most of the Bay is shallow. San Pablo Bay was named after Rancho San Pablo, a Spanish land grant given to colonial Alta California settlers in 1815, on the bay at the site of the present-day city of San Pablo; the bay is 10 mi across and has an area of 90 sq mi. The bay receives the waters of the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers, via Suisun Bay and the Carquinez Strait on its northeast end, it connects to the Pacific Ocean via the San Francisco Bay on its southern end; the bay is silted from the contributions of the two rivers, which themselves drain most of the Central Valley of California. San Pablo Bay receives the waters of Sonoma Creek through the Napa Sonoma Marsh, San Rafael Creek, the Petaluma River directly, the Napa River which flows into the Carquinez Strait via the Mare Island Strait near its entrance into the bay.
All tributaries except for Sonoma Creek are commercially navigable and maintained by the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers. Two peninsulas separate San Pablo Bay from San Francisco Bay; the eastern, Point San Pablo, is in the city of Richmond and the western, Point San Pedro, borders the city of San Rafael. The bay is shared between Contra Costa county on the southern and eastern shore, Solano and Marin counties on the northern and western shores; the county boundaries meet near the center of the bay. Communities on the shores of San Pablo Bay include: Richmond, San Pablo, Hercules, Rodeo in Contra Costa County, Vallejo in Solano County, along with Novato and San Rafael in Marin County; because the Bay is close to several major and local airports, but outside of the main air traffic corridors, it is a popular pilot training area. Because of its great size but shallow waters, San Pablo Bay has difficult boating conditions; the prevailing western wind meets strong currents both at Carquinez Straits and, at the opposite end of the bay, near the Richmond Bridge, to produce large waves, with few areas of retreats for most boats.
There are many undeveloped shore lands with salt mudflats. The Bay is a primary wintering stop for the canvasback duck population on the Pacific Flyway, as well as a migratory staging ground for numerous species of waterfowl. Much of the northern shore of the bay is protected as part of the San Pablo Bay National Wildlife Refuge. Endangered species that are found in the bay include the California brown pelican, California clapper rail, salt marsh harvest mouse; this is a popular destination for recreation fishing, with Saltwater species including: striped bass, sturgeon, starry flounder, leopard shark and anchovy. In the 1880s there was a shrimp-fishing village; the location is now part of China Camp State Park. San Pablo Bay is the setting of alternative rock band Primus's four-part song series "Fisherman's Chronicles," and is referenced in "The Toys Go Winding Down" and "Harold of the Rocks." It is mentioned in The Minus 5 song "John Barleycorn Must Live." In Susan Choi's book, American Woman, which mirrors the Patty Hearst scandal of the 1970s, the Bay's waters are said to welcome main characters Jenny and Pauline home after they've traversed from the East coast.
Tributaries of San Pablo Bay USGS: Sediment Changes in San Pablo Bay Gorp: San Pablo Bay National Wildlife Refuge Highway to the Flyway:The Road to Restoration on San Pablo Bay from Bay Nature magazine, July–September 2007 issue. Provides a brief history of the marshes of San Pablo Bay