SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Napalm

Napalm is an incendiary mixture of a gelling agent and a volatile petrochemical. The title is a portmanteau of the names of two of the constituents of the original thickening and gelling agents: co-precipitated aluminium salts of naphthenic acid and palmitic acid. Napalm B is the more modern version of napalm and, although distinctly different in its chemical composition, is referred to as "napalm". A team led by chemist Louis Fieser developed napalm for the United States Chemical Warfare Service in 1942 in a secret laboratory at Harvard University. Of immediate first interest was its viability as an incendiary device to be used in fire bombing campaigns during World War II and its potential to be coherently projected into a solid stream that would carry for distance resulted in widespread adoption in infantry/combat engineer flamethrowers as well. Napalm burns at the same temperature as gasoline, for a greater duration, as well as being more dispersed and sticking tenaciously to its targets.

It has been used in both the air and ground role, with the largest used to date being via air-dropped bombs in World War II, close air support roles in Korea and Vietnam. Napalm has fueled most of the flamethrowers used since World War II, giving them much greater range, was used in this role as a common weapon of urban combat by both the Axis and the Allies in World War II. Multiple nations maintain large stockpiles of napalm-based weapons of various types. Napalm was used in flamethrowers and tanks in World War II, it is believed to have been formulated to burn at a specific rate and to adhere to surfaces to increase its stopping power. During combustion, napalm deoxygenates the available air and generates large amounts of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. Alternative compositions exist for different uses, e.g. triethylaluminium, a pyrophoric compound that aids ignition. Use of fire in warfare has a long history. Greek fire described as "sticky fire", is believed to have had a petroleum base.

The development of napalm was precipitated by the use of jellied gasoline mixtures by the Allied forces during World War II. Latex, used in these early forms of incendiary devices, became scarce, since natural rubber was impossible to obtain after the Japanese army captured the rubber plantations in Malaya, Indonesia and Thailand; this shortage of natural rubber prompted chemists at US companies such as DuPont and Standard Oil, researchers at Harvard University, to develop factory-made alternatives—artificial rubber for all uses, including vehicle tires, tank tracks, hoses, medical supplies and rain clothing. A team of chemists led by Louis Fieser at Harvard University was the first to develop synthetic napalm, during 1942. "The production of napalm was first entrusted to Nuodex Products, by the middle of April 1942 they had developed a brown, dry powder, not sticky by itself, but when mixed with gasoline turned into an sticky and inflammable substance." One of Fieser's colleagues suggested adding phosphorus to the mix which increased the "ability to penetrate deeply...into the musculature, where it would continue to burn day after day."On 4 July 1942, the first test occurred on the football field near the Harvard Business School.

Tests under operational conditions were carried out at Jefferson Proving Ground on condemned farm buildings, subsequently at Dugway Proving Ground on buildings designed and constructed to represent those to be found in German and Japanese towns. This new mixture of chemicals was used in the Second World War in incendiary bombs and in flamethrowers. From 1965 to 1969, the Dow Chemical Company manufactured napalm B for the American armed forces. After news reports of napalm B's deadly and disfiguring effects were published, Dow Chemical experienced boycotts of its products, its recruiters for new chemists, chemical engineers, etc. graduating from college were subject to campus boycotts and protests. The management of the company decided that its "first obligation was the government." Meanwhile, napalm B became a symbol for the Vietnam War. Napalm went on to be used as fuel for flamethrowers; the first recorded strategic use of napalm incendiary bombs occurred in an attack by the US Army Air Force on Berlin on 6 March 1944, using American AN-M76 incendiary bombs with PT-1 filler.

The first known tactical use by the USAAF was by the 368th Fighter Group, 9th Air Force Northeast of Compeigne, France 27 May 1944 and the British De Havilland Mosquito FB Mk. VIs of No. 140 Wing RAF, Second Tactical Air Force on 14 July 1944, which employed the AN-M76 incendiary in a reprisal attack on the 17th SS Panzergrenadier Division "Götz von Berlichingen" in Bonneuil-Matours. Soldiers of this Waffen SS unit had captured and killed a British SAS prisoner-of-war, Lt. Tomos Stephens, taking part in Operation Bulbasket, seven local Resistance fighters. Although it was not known at the time of the air strike, 31 other POWs from the same SAS unit, an American airman who had joined up with the SAS unit, had been executed. Further use of napalm by American forces occurred in the Pacific theater of operations, where in 1944 and 1945, napalm was used as a tactical weapon against Japanese bunkers, tun

Erma EMP

This article is about the Erma machine pistol gun, not to be confused with the Bergmann MP-35 or the Austrian MP34. The German machine pistol EMP known as MPE was produced by the Erma factory, was based on designs acquired from Heinrich Vollmer; the gun was produced from 1931 to 1938 in 10,000 exemplars and exported to Spain, Mexico and Yugoslavia, but used domestically by the SS. It was produced under license in Spain by the arsenal of A Coruña under the designation M41/44. In the early 1920s, Vollmer started to develop his own sub-machineguns, his early models, named VPG, VPGa, VPF and VMP1925 were similar to the MP18. The VMP1925 was fed by a 25-round drum magazine; the VMP1925 was secretly tested by the Reichswehr, along with competing designs from Schmeisser and Rheinmetall. Secret funding was given to Vollmer to continue development, this resulted in the VMP1926, which differed from its predecessor by the removal of the cooling jacket. A subsequent development was the VMP1928, which introduced a 32-round box magazine sticking from the left side.

The final development of this series was the VMP1930. This model introduced a substantive innovation—a telescoping main spring assembly, which made the gun more reliable and easier to assemble and disassemble in the field. Vollemer applied for a patent for his innovation in 1930 and it was granted in 1933 as DRP# 580620, his company, Vollmer Werke, produced however only about 400 of these, most were sold to Bulgaria. In late 1930, the Reichswehr stopped supporting Vollmer financially; the submachine guns that Erma started to sell in 1932 under the names EMP or MPE was just the VMP1930 with the cooling jacket restored. Although there were several variants with varying barrel lengths and sights made to customers' specifications three main variants were produced: one with a 30 cm barrel, tangent rear sight and bayonet lug was sold to Bulgaria or Yugoslavia; the second model, sometimes called the MP34, or the "standard model", had a 25 cm barrel and no provision for a bayonet. A third variant was similar in the metallic parts, but replaced the foregrip with an MP18-style stock with finger-grooves.

Overall, at least 10,000 of these Vollmer-based designs were made by Erma. They were adopted by the SS and the German Police, but sold to Mexico and Spain. During the Spanish Civil War, the EMP was used by the Nationalists. In the Spring of 1939, a large number of defeated Spanish Republicans fled to France, where they were disarmed; some 3,250 EMPs in the possession of these fighters ended up in a French warehouse at Clermont-Ferrand. The EMPs were referred to as the "Erma–Vollmer" in French documents; the French decided to adopt them for their own service. A provisional manual was printed in French as Provisoire sur le pistolet-mitrailleur Erma – Vollmer de 9mm, issued on December 26, 1939 and updated on January 6, 1940. However, the French had obtained only some 1,540 suitable magazines for these guns, so only 700-800 EMPs were distributed to the French forces to the Mobile Gendarmerie. After the Germans conquered France, some EMPs armed the Legion of French Volunteers Against Bolshevism, which became part of the SS Charlemagne division.

This division was destroyed in February 1945 in Eastern Prussia, now part of Poland. Numerous EMPs have been found in the last-stand battlefields of the SS Charlemagne division; the EMPs which arrived in German hands via the French route were given the designation 740. The Yugoslav purchased EMPs were used by the Chetniks. In Francoist Spain, the EMP, chambered in the 9mm Largo cartridge, was locally produced until the mid-1950s, it was designated Model 1941/44 or "subfusil Coruña". It performed poorly during the Ifni War, its arming lever is on the right. The magazine housing, on the left, is canted forwards to assist in feeding ammunition; the weapon could be fired either in semi-automatic or automatic modes. The final development at Erma is known as the EMP 36; this can be considered an intermediate model between the EMP and the MP38. Although many details of the mechanism were changed from the EMP, it retained Vollmer's telescoping main operating spring unchanged. On the exterior, the most obvious differences are that the magazine housing was now vertical, although still canted to the left and forward.

The solid wood stock was replaced with a folding metal butt. It is not clear who designed the EMP 36, although Berthold Geipel himself is credited; the features of the new design were the result of another secret contract with the German army. The EMP's telescopic cylinder return spring guide was retained for the Maschinenpistole 38. Bolivia: used the VMP1930 during the Chaco War FranceVichy France Germany Republic of China Mexico Norway: The Norwegian Police Service Assault Group bought 8 VMP1930 submachine guns in 1932 Spain Yugoslavia: in 9×19mm Parabellu

2001 Bolivarian Games

The XIV Bolivarian Games were a multi-sport event held between September 7–16, 2001, in Ambato, Ecuador. Some events took place in Quito; the Games were organized by the Bolivarian Sports Organization. The opening ceremony took place on September 2001, at the Estadio Bellavista in Ambato, Ecuador; the Games were opened by Ecuadorean Minister for Education and Sports Roberto Hanze as a delegate for president Gustavo Noboa. Torch lighter was olympic gold medalist Jefferson Pérez. Gold medal winners from Ecuador were published by the Comité Olímpico Ecuatoriano. Ambato hosted the following competitions: athletics, bodybuilding, chess, football, artistic gymnastics, rhythmic gymnastics, karate, table tennis, tennis, weightlifting, wrestlingGuayaquil hosted the following competitions: archery, beach volleyball, bowling, racquetball, shooting, surfing, triathlon, yachtingQuito hosted the following competitions: cycling, fencing About 2000 athletes from 6 countries were reported to participate: The following 29 sports were explicitly mentioned: †: Exhibition event.‡: The competition was reserved to youth representatives.

The medal count for these Games is tabulated below. A different number of medals was published elsewhere; this table is sorted by the number of gold medals earned by each country. The number of silver medals is taken into consideration next, the number of bronze medals