Naperville is a city in DuPage and Will counties in the U. S. state of Illinois. Located 28 miles west of Chicago, Naperville was founded in 1831 and developed into the fifth-largest city in Illinois; as of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 141,853, estimated to have increased to 147,682 by 2017. In a 2010 study assessing cities with populations exceeding 75,000, Naperville was ranked as the wealthiest city in the Midwest and the eleventh wealthiest in the nation, it was ranked among the nation's safest cities by Business Insider. Naperville was voted the second-best place to live in the United States by Money magazine in 2006 and it was rated first on the list of best cities for early retirement in 2013 by Kiplinger. In July 1831, Joseph Naper arrived at the west bank of the DuPage River with his family and friends to found what would be known as Naper's Settlement. Among those original settlers were Naper's wife Almeda Landon, his brother John with wife Betsy Goff, his sister Amy with husband John Murray, his mother Sarah.
Their arrival followed a nearly two-month voyage across three Great Lakes from New York in the Naper brothers' schooner, the Telegraph. The area was still frontier and Native Americans such as the Sauk contested the European-American encroachment of their longheld territory, they first landed in the settlement that developed as Chicago, several families stayed there. By 1832, over one hundred settlers had arrived at Naper's Settlement. Following the news of the Indian Creek massacre during the Black Hawk War, these settlers were temporarily displaced to Fort Dearborn for protection from an anticipated attack by the Sauk tribe. After Fort Payne was built at Naper's Settlement, the settlers returned. No attack came; the Pre-Emption House was constructed in 1834, as the Settlement became a stage-coach stop on the road from Chicago to Galena. Reconstructions of Fort Payne and the Pre-Emption House stand as part of Naper Settlement outdoor museum village, established by the Naperville Heritage Society and the Naperville Park District in 1969 to preserve some of the community's oldest buildings.
In 1855 Sybil Dunbar was recorded in Naperville as its first black female resident. A commemorative marker honoring her was placed in the cemetery in 2015. After DuPage County was split from Cook County in 1839, Naper's Settlement became the DuPage county seat, a distinction it held until 1868. Naper's Settlement was incorporated as the Village of Naperville in 1857, at which time it had a population of 2,000. Reincorporation as a city occurred in 1890. In 1887, Peter Edward Kroehler established the Kroehler Manufacturing Company's factory in Naperville along the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy tracks. Construction of railroads fed the growth of the surrounding area. Kroehler Manufacturing became the world's largest furniture manufacturer, a major employer in Naperville. In late 20th-century industrial restructuring, the company closed the Naperville factory in 1978. In 1987, the site was redeveloped for upscale commercial and apartment properties, marketed as Fifth Avenue Station. On April 26, 1946, Naperville was the site of one of the worst train disasters in Chicago history.
Two Chicago and Quincy Railroad trains, the Advance Flyer and the Exposition Flyer, collided'head to tail' on a single track just west of the Loomis Street grade crossing. The accident killed 45 and injured 127 passengers and/or crew members; this event is commemorated in a metal inlay map of Naperville on the southeast corner of the Nichols Library's sidewalk area. On April 26, 2014, a memorial entitled Tragedy to Triumph was dedicated at the train station; the sculpture by Paul Kuhn is dedicated not only to the crash victims but to the rescuers at the site. A predominantly rural community for most of its existence, Naperville experienced a population explosion beginning in the 1960s and continuing into the 1980s and 1990s, following the construction of the East-West Tollway, the Illinois Technology and Research Corridor, Interstate 355, it has nearly quadrupled in size as the Chicago metropolitan area's urban sprawl brought corporations and wealth to the area. The March 2006 issue of Chicago magazine cites a mid-1970s decision to make and keep all parking in downtown Naperville free to keep downtown Naperville "alive" in the face of competition with Fox Valley Mall in Aurora and the subsequent sprawl of strip shopping malls.
Parking meters were taken down, parking in garages built in the 1980s and 1990s is free, parking is still available on major thoroughfares during non-peak hours. Naperville marked the 175th anniversary of its 1831 founding in 2006; the anniversary events included concerts and a balloon parade. According to the 2010 census, Naperville has an area of 39.323 square miles, of which 38.77 square miles is land and 0.553 square miles is water. Portions of the city of Naperville drain to the West Branch of the DuPage River within DuPage County. In the flood of 1996, downtown businesses in the City of Naperville incurred significant damage. Overall, Forest Preserve District ownership of a large amount of property along the West Branch has minimized development in flood plains and has helped reduce the damages from overbank flooding that have occurred in the county's more developed watersheds. Naperville borders the communities of Warrenville, Lisle, Bolingbrook and Aurora. There were 141,122 people, 53,408 households, 36,289 families residin
Michael Stürmer is a right-wing German historian arguably best known for his role in the Historikerstreit of the 1980s, for his geographical interpretation of German history and for an admiring 2008 biography of the Russian politician Vladimir Putin. Born in Kassel, Germany, Stürmer received his education in history and languages at the University of Marburg, at the Free University of Berlin and at the London School of Economics. From 1973 to 2003 he held a professorship at the University of Erlangen-Nürnberg and at various times has served as a guest lecturer at the Sorbonne, Harvard University, the Institute for Advanced Study, he is on the advisory board of OMFIF where he participates in various meetings regarding the financial and monetary system. In the 1980s Stürmer worked as an advisor and speech-writer to the West German Chancellor Helmut Kohl; as of 2013 Stürmer works as chief correspondent for the newspaper Die Welt, published by the Axel Springer AG publishing group. Stürmer specializes in the history of the Second Reich of 1871–1918.
He began his career on the political left in the 1960s, but moved to the right during the course of the 1970s. The turning point occurred in 1974 when the Social Democratic Party of Germany Land government of Hesse attempted to abolish history as a subject in the Hesse educational system and to replace it with "social studies". Stürmer played a major role in campaigning for the defeat of the SPD government in the 1974 elections. Starting in the early 1980s Stürmer became a well-known figure in the Federal Republic, with frequent contributions to the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung newspaper, his editorship of a number of popular book series entitled "The Germans and their Nation" and holding a series of lectures for the general public. Stürmer argues that "the future is won by those who coin concepts and interpret the past". In a series of his essays published in book form in 1986 as Dissonanzen des Fortschritts, he claimed that democracy in West Germany cannot be taken for granted. Stürmer is arguably best known for his advocacy of a geographical interpretation of German history.
In a geographical variant of the Sonderweg theory, he has argued that what he regards as Germany's precarious geographical situation in Central Europe has played the deciding role in the course of German history, that coping with this has left successive German rulers no other choice but to engage in authoritarian government. In Stürmer's opinion, the "belligerence" of the Reich came about through a complex interplay of Germany's location in the "middle of Europe" surrounded by enemies and of "democratic" forces in the domestic sphere. Stürmer has asserted that Germany - confronted with dangers from a revanchist France and an aggressive Russia, as the "country in the middle" - could not afford the luxury of democracy, he regards Imperial Germany as more democratic and less "Bonapartist" than historians such as Hans-Ulrich Wehler have claimed, that these democratic tendencies came to the fore during the Revolution of 1918–1919. In Stürmer's view, it was too much democracy rather than too little that led to the end of the Kaiserreich as the "restless Reich" collapsed because of its internal contradictions under the pressures of World War I.
In the mid-1980s Stürmer sat on a committee - together with Thomas Nipperdey and Klaus Hildebrand - in charge of vetting the publications issued by the Research Office of the West German Ministry of Defense. The committee attracted some controversy when it refused to publish a hostile biography of Gustav Noske. During the late 1980s, Stürmer played a prominent role in the Historikerstreit. Left-wing historians criticized him for an essay he wrote entitled "Land Without History" published in the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung on April 25, 1986, in which he had claimed that Germans lacked a history to be proud of, called for a positive evaluation of German history as a way of building national pride, he argued that Germans were suffering from a "loss of orientation" caused by the lack of a positive view of their history. In his view, the fall of the Weimar Republic was caused by "loss of orientation" due to the secularization of a religious country. Stürmer argued that West Germany had an important role in the world to play, could not play that role because the lack of a past to be proud of was "seriously damaging the political culture of the country" and wrote that it was "morally legitimate and politically necessary" for Germans to have a positive view of their history.
In his view, what was needed was a campaign by the government, the media and historians to create a "positive view" of German history. In Stürmer's opinion, the Third Reich was a major block towards a positive view of the German past, what was needed was a focus on the broad sweep of German history as opposed to the 12 years of Nazi Germany as a way of creating a national identity that all Germans could take pride in, he wrote that the "loss of orientation" caused by the absence of a German national identity led to a "search for identity". In his opinion this search was crucial because West Germany was "now once more a focal point in the global civil war waged against democracy by the Soviet Union"; because of the "loss of orientation", he argued that West Germans were not standing up well to the "campaign of fear and hate carried into the Federal Republic from the East and welcomed
Imāmzādeh Ja‘far is a historical mausoleum in Borujerd, western Iran. The tomb contains the remains of Abulqāsim Ja’far ibn al-Husayn, grandson of the Shī‘ah Imam Ali ibn Hussayn. Built in the 11th century AD, Imamzadeh Jafar is one of the few examples of the architecture of the Seljuq and Ilkhanid eras in Iran. A similar mausoleum is the Tomb of Daniel in Susa, south western Iran; the building is octagonal with a high dome in the center. The height of the conic-shaped dome is 25 meters from the base; the main entrance is in east side and there are two halls decorated with tile work from the Safavid and Qajar times. The doors and the fringes are decorated by Safavid era intricate decorations; the interior decoration of the building has changed during different times and lastly, it has been covered with millions of small mirrors. The main gate is made with engraved decorations from Safavid era; this shrine is located in the middle of a historical graveyard with trees. 30 meters far from the main building there is another historical tomb, known as Do Khāharan which belongs to two saints.
The March 2006 Borujerd earthquake caused extensive damage to the tomb. The mud-brick parts of the building were damaged and a hole appeared on the dome. Media related to Imāmzādeh Ja‘far at Wikimedia Commons Holiest sites in Islam Imām Ridhā Mosque Shāh Abdol Azīm Mosque Borujerd Information Portal CHN Press Mehr News 2006/04/03