Kenneth Arnold Chesney is an American country music singer and record producer. He has recorded 20 albums, 14 of which have been certified Gold or higher by the RIAA, he has produced more than 40 Top 10 singles on the US Billboard Hot Country Songs and Country Airplay charts, 29 of which have reached number one. Many of these have charted within the Top 40 of the US Billboard Hot 100, making him one of the most successful crossover country artists, he has sold over 30 million albums worldwide. Chesney produced a film for ESPN entitled The Boys of Fall, he has received six Academy of Country Music awards, as well as six awards from the Country Music Association. He is one of the most popular touring acts in country music selling out the venues in which he performs, his 2007 Flip-Flop Summer Tour was the highest-grossing country road trip of the year. The Country Music Association honored Chesney with the Entertainer of the Year award in 2004, 2006, 2007, 2008. Other notable awards he received include the Academy of Country Music's 1997 New Male Vocalist of the Year, 2002 Top Male Vocalist of the Year, the Triple Crown Award in 2005.
He was awarded his fourth consecutive Entertainer of the Year award from the Academy of Country Music on May 18, 2008. Chesney was born on March 26, 1968, in Knoxville, Tennessee, at St. Mary's Medical Center and was raised in Luttrell, is of English and Irish descent, he is the son of David Chesney, a former elementary school teacher, Karen Chandler, a hair stylist in the Knoxville area. Chesney has one sibling, a younger sister named Jennifer Chandler. In 1986, Chesney graduated from Gibbs High School, where he played football, he received his first guitar, "The Terminor", for Christmas and began teaching himself how to play it. Chesney studied advertising at East Tennessee State University in Johnson City, where he was a member of the ETSU Bluegrass Program and the Lambda Chi Alpha fraternity and graduated in 1990 In 1982, Kenny won the best male yodeler at the International Yodeling Championship in Zurich, Switzerland. In 1989, he recorded a self-released demo album at the Classic Recording Studio in Bristol, Virginia.
He sold 1,000 copies while performing at the local clubs in Johnson City and used the money from album sales to help himself buy a new guitar. After graduation from East Tennessee State in 1990, he headed to Nashville and performed at several local clubs, he became the resident performer at a honky tonk bar in the city's historic district. In 1992, the head of writer relations at BMI, Clay Bradley, recommended Chesney to his friend, Troy Tomlinson, at Opryland Music Group by saying: "I met this kid today from East Tennessee. He's a good singer, a good songwriter, more than anything, I think you're going to like him as a person." Chesney performed five songs during his audition for Tomlinson. Tomlinson's reaction was enthusiastic telling HitQuarters: First of all I was attracted to the songs, because I thought that he painted great pictures in his lyrics for someone who had not been around the typical Music Row co-writes. I thought that he sang well too, but more than anything there was a kind of this'I-will-do-it' look in his eyes - I was drawn in by the fact that he was so set on being successful in this business.
Chesney left the audition with a songwriter's contract. A year an appearance at a songwriter's showcase led to a contract with Capricorn Records, which had started a country division. Chesney's debut album, In My Wildest Dreams, was released on the independent Capricorn Records label in April 1994; the album's first two singles, "Whatever It Takes" and "The Tin Man", both reached the lower regions of the U. S. Billboard Hot Country Singles & Tracks chart; the album sold 10,000 copies before Capricorn Records closed its country music division in Nashville that year and moved to Atlanta. Chesney signed with BNA Records, released his second studio album All I Need to Know in 1995; the album produced three singles. "Fall in Love" and the title track both reached the Top 10, while "Grandpa Told Me So" peaked at number 23. That same year, Chesney co-wrote Confederate Railroad's single "When He Was My Age" from their album When and Where. Chesney utilized fiddle and steel instrumentation within this album in order to highlight the down-home sentiments and the unique Tennessee twinge in his voice.
This album seemed to capture the traditional spirit. Chesney's third studio album and his second major-label one, entitled Me and You, was released in 1996, its first single, "Back In My Arms Again", peaked just outside the Top 40 on the country charts, while its title track and "When I Close My Eyes" both peaked at number 2. Me and You was Chesney's first album to be certified gold by the Recording Industry Association of America. A cover of Mac McAnally's 1990 single "Back Where I Come From" was included on this album. Though Chesney's version was never released as a single, it has been performed during his concerts. In recognition of his successful year, Chesney was honored with the 1997 Academy of Country Music's New Male Vocalist of the Year award. I Will Stand, Chesney's fourth album and his third from BNA Records, followed in 1997; the album's first single, "She's Got It All", became Chesney's first number one hit on the Billboard country charts and spent three weeks at that position. The album's second single, "A Chance"
Red is the color at the end of the visible spectrum of light, next to orange and opposite violet. It has a dominant wavelength of 625–740 nanometres, it is a primary color in the RGB color model and the CMYK color model, is the complementary color of cyan. Reds range from the brilliant yellow-tinged scarlet and vermillion to bluish-red crimson, vary in shade from the pale red pink to the dark red burgundy; the red sky at sunset results from Rayleigh scattering, while the red color of the Grand Canyon and other geological features is caused by hematite or red ochre, both forms of iron oxide. Iron oxide gives the red color to the planet Mars; the red colour of blood comes from protein hemoglobin, while ripe strawberries, red apples and reddish autumn leaves are colored by anthocyanins. Red pigment made from ochre was one of the first colors used in prehistoric art; the Ancient Egyptians and Mayans colored their faces red in ceremonies. It was an important color in China, where it was used to colour early pottery and the gates and walls of palaces.
In the Renaissance, the brilliant red costumes for the nobility and wealthy were dyed with kermes and cochineal. The 19th century brought the introduction of the first synthetic red dyes, which replaced the traditional dyes. Red became the color of revolution. Since red is the color of blood, it has been associated with sacrifice and courage. Modern surveys in Europe and the United States show red is the color most associated with heat, passion, anger and joy. In China and many other Asian countries it is the color of symbolizing happiness and good fortune. See below for shades of pink The human eye sees red when it looks at light with a wavelength between 625 and 740 nanometers, it is a primary color in the RGB color model and the light just past this range is called infrared, or below red, cannot be seen by human eyes, although it can be sensed as heat. In the language of optics, red is the color evoked by light that stimulates neither the S or the M cone cells of the retina, combined with a fading stimulation of the L cone cells.
Primates can distinguish the full range of the colors of the spectrum visible to humans, but many kinds of mammals, such as dogs and cattle, have dichromacy, which means they can see blues and yellows, but cannot distinguish red and green. Bulls, for instance, cannot see the red color of the cape of a bullfighter, but they are agitated by its movement.. One theory for why primates developed sensitivity to red is that it allowed ripe fruit to be distinguished from unripe fruit and inedible vegetation; this may have driven further adaptations by species taking advantage of this new ability, such as the emergence of red faces. Red light is used to help adapt night vision in low-light or night time, as the rod cells in the human eye are not sensitive to red. Red illumination was used as a safelight while working in a darkroom as it does not expose most photographic paper and some films. Today modern darkrooms use an amber safelight. On the color wheel long used by painters, in traditional color theory, red is one of the three primary colors, along with blue and yellow.
Painters in the Renaissance mixed red and blue to make violet: Cennino Cennini, in his 15th-century manual on painting, wrote, "If you want to make a lovely violet colour, take fine lac, ultramarine blue with a binder" he noted that it could be made by mixing blue indigo and red hematite. In modern color theory known as the RGB color model, red and blue are additive primary colors. Red and blue light combined together makes white light, these three colors, combined in different mixtures, can produce nearly any other color; this is the principle, used to make all of the colors on your computer screen and your television. For example, magenta on a computer screen is made by a similar formula to that used by Cennino Cennini in the Renaissance to make violet, but using additive colors and light instead of pigment: it is created by combining red and blue light at equal intensity on a black screen. Violet is made on a computer screen in a similar way, but with a greater amount of blue light and less red light.
So that the maximum number of colors can be reproduced on your computer screen, each color has been given a code number, or sRGB, which tells your computer the intensity of the red and blue components of that color. The intensity of each component is measured on a scale of zero to 255, which means the complete list includes 16,777,216 distinct colors and shades; the sRGB number of pure red, for example, is 255, 00, 00, which means the red component is at its maximum intensity, there is no green or blue. The sRGB number for crimson is 220, 20, 60, which means that the red is less intense and therefore darker, there is some green, which leans it toward orange; as a ray of white sunlight travels through the atmosphere to the eye, some of the colors are scattered out of the beam by air molecules and airborne particles due to Rayleigh scattering, changing the final color of the beam, seen. Colors with a shorter wavelength, such as blue and green, scatter more and are removed from the light that reaches the eye.
At sunrise and sunset, when the
Ancient Egyptian funerary practices
The ancient Egyptians had an elaborate set of funerary practices that they believed were necessary to ensure their immortality after death. These rituals and protocols included mummifying the body, casting magic spells, burial with specific grave goods thought to be needed in the Egyptian afterlife; the ancient Egyptian burial process evolved over time as old customs were discarded and new ones adopted, but several important elements of the process persisted. Although specific details changed over time, the preparation of the body, the magic rituals, grave goods were all essential parts of a proper Egyptian funeral. There were many different gods; the ancient Egyptians believed that each god would separately judge the deceased before he could enter the afterlife. Although no writing survives from Predynastic Egypt, scholars believe the importance of the physical body and its preservation originated there; this would explain why people of that time did not follow the common practice of cremation, but rather buried the dead.
Some believe they may have feared the bodies would rise again if mistreated after death. Early bodies were buried with a few burial goods. Sometimes multiple people and animals were placed in the same grave. Over time, graves became more complex, with the body placed in a wicker basket later in wooden or terracotta coffins; the latest tombs Egyptians made were sarcophagi. These graves contained burial goods like jewelry, food and sharpened splint; this demonstrates that this ancient period had a sense of the afterlife, though archaeological evidence may show the average person had little chance of getting into it. This may be; the pharaoh was allowed in because of his role in life, others needed to have some role there. Human sacrifices found in early royal tombs reinforce this view; these people were meant to serve the pharaoh during his eternal life. Figurines and wall paintings begin to replace human victims; some of these figurines may have been created to resemble certain people, so they could follow the pharaoh after their lives ended.
Note that not only the lower classes had to rely on the pharaoh's favor, but the noble classes. They believed that when he died, the pharaoh became a type of god, who could bestow upon certain individuals the ability to have an afterlife; this belief existed from the predynastic period through the Old Kingdom. Although many spells from the predeceasing texts were carried over, the new coffin texts had additional new spells added, along with slight changes made to make this new funerary text more relatable to the nobility. In the First Intermediate Period, the importance of the pharaoh declined. Funerary texts restricted to royal use, became more available; the pharaoh was no longer a god-king in the sense that only he was allowed in the next life due to his status here, now he was the ruler of the population who upon his death would be leveled down towards the plane of the mortals. The first funerals in Egypt are known from the villages of Maadi in the north; the people of these villages buried their dead in round graves with one pot.
The body was neither treated nor arranged in a regular way as would be the case in the historical period. Without any written evidence, there is little to provide information about contemporary beliefs concerning the afterlife except for the regular inclusion of a single pot in the grave. In view of customs, the pot was intended to hold food for the deceased. Funerary customs developed during the Predynastic period from those of the Prehistoric Period. At first people excavated round graves with one pot in the Badarian Period, continuing the tradition of Omari and Maadi cultures. By the end of the Predynastic period, there were increasing numbers of objects deposited with the body in rectangular graves, there is growing evidence of rituals practiced by Egyptians of the Naquada II Period. At this point, bodies were arranged in a crouched or fetal position with the face toward either the east the rising sun or the west. Artists painted jars with funeral processions and ritual dancing. Figures of bare breasted women with birdlike faces and their legs concealed under skirts appeared in some graves.
Some graves were much richer in goods than others, demonstrating the beginnings of social stratification. Gender differences in burial emerged with the inclusion of weapons in men's graves and cosmetics palettes in women's graves. By the First Dynasty, some Egyptians were wealthy enough to build tombs over their burials rather than placing their bodies in simple pit graves dug into the sand; the rectangular, mud-brick tomb with an underground burial chamber, called a mastaba, developed in this period. These tombs had niched walls, a style of building called the palace-façade motif because the walls imitated those surrounding the palace of the king. Since commoners as well as kings, had such tombs, the architecture suggests that in death, some wealthy people did achieve an elevated status. In the historical period, it is certain that the deceased was associated with the god of the dead, Osiris. Grave goods expanded to include furniture and games as well as the weapons, cosmetic palettes, food supplies in decorated jars known earlier, in the Predynastic period.
Now, however, in the richest tombs, grave goods numbered in the thousands. Only the newly invented coffins for the body were made for the tomb. There is some inconclusive evidence for mummification. Other objects in
State schools are primary or secondary schools mandated for or offered to all children without charge, funded in whole or in part by taxation. While such schools are to be found in every country, there are significant variations in their structure and educational programs. State education encompasses primary and secondary education, as well as post-secondary educational institutions such as universities and technical schools that are funded and overseen by government rather than by private entities; the position before there were government-funded schools varied: in many instances there was an established educational system which served a significant, albeit elite, sector of the population. The introduction of government-organised schools was in some cases able to build upon this established system, both systems have continued to exist, sometimes in a parallel and complementary relationship and other times less harmoniously. State education is inclusive, both in its treatment of students and in that enfranchisement for the government of public education is as broad as for government generally.
It is organised and operated to be a deliberate model of the civil community in which it functions. Although provided to groups of students in classrooms in a central school, it may be provided in-home, employing visiting teachers, and/or supervising teachers, it can be provided in non-school, non-home settings, such as shopping mall space. State education is available to all. In most countries, it is compulsory for children to attend school up to a certain age, but the option of attending private school is open to many. In the case of private schooling, schools operate independently of the state and defray their costs by charging parents tuition fees; the funding for state schools, on the other hand, is provided by tax revenues, so that individuals who do not attend school help to ensure that society is educated. In poverty stricken societies, authorities are lax on compulsory school attendance because child labour is exploited, it is these same children whose income-securing labour cannot be forfeited to allow for school attendance.
The term "public education" when applied to state schools is not synonymous with the term "publicly funded education". Government may make a public policy decision that it wants to have some financial resources distributed in support of, it may want to have some control over, the provision of private education. Grants-in-aid of private schools and vouchers systems provide examples of publicly funded private education. Conversely, a state school may rely on private funding such as high fees or private donations and still be considered state by virtue of governmental ownership and control. State primary and secondary education involves the following: compulsory student attendance. In some countries, private associations or churches can operate schools according to their own principles, as long as they comply with certain state requirements; when these specific requirements are met in the area of the school curriculum, the schools will qualify to receive state funding. They are treated financially and for accreditation purposes as part of the state education system though they make decisions about hiring and school policy, which the state might not make itself.
Government schools are free to attend for Australian citizens and permanent residents, whereas independent schools charge attendance fees. They can be divided into two categories: selective schools; the open schools accept all students from their government-defined catchment areas. Government schools educate 65% of Australian students, with 34% in Catholic and independent schools. Regardless of whether a school is part of the Government or independent systems, they are required to adhere to the same curriculum frameworks of their state or territory; the curriculum framework however provides for some flexibility in the syllabus, so that subjects such as religious education can be taught. Most school students wear uniforms. Public or Government funded; these schools teach students from Year 1 to 10, with examinations for students in years 5, 8, 10. All public schools follow the National Board Curriculum. Many children girls, drop out of school after completing the 5th Year in remote areas. In larger cities such as Dhaka, this is uncommon.
Many good public schools conduct an entrance exam, although most public schools in the villages and small towns do not. Public schools are the only option for parents and children in rural areas, but there are large numbers of private schools in Dhaka and Chittagong. Many Bangladeshi private schools teach their students in English and follow curricula from overseas, but in public schools lessons are taught in Bengali. Per the Canadian constitution, public-school education in Canada is a provincial responsibility and, as such, there are many variations among the provinces. Junior kindergarten exists as an official program in only Ontario and Quebec while kindergarten is available in every province, but provincial funding and the level of ho
Cross country running
Cross country running is a sport in which teams and individuals run a race on open-air courses over natural terrain such as dirt or grass. Sometimes the runners are referred to as harriers; the course 4–12 kilometres long, may include surfaces of grass, earth, pass through woodlands and open country, include hills, flat ground and sometimes gravel road. It is both a team sport. Both men and women of all ages compete in cross country, which takes place during autumn and winter, can include weather conditions of rain, snow or hail, a wide range of temperatures. Cross country running is one of the disciplines under the umbrella sport of athletics, is a natural terrain version of long-distance track and road running. Although open-air running competitions are pre-historic, the rules and traditions of cross country racing emerged in Britain; the English championship became the first national competition in 1876 and the International Cross Country Championships was held for the first time in 1903. Since 1973 the foremost elite competition has been the IAAF World Cross Country Championships.
Cross country courses are laid out on an woodland area. The IAAF recommends that courses be grass-covered, have rolling terrain with frequent but smooth turns. Courses consist of one or more loops, with a long straight at the start and another leading to the finish line. Terrain can vary from open fields to forest hills and across rivers, it includes running down and up hills. Because of variations in conditions, international standardization of cross country courses is impossible, not desirable. Part of cross country running's appeal is the distinct characteristics of each venue's terrain and weather, as in other outdoor sports like motor racing and golf. According to the IAAF, an ideal cross country course has a loop of 1,750 to 2,000 metres laid out on an open or wooded land, it should be covered by grass, as much as possible, include rolling hills "with smooth curves and short straights". While it is acceptable for local conditions to make dirt or snow the primary surface, courses should minimize running on roads or other macadamized paths.
Parks and golf courses provide suitable locations. While a course may include natural or artificial obstacles, cross country courses support continuous running, do not require climbing over high barriers, through deep ditches, or fighting through the underbrush, as do military-style assault courses. A course at least 5 metres full allows competitors to pass others during the race. Clear markings keep competitors from making wrong turns, spectators from interfering with the competition. Markings may include tape or ribbon on both sides of the course, chalk or paint on the ground, or cones; some classes use colored flags to indicate directions: red flags for left turns, yellow flags for right turns, blue flags to continue straight or stay within ten feet of the flag. Courses commonly include distance markings at each kilometer or each mile; the course should have 400 to 1,200 m of level terrain before the first turn, to reduce contact and congestion at the start. However, many courses at smaller competitions have their first turn after a much shorter distance.
Courses for international competitions consist of a loop between 2000 meters. Athletes complete three to six loops, depending on the race. Senior men compete on a 12-kilometre course. Senior women and junior men compete on an 8-kilometre course. Junior women compete on a 6-kilometre course. In the United States, college men compete on 8 km or 10 km courses, while college women race for 5 km or 6 km. High school courses are 5 km. Middle school courses are 1.5 mi or 2 mi long. All runners start at the same time, from a starting arc marked with lines or boxes for each team or individual. An official, 50 meters or more in front of the starting line, fires a pistol to indicate the start. If runners collide and fall within the first 100 meters, officials can call the runners back and restart the race, however this is done only once. Crossing the line or starting before the starting pistol is fired is considered a false start and most results in disqualification of the runner; the course ends at a finish line located at the beginning of a funnel or chute that keeps athletes single-file in order of finish and facilitates accurate scoring.
Depending on the timing and scoring system, finish officials may collect a small slip from each runner's bib, to keep track of finishing positions. An alternative method is to have four officials in two pairs. In the first pair, one official reads out numbers of finishers and the other records them. In the second pair, one official reads out times for the other to record. At the end of the race, the two lists are joined along with information from the entry information; the primary disadvantage of this system is that distractions can upset the results when scores of runners finish close together. Chip timing has grown in popularity to increase accuracy and decrease the number of officials required at the finish line; each runner attaches a transponder with RFID to her shoe. When the runner crosses the finish line, an electronic pad records the chip number and matches the runner to a database. Chip timing allows officials to use checkpoint mats throughout the race to calculate split times, to ensure runners cover the entire course.
This is by far the most efficient method, although it is t
University of Chicago Oriental Institute
The Oriental Institute, established in 1919, is the University of Chicago's interdisciplinary research center for ancient Near Eastern studies, archaeology museum. It was founded for the university by professor James Henry Breasted with funds donated by John D. Rockefeller, Jr, it conducts research on ancient civilizations throughout the Near East, including at its facility, Chicago House, in Luxor, Egypt. The Institute publicly exhibits an extensive collection of artifacts related to ancient civilizations at its on-campus building in the Hyde Park, Chicago community. In the early 20th century, James Henry Breasted built up the collection of the university's Haskell Oriental Museum, which he oversaw along with his field work, teaching duties, he dreamed, however, of establishing a research institute, “a laboratory for the study of the rise and development of civilization”, that would trace Western civilization to its roots in the ancient Middle East. As World War I wound down, he sensed an opportunity to use his influence in the new political climate.
He wrote to John D. Rockefeller, Jr. and proposed the foundation of what would become the Oriental Institute. Fundamental to the implementation of his plan was a research trip through the Middle East, which Breasted had optimistically, or naively, suggested was ready to receive scholars again after the disturbances of the war. Breasted received a reply from Rockefeller pledging $50,000 over five years for the Oriental Institute. Rockefeller assured University of Chicago President Harry Pratt Judson that he would pledge another $50,000 to the cause; the University of Chicago contributed additional support, in May 1919 the Oriental Institute was founded. The Institute is housed in an unusual Art-Deco/Gothic building at the corner of 58th Street and University Avenue, designed by the architectural firm Mayers Murray & Phillip. Construction was completed in 1930, the building was dedicated in 1931. In the 1990s, Tony Wilkinson, founded the'Center for Ancient Middle Eastern Landscapes' based at the institute.
Its role is to investigate the Middle East through landscape archaeology and the analysis of spatial data, including images from many decades of Middle Eastern aerial photography, survey maps, as well as, modern satellite imagery. The Museum of the Oriental Institute has artifacts from digs in Egypt, Syria, Turkey and Iran. Notable works in the collection include the famous Megiddo Ivories; the museum has free admission. The Oriental Institute is a center of active research on the ancient Near East; the building's upper floors contain a library and faculty offices, its gift shop, the Suq sells textbooks for the University's classes on Near Eastern studies. In addition to carrying out many digs in the Fertile Crescent, OI scholars have made contributions to the understanding of the origins of human civilization; the term "Fertile Crescent" was coined by J. H. Breasted, the OI founder, who popularized the connection of the rise of civilization in the Near East with the development of European culture.
In 2011, among other projects OI scholars completed publication of the 21-volume Chicago Assyrian Dictionary, a basic cultural reference work. The effort was begun in 1921 by J. H. Breasted, continued by Edward Chiera and Ignace Gelb, with the first volume published in 1956. Dr. Erica Reiner as editor-in-charge led the research teams for 44 years, she was succeeded by dean of humanities at the university. Similar dictionaries are including the Chicago Hittite Dictionary and one for Demotic; the Institute oversees the work of Chicago House in Egypt. The Egyptian facility, established in 1924, performs the Epigraphic Survey, which documents and researches the historical sites in Luxor, it manages conservation at various sites. In 2006, the Oriental Institute was the center of a controversy when a U. S. federal court ruling sought to seize and auction a valuable collection of ancient Persian tablets held by the museum. The proceeds were to compensate the victims of a 1997 bombing in Ben Yehuda Street, Jerusalem, an attack which the United States claimed was funded by Iran.
The ruling threatened sale of an invaluable collection of ancient clay tablets, held by the Oriental Institute since the 1930s, but owned by Iran. The Achaemenid clay tablets were loaned to the University of Chicago in 1937, they were discovered by archaeologists in 1933 and are the property of the National Museum of Iran and the Iran's Cultural Heritage Organization. The artifacts were loaned based on the understanding; the tablets, from Persepolis, the capital of the Achaemenid Empire, date to about 500 BCE. The tablets give a view of daily life, itemizing such elements as the daily rations of barley given to workers in nearby regions of the empire; the tablets were sent to the capital to provide a record of. Gil Stein, former director of the Oriental Institute, said that details concern food for people on diplomatic or military missions; each tablet is about half the size of a deck of playing cards and has characters of a dialect of Elamite, an extinct language understood by a dozen scholars in the world.
Stein described the tablets as providing "the first chance to hear the Persians speaking of their own empire". Charles Jones, Research Associate and Librarian at the Oriental Institute and tablet expert, compared them to "credit card receipts". Most cu
A pom-pom – spelled pom-pon, pompom or pompon – is a decorative ball or tuft of fibrous material. The term may refer to large tufts used by cheerleaders, or a small, tighter ball attached to the top of a hat known as a bobble or toorie. Pom-poms may come in many colors and varieties and are made from a wide array of materials, including wool, paper, thread and feathers. Pom-poms are shaken by cheerleaders, pom or dance teams, sports fans during spectator sports. Webster's Third New International Dictionary gives the spelling as "pompon." The New Oxford American Dictionary gives the spelling as "pom-pom." The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language gives the spelling as "pompom" or "pompon." Webster's New World College Dictionary gives the spelling as "pompom."Pom-pom is derived from the French word pompon, which refers to a small decorative ball made of fabric or feathers. It means an "ornamental round tuft" and refers to its use on a hat, or an "ornamental tuft. Cheerleaders use pom-poms at sports events for six reasons: to attract the attention of the spectators to accentuate movements to add "sparkle" to a cheer, chant, or dance routine to distract the opposing team to spell out team's name or "go" to use semaphore Most pom-poms are used in pairs, but this may vary with the particular requirements of the choreography of a dance or cheer.
Cheerleading pom-poms come in a variety of shapes, colors, color combinations, sizes. Shiny metallic pom-poms have become popular in recent years. Pom-poms are waved by sports fans at college and high school sports events in the United States, light-weight faux pom-poms in team colors are sometimes given or sold to spectators at such events. Many schools and universities have dance teams in addition to their cheerleading groups; the dance teams may use pom-poms but many high school dance teams are now referred to as "Poms" squads. These squads are similar to drill teams, but have several routines that they use pom-poms. Pom-poms have come to be included in dance competitions in the United States. In many states, "Pom" or "Open Pom" is considered its own style of dance during competitions. For this style dancers use pom-poms and moves that are choreographed to include pom-poms, but incorporate hip-hop and jazz choreography as well; when judging a routine in the Pom or Open Pom category, judges look for clean, sharp movements and complete synchronization of the team.
These dances use different colored pom-poms and outfits to convey a theme and the dance team will create pictures from their pom-poms that relate to this theme. In Australia, the term "flogger" is sometimes used rather than "pom-pom". Floggers are large, heavy pom-poms in the team's colours, they sometimes require more than one person to lift them, they are waved about when a goal is scored. Floggers are an important part of Australian rules football culture and cheer-squads. Small pom-poms may be used to adorn hats, fringed dresses, other kinds of clothing. Pom-poms form a conspicuous part of the uniform of French naval personnel, being sewn onto the crown of their round cap. Belgian sailors wear a light blue version. Traditional Italian wedding shoes have small pom-poms. Roman Catholic clergy wear the biretta; the colour of its pom-pom denotes the wearer's rank. Priests wear a black biretta with a black pom. Protonotaries and domestic prelates have a scarlet pom on their black birettas, Papal Chamberlains wear a Roman purple pom on their black birettas.
Bishops and archbishops wear a Roman purple biretta with matching pom. The scarlet birettas of the cardinals have no pom, only a red loop. There is no papal biretta; some religious orders and congregations have unique birettas, such as the Norbertines who wear a white biretta with a white pom. Some St. Francis fathers wear a brown biretta with a black pom. Other orders may wear a black biretta with a white, green, or blue pom, or the black biretta of the secular priesthood. In reference to Scottish Highland dress and Scottish military uniforms, the small pom-pom on the crown of such hats as the Balmoral, the Glengarry, the Tam o' Shanter is called a "toorie." The toorie is made of yarn and is traditionally red on both Balmorals and Glengarries. It has evolved into the smaller pom-pom found on older-style golf caps and the button atop baseball caps. Scots refer to any such hat decoration as a toorie, irrespective of the headgear. Pom-poms are sometimes used as children's toys, they are a common feature at the ends of the handlebars of children's bicycles.
They are used in children's artistic crafts to add texture and color