Napier is a New Zealand city with a seaport, located in Hawke's Bay on the eastern coast of the North Island. The population of Napier is about 62,800 as of June 2019. About 18 kilometres south of Napier is the inland city of Hastings; these two neighbouring cities are called "The Bay Cities" or "The Twin Cities" of New Zealand. The total population of the Napier-Hastings Urban Area is 134,500 people, which makes it the sixth-largest urban area in New Zealand followed by Dunedin, trailing Tauranga. Napier is about 320 kilometres northeast of the capital city of Wellington. Napier has a smaller population than its neighbouring city of Hastings but is seen as the main centre due to it being closer in distance to both the seaport and the main airport that service Hawke's Bay, Hastings' population figure includes 13,000 people living in Havelock North, considered a town in its own right; the City of Napier has a land area of 106 square kilometres and a population density of 540.0 per square kilometre.
Napier is the nexus of the largest wool centre in the Southern Hemisphere, it has the primary export seaport for northeastern New Zealand –, the largest producer of apples and stone fruit in New Zealand. The Hawke's Bay wine region is now the second largest in New Zealand after Marlborough, grapes grown around Hastings and Napier are sent through the Port of Napier for export. Large amounts of sheep's wool, frozen meat, wood pulp, timber pass through Napier annually for export. Smaller amounts of these materials are shipped via road and railway to the large metropolitan areas of New Zealand itself, such as Auckland and Hamilton. Napier is a popular tourist city, with a unique concentration of 1930s Art Deco architecture, built after much of the city was razed in the 1931 Hawke's Bay earthquake, it has one of the most photographed tourist attractions in the country, a statue on Marine Parade called Pania of the Reef. Thousands of people flock to Napier every February for the Tremains Art Deco Weekend event, a celebration of its Art Deco heritage and history.
Other notable tourist events attracting many outsiders to the region annually include F. A. W. C! Food and Wine Classic events, the Mission Estate Concert at Mission Estate Winery in the suburb of Taradale. Napier has well-documented Māori history; when the Ngāti Kahungunu party of Taraia reached the district many centuries ago, the Whatumamoa and the Ngāti Awa and elements of the Ngāti Tara iwi existed in the nearby areas of Petane, Te Whanganui-a-Orotu and Waiohiki. The Ngāti Kahungunu became the dominant force from Poverty Bay to Wellington, they were one of the first Māori tribes to come in contact with European settlers. Chief Te Ahuriri cut a channel into the lagoon space at Ahuriri because the Westshore entrance had become blocked, threatening cultivations surrounding the lagoon and the fishing villages on the islands in the lagoon; the rivers were continually feeding freshwater into the area. Captain James Cook was one of the first Europeans to see the future site of Napier when he sailed down the east coast in October 1769.
He commented: "On each side of this bluff head is a low, narrow sand or stone beach, between these beaches and the mainland is a pretty large lake of salt water I suppose." He said. The site was subsequently visited and settled by European traders and missionaries. By the 1850s, farmers and hotel-keepers arrived; the Crown purchased the Ahuriri block in 1851. In 1854 Alfred Domett, a future Prime Minister of New Zealand, was appointed as the Commissioner of Crown Lands and the resident magistrate at the village of Ahuriri, it was decided to place a planned town here, its streets and avenues were laid out, the new town named for Sir Charles Napier, a military leader during the "Battle of Meeanee" fought in the province of Sindh, India. Domett named many streets in Napier to commemorate the colonial era of the British Indian Empire. Napier was designated as a borough in 1874, but the development of the surrounding marshlands and reclamation proceeded slowly. Between 1858 and 1876 Napier was the administrative centre for the Hawke's Bay Province, but in 1876 the "Abolition of Provinces Act", an act of the New Zealand Parliament, dissolved all provincial governments in New Zealand.
Development was confined to the hill and to the port area of Ahuriri. In the early years, Napier covered exclusively an oblong group of hills, nearly surrounded by the ocean, but from which ran out two single spits, one to the north and one to the south. There was a swamp between the now Hastings Street and Wellesley Road and the sea extended to "Clive Square". On 3 February 1931, most of nearby Hastings was levelled by an earthquake; the collapses of buildings and the ensuing fires killed 256 people. The centre of the town was destroyed by the earthquake, rebuilt in the Art Deco style popular at that time; some 4000 hectares of today's Napier were undersea. The earthquake uplifted an area of 1500 km2 with a maximum of 2.7 m of uplift. In Hastings about 1 m of ground subsidence occurred. Although a few Art Deco buildings were replaced with contemporary structures during the 1960s, 1970s, 1980s, most of the centre remained intact for long enough to become recognised as architecturally important, beginning in the 1990s it had been protected and restored.
Robert Anthony Rucho, dentist from Matthews, North Carolina, was a Republican member of the North Carolina General Assembly representing the state's thirty-ninth Senate district, including parts of Mecklenburg County. Rucho served as co-chairman of the Senate Finance Committee until his abrupt resignation in June 2013 in a dispute with Senate President Pro Tempore Phil Berger over tax reform policy. Berger never accepted the resignation and the next month, Rucho resumed his chairmanship. Rucho gained much criticism, including from within his own party, after he tweeted "Justice Robert's pen & Obamacare has done more damage to the USA the swords of the Nazis, Soviets & terrorists combined" on December 15, 2013. News & Observer: Rucho retakes legislative seat
A Chinese typewriter is a typewriter that can type Chinese script. Early European typewriters began appearing in the early 19th century. However, as the Chinese language uses a logographic writing system, fitting thousands of Chinese characters on the machine needed much more complex engineering than typewriters using a simple latin alphabet, or other non-logographic scripts. An ordinary Chinese printing office uses 6,000 Chinese characters. Chinese typewriters, similar Japanese typewriters invented by Kyota Sugimoto, which use kanji adopted from the Chinese writing system, started to appear only in the early 20th century. There have been at least five dozen different versions of Chinese typewriters, ranging from sizable mechanical models to sophisticated electric word processors. Hou-Kun Chow, a mechanical engineer in Shanghai, is credited with inventing the first Chinese typewriter in 1916, his typewriter utilized 4,000 characters. He had studied in the United States like several other Chinese who contributed to the development of Chinese typewriters.
Chow first thought about the practicality of a Chinese typewriter in Boston, while he was inspecting American typewriters as a student of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. His efforts were hindered by a lack of technical assistance in Shanghai. Chow considered it impossible to build a Chinese typewriter with separate keys for each Chinese character; the solution was a mechanical typewriter using a revolving cylinder to fit Chinese characters on the machine. They were ordered by radicals and number of strokes on the cylinder, in a manner similar to Chinese dictionaries; this design however proved heavy, the machine weighing at 40 pounds and an improved version at about 30 pounds. Chow expected his typewriter to be used in Chinese offices where multiple copies of documents would be required to be made, by Chinese living in foreign countries due to their lack of access to the services of skilled writers familiar with Chinese characters. Chinese typewriters made in Japan entered the market in the 1920s, with the Wanneng brand, introduced by the Nippon Typewriter Company in 1940 during the Second Sino-Japanese War, becoming the de facto standard.
After Japan's defeat and the subsequent nationalization of typewriter companies by the Communist government, locally made models based on the Wanneng continued to dominate the market the Double Pigeon. The Ming Kwai typewriter is an electromechanical typewriter patented by Lin Yutang; the patent, No. 2613795, was filed on April 17, 1946 by Lin, was issued by the United States Patent and Trademark Office on October 14, 1952. One of Lin's intentions was to help modernize China. Lin called his design the "Ming Kwai" typewriter and promoted it as "The Only Chinese Typewriter Designed for Everybody's Use"; the two Chinese characters "Ming kwai" means "clear" and "quick". Lin had a prototype machine custom built by the Carl E. Krum Company, a small engineering-design consulting firm with an office in New York City; that multilingual typewriter was the size of a conventional office typewriter of the 1940s. It measured 36 cm × 46 cm × 23 cm; the typefaces fit on a drum. A "magic eye" was mounted in the center of the keyboard which magnifies and allows the typist to review a selected character.
Characters are selected by first pressing two keys to choose a desired character, arranged according to a system Lin devised for his dictionary of the Chinese language. The selected Chinese character appeared in the magic eye for preview, the typist pressed a "master" key, similar to today's computer function key; the typewriter could create 90,000 distinct characters using either one or two of six character-containing rollers, which in combination has 7000 full characters and 1,400 character radicals or partial characters. The inspired aspect of the typewriter was the system Lin devised for a Chinese script, it had thirty geometric strokes. These became "letters" by, he broke tradition with the long-standing system of radicals and stroke order writing and categorizing of Chinese characters, inventing a new way of seeing and categorizing. The typewriter was not produced commercially. According to Lin's daughter, Lin Tai-Yi, the day she was to demonstrate the machine to executives of the Remington Typewriter Company, they could not make it work.
Although they did get the machine fixed for a press conference the next day, it was to no avail. Lin found himself in debt. In 1947, Lin paid income taxes owed to the Internal Revenue Service and went to work in Paris for UNESCO. Between the 1930s and 1950s, Chinese typewriters had a political implication, as they were used in mass-production of leaflets and pamphlets; the typewriters gained popular appeal and changed Chinese office work. According to Thomas Mullaney, it is possible that development of modern Chinese typewriters in the 1960s and 1970s influenced the development of modern computer word processors and affected the development of computers themselves. Chinese typewriter engineers were trying to make the most common characters be accessible at the fastest speed possible by word prediction, a technique used today in Chinese input methods for computers, as well as in text messaging in many languages. Chinese typewriter has become a metaphor for absurdity and backwardness in Western popular culture.
One such example is MC Hammer's dance move named after the Chinese typewriter in the music video for "U Can't Touch This". The move, with its fast paced and large gesture