Campania is a region in Southern Italy. As of 2018, the region has a population of around 5,820,000 people, making it the third-most-populous region of Italy. Located on the Italian Peninsula, with the Mediterranean Sea to the west, it includes the small Phlegraean Islands and Capri for administration as part of the region. Campania was part of Magna Græcia. During the Roman era, the area maintained a Greco-Roman culture; the capital city of Campania is Naples. Campania is rich in culture in regard to gastronomy, architecture and ancient sites such as Pompeii, Oplontis, Aeclanum and Velia; the name of Campania itself is derived from Latin, as the Romans knew the region as Campania felix, which translates into English as "fertile countryside" or "happy countryside". The rich natural sights of Campania make it important in the tourism industry along the Amalfi Coast, Mount Vesuvius and the island of Capri; the original inhabitants of Campania were three defined groups of the Ancient peoples of Italy, who all spoke the Oscan language, part of the Italic family.
During the 8th century BC, people from Euboea in Greece, known as Cumaeans, began to establish colonies in the area around the modern day province of Naples. Another Oscan tribe, the Samnites, moved down from central Italy into Campania. Since the Samnites were more warlike than the Campanians, they took over the cities of Capua and Cumae, in an area, one of the most prosperous and fertile in the Italian Peninsula at the time. During the 340s BC, the Samnites were engaged in a war with the Roman Republic in a dispute known as the Samnite Wars, with the Romans securing rich pastures of northern Campania during the First Samnite War; the major remaining independent Greek settlement was Neapolis, when the town was captured by the Samnites, the Neapolitans were left with no other option than to call on the Romans, with whom they established an alliance, setting off the Second Samnite War. The Roman consul Quintus Publilius Filo recaptured Neapolis by 326 BC and allowed it to remain a Greek city with some autonomy as a civitas foederata while aligned with Rome.
The Second Samnite War ended with the Romans controlling southern Campania and additional regions further to the south. Campania was a full-fledged part of the Roman Republic by the end of the 4th century BC, valued for its pastures and rich countryside, its Greek language and customs made it a centre of Hellenistic civilization, creating the first traces of Greco-Roman culture. During the Pyrrhic War the battle took place in Campania at Maleventum in which the Romans, led by consul Curius Dentatus, were victorious, they renamed the city Beneventum, which grew in stature until it was second only to Capua in southern Italy. During the Second Punic War in 216 BC, Capua, in a bid for equality with Rome, allied with Carthage; the rebellious Capuans were isolated from the rest of Campania. Naples resisted Hannibal due to the imposing walls. Capua was starved into submission in the Roman retaking of 211 BC, the Romans were victorious; the rest of Campania, with the exception of Naples, adopted the Latin language as official and was Romanised.
As part of the Roman Empire, with Latium, formed the most important region of the Augustan divisions of Italia. In ancient times Misenum, at the extreme northern end of the bay of Naples, was the largest base of the Roman navy, since its port was the base of the Classis Misenensis, the most important Roman fleet, it was first established as a naval base in 27 BC by Marcus Agrippa, the right-hand man of the emperor Augustus. Roman Emperors chose Campania as a holiday destination, among them Claudius and Tiberius, the latter of whom is infamously linked to the island of Capri, it was during this period that Christianity came to Campania. Two of the apostles, St. Peter and St. Paul, are said to have preached in the city of Naples, there were several martyrs during this time; the period of relative calm was violently interrupted by the epic eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 which buried the cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum. With the Decline of the Roman Empire, its last emperor, Romulus Augustus, was put in a manor house prison near Castel dell'Ovo, Naples, in 476, ushering in the beginning of the Middle Ages and a period of uncertainty in regard to the future of the area.
The area had many duchies and principalities during the Middle Ages, in the hands of the Byzantine Empire and the Lombards. Under the Normans, the smaller independent states were brought together as part of the Kingdom of Sicily, before the mainland broke away to form the Kingdom of Naples, it was during this period that elements of Spanish and Aragonese culture were introduced to Campania. After a period as a Norman kingdom, the Kingdom of Sicily passed to the Hohenstaufens, who were a powerful Germanic royal house of Swabian origins; the University of Naples Federico II was founded by Frederick II in the city, the oldest state university in the world, making Naples the intellectual centre of the kingdom. Conflict between the Hohenstaufen house and the Papacy, led in 1266 to Pope Innocent IV crowning Angevin Dynasty duke Charles I as the king. Charles moved the capital from Palermo to Naples where he resided at the Castel Nuovo. During this period, much Gothic architec
National Archaeological Museum, Naples
The National Archaeological Museum of Naples is an important Italian archaeological museum for ancient Roman remains. Its collection includes works from Greek and Renaissance times, Roman artifacts from nearby Pompeii and Herculaneum, it was the Real Museo Borbonico. The building was built as a cavalry barracks in 1585. From 1616 to 1777 it was the seat of the University of Naples. During the 19th century, after it became museum, it suffered many changes to the main structure; the museum hosts extensive collections of Roman antiquities. Their core is from the Farnese Collection, which includes a collection of engraved gems and the Farnese Marbles. Among the notable works found in the museum are the Herculaneum papyri, carbonized by the eruption of Mount Vesuvius, found after 1752 in Villa of the Papyri; the greater part of the museum's classical sculpture collection comes from the Farnese Marbles, important since they include Roman copies of classical Greek sculpture, which are in many cases the only surviving indications of what the lost works by ancient Greek sculptors such as Calamis and Nesiotes looked like.
Many of these works the larger ones, have been moved to the Museo di Capodimonte for display in recent years. The Farnese Hercules, which fixed the image of Hercules in the European imagination; the Farnese Atlas is the oldest extant depiction of Atlas from Greek mythology, the oldest view of the Western constellations based upon the star catalog of Hipparchus The Farnese Bull considered the largest single sculpture recovered from antiquity. The group Harmodius and Aristogeiton, a Roman copy of a bronze work that once stood in the Agora of Athens The Venus Kallipygos The Farnese Artemis, again a Roman copy of a Greek original a collection of busts of Roman emperors another set of Roman sculptures that once stood in the Baths of Caracalla in Rome. A major collection of ancient Roman bronzes from the Villa of the Papyri is housed at the museum; these include the Seated Hermes, a sprawling Drunken Satyr, a bust of Thespis, another variously identified as Seneca or Hesiod, a pair of exceptionally lively runners.
The museum's Mosaic Collection includes a number of important mosaics recovered from the ruins of Pompeii and the other Vesuvian cities. This includes the Alexander Mosaic, dating from circa 100 BC from the House of the Faun in Pompeii, it depicts a battle between the armies of Darius III of Persia. Another mosaic found is that of the gladiatorial fighter depicted in a mosaic found from the Villa of the Figured Capitals in Pompeii. With 2,500 objects, the museum has one of the largest collection of Egyptian artifacts in Italy after the Turin and Bologna ones, it is made up of works from two private collections, assembled by Cardinal Stefano Borgia in the second half of the 18th century, Picchianti in the first years of the 19th. In the recent rearrangement of the galleries the two nuclei have been exhibited separately, while in the connecting room other items are on display, including Egyptian and "pseudo-Egyptian" artefacts from Pompeii and other Campanian sites. In its new layout the collection provides both an important record of Egyptian civilization from the Old Kingdom up to the Ptolemaic-Roman era.
The Secret Cabinet or Secret Room is the name the Bourbon Monarchy gave the private rooms in which they held their extensive collection of erotic or sexual items deriving from excavations of Pompeii and Herculaneum. Access was known morals; the rooms were called Cabinets of matters reserved or obscene or pornographic. After the revolution of 1848, the government of the monarchy proposed the destruction of objects, fearful of the implications of their ownership, which would tarnish the monarchy with lasciviousness; the director of the Royal Bourbon Museum instead had access to the collection terminated, the entrance door was provided with three different locks, whose keys were held by the Director of the Museum, the Museum Controller, the Palace Butler. The highlight of the censorship occurred in 1851 when nude Venus statues were locked up, the entrance walled up in the hope that the collection would vanish from memory. In September 1860, when the forces of Garibaldi occupied Naples, he ordered that the collection be made available for the general public to view.
Since the Royal Butler was no longer available, they broke into the collection. Limiting viewership and censorship have always been part of the history of the collection. Censorship was restored during the era of the Kingdom of Italy, peaked during the Fascist period, when visitors to the rooms needed the permission of the Minister of National Education in Rome. Censorship persisted in the postwar period up to 1967, abating only after 1971 when the Ministry was given the new rules to regulate requests for visits and access to the section. Rebuilt a few years ago with all of the new criteria, the collection was opened to the public in April 2000. Visitors under the age of 14 can tour the exhibit only with an adult; the Placentarius, the small bronze statue represents a distinctly ithyphallic old nude man who, on the palm of his hand, holds a little silver tray. Official website
Line 6 (Naples Metro)
Line 6 is a 2.2-kilometre light metro line that forms part of the Naples Metro. It connects 4 stations; the line is closed to the public due to low ridership. When the planned expansion of Line 6 is finished, there will a total of 8 stations along a planned 5.5-kilometre route length. The actual Line 6 was projected as a rapid tramway line with some underground parts. Works started at the end of the 1980s, with a plan to open the first section for the 1990 FIFA World Cup; as the end station Mergellina couldn't be completed in time, the line wasn't opened and was left abandoned for many years. In the 2000s it was decided to complete the Mergellina station and to open the section, built, but as a light metro without any connection with the tram network; the section was opened on 4 February 2007, from Mostra to Mergellina with two intermediate stops at Lala and Augusto, a frequency of a train every 8 minutes. Line was operated by Metronapoli until November 2013 when operations of the Naples Metro was taken over by Azienda Napoletana Mobilità SpA.
As the existing section is short, served by other parallel lines, the line has been much less used since its opening. The service was suspended on 10 March 2011, re-opened only in the morning from Mondays to Fridays with a reduced frequency; the line will be extended from the west of Naples to the city center at Municipio. Preliminary work began in July 2006 on the way to Municipio, where work is under way on Line 1. In September 2007 Ansaldo STS was awarded a €426m contract for the 3.1-kilometre section Mergellina–Municipio. Trains on Line 6 travelled every 16 minutes, only in the mornings from Mondays to Saturdays, but ridership on the operational rump part of Line 6 was low, the line is closed to the public. Naples Metro List of Naples Metro stations Art Stations of the Naples Metro List of metro systems Guido Mazzuolo: La linea tranviaria rapida a Napoli. Sintesi del progetto. In: ″Ingegneria Ferroviaria″, October 1984, p. 680–685. Riccardo Carugati: Tram rapido a Napoli. In: ″I Treni Oggi″, July-August 1990, p. 31–33.
Marcello Cruciani, Roberto Zannotti: ″Mondiale″ un anno dopo - 2. In: ″I Treni Oggi″ Nr. 117, p. 27–28. Media related to Line 6 at Wikimedia Commons Metro Napoli at UrbanRail.net Fan page
Naples is the regional capital of Campania and the third-largest municipality in Italy after Rome and Milan. In 2017, around 967,069 people lived within the city's administrative limits while its province-level municipality has a population of 3,115,320 residents, its continuously built-up metropolitan area is the second or third largest metropolitan area in Italy and one of the most densely populated cities in Europe. First settled by Greeks in the second millennium BC, Naples is one of the oldest continuously inhabited urban areas in the world. In the ninth century BC, a colony known as Parthenope or Παρθενόπη was established on the Island of Megaride refounded as Neápolis in the sixth century BC; the city was an important part of Magna Graecia, played a major role in the merging of Greek and Roman society and a significant cultural centre under the Romans. It served as the capital of the Duchy of Naples of the Kingdom of Naples and of the Two Sicilies until the unification of Italy in 1861.
Between 1925 and 1936, Naples was expanded and upgraded by Benito Mussolini's government but subsequently sustained severe damage from Allied bombing during World War II, which led to extensive post-1945 reconstruction work. Naples has experienced significant economic growth in recent decades, helped by the construction of the Centro Direzionale business district and an advanced transportation network, which includes the Alta Velocità high-speed rail link to Rome and Salerno and an expanded subway network. Naples is the third-largest urban economy in Italy, after Rome; the Port of Naples is one of the most important in Europe and home of the Allied Joint Force Command Naples, the NATO body that oversees North Africa, the Sahel and Middle East. Naples' historic city centre is the largest in Europe and a UNESCO World Heritage Site, with a wide range of culturally and significant sites nearby, including the Palace of Caserta and the Roman ruins of Pompeii and Herculaneum. Naples is known for its natural beauties such as Posillipo, Phlegraean Fields and Vesuvius.
Neapolitan cuisine is synonymous with pizza – which originated in the city – but it includes many lesser-known dishes. The best-known sports team in Naples is the Serie A club S. S. C. Napoli, two-time Italian champions who play at the San Paolo Stadium in the southwest of the city, in the Fuorigrotta quarter. Naples has been inhabited since the Neolithic period; the earliest Greek settlements were established in the Naples area in the second millennium BC. Sailors from the Greek island of Rhodes established a small commercial port called Parthenope on the island of Megaride in the ninth century BC. By the eighth century BC, the settlement had expanded to include Monte Echia. In the sixth century BC the new urban zone of Neápolis was founded on the plain becoming one of the foremost cities of Magna Graecia; the city grew due to the influence of the powerful Greek city-state of Syracuse, became an ally of the Roman Republic against Carthage. During the Samnite Wars, the city, now a bustling centre of trade, was captured by the Samnites.
During the Punic Wars, the strong walls surrounding Neápolis repelled the invading forces of the Carthaginian general Hannibal. Naples was respected by the Romans as a paragon of Hellenistic culture. During the Roman era, the people of Naples maintained their Greek language and customs, while the city was expanded with elegant Roman villas and public baths. Landmarks such as the Temple of Dioscures were built, many emperors chose to holiday in the city, including Claudius and Tiberius. Virgil, the author of Rome's national epic, the Aeneid, received part of his education in the city, resided in its environs, it was during this period. Januarius, who would become Naples' patron saint, was martyred there in the fourth century AD; the last emperor of the Western Roman Empire, Romulus Augustulus, was exiled to Naples by the Germanic king Odoacer in the fifth century AD. Following the decline of the Western Roman Empire, Naples was captured by the Ostrogoths, a Germanic people, incorporated into the Ostrogothic Kingdom.
However, Belisarius of the Byzantine Empire recaptured Naples in 536, after entering the city via an aqueduct. In 543, during the Gothic Wars, Totila took the city for the Ostrogoths, but the Byzantines seized control of the area following the Battle of Mons Lactarius on the slopes of Vesuvius. Naples was expected to keep in contact with the Exarchate of Ravenna, the centre of Byzantine power on the Italian Peninsula. After the exarchate fell, a Duchy of Naples was created. Although Naples' Greco-Roman culture endured, it switched allegiance from Constantinople to Rome under Duke Stephen II, putting it under papal suzerainty by 763; the years between 818 and 832 were tumultuous in regard to Naples' relations with the Byzantine Emperor, with numerous local pretenders feuding for possession of the ducal throne. Theoctistus was appointed without imperial approval. However, the disgruntled general populace chased him from the city, instead elected Stephen III, a man who minted coins with his own initials, r
Commuter rail called suburban rail, is a passenger rail transport service that operates between a city centre and middle to outer suburbs beyond 15 km and commuter towns or other locations that draw large numbers of commuters—people who travel on a daily basis. Trains operate following a schedule at speeds varying from 50 to 225 km/h. Distance charges or zone pricing may be used. Non-English names include Treno suburbano in Italian, Cercanías in Spanish, Rodalies in Catalan, Proastiakos in Greek, S-Bahn in German, Train de banlieue in French, Příměstský vlak or Esko in Czech, Elektrichka in Russian, Pociąg podmiejski in Polish and Pendeltåg in Swedish; the development of commuter rail services has become popular, with the increased public awareness of congestion, dependence on fossil fuels, other environmental issues, as well as the rising costs of owning and parking automobiles. Most commuter trains are built to main line rail standards, differing from light rail or rapid transit systems by: being larger providing more seating and less standing room, owing to the longer distances involved having a lower frequency of service having scheduled services serving lower-density suburban areas connecting suburbs to the city center sharing track or right-of-way with intercity or freight trains not grade separated being able to skip certain stations as an express service due to being driver controlled Compared to rapid transit, commuter/suburban rail has lower frequency, following a schedule rather than fixed intervals, fewer stations spaced further apart.
They serve lower density suburban areas, share right-of-way with intercity or freight trains. Some services operate only during peak hours and others uses fewer departures during off peak hours and weekends. Average speeds are high 50 km/h or higher; these higher speeds better serve the longer distances involved. Some services include express services which skip some stations in order to run faster and separate longer distance riders from short-distance ones; the general range of commuter trains' distance varies between 200 km. Sometimes long distances can be explained by. Distances between stations may vary, but are much longer than those of urban rail systems. In city centers the train either has a terminal station or passes through the city centre with notably fewer station stops than those of urban rail systems. Toilets are available on-board trains and in stations, their ability to coexist with freight or intercity services in the same right-of-way can drastically reduce system construction costs.
However they are built with dedicated tracks within that right-of-way to prevent delays where service densities have converged in the inner parts of the network. Most such trains run on the local standard gauge track; some systems may run on a broader gauge. Examples of narrow gauge systems are found in Japan, Malaysia, Switzerland, in the Brisbane and Perth systems in Australia, in some systems in Sweden, on the Genoa-Casella line in Italy; some countries and regions, including Finland, Pakistan, Russia and Sri Lanka, as well as San Francisco in the US and Melbourne and Adelaide in Australia, use broad gauge track. Metro rail or rapid transit covers a smaller inner-urban area ranging outwards to between 12 km to 20 km, has a higher train frequency and runs on separate tracks, whereas commuter rail shares tracks and the legal framework within mainline railway systems. However, the classification as a metro or rapid rail can be difficult as both may cover a metropolitan area run on separate tracks in the centre, feature purpose-built rolling stock.
The fact that the terminology is not standardised across countries further complicates matters. This distinction is most made when there are two systems such as New York's subway and the LIRR and Metro-North Railroad, Paris' Métro and RER along with Transilien, London's tube lines of the Underground and the Overground, Thameslink along with other commuter rail operators, Madrid's Metro and Cercanías, Barcelona's Metro and Rodalies, Tokyo's subway and the JR lines along with various owned and operated commuter rail systems. In Germany the S-Bahn is regarded as a train category of its own, exists in many large cities and in some other areas, but there are differing service and technical standards from city to city. Most S-Bahns behave like commuter rail with most trackage not separated from other trains, long lines with trains running between cities and suburbs rather than within a city; the distances between stations however, are short. In larger systems there is a high frequency metro-like central corridor in the city center where all the lines converge into.
Typical examples of large city S-Bahns include Frankfurt. S-Bahns do exist in some mid-size cities like Rostock and Magdeburg but behave more like typical commuter rail with lower frequencies and little exclusive trackage. In Berlin, the S-Bahn systems arguably fulfill all considerations of a true metro system (despite the existence of U-Ba
Circumvesuviana is a railway company operating services in the East of the Naples metropolitan area. Electrically powered throughout, the system uses the narrow gauge of 950 mm and operates 142 km of route on six lines, it is separate from other national and regional railway lines. It has 96 stations with an average interstation distance of 1.5 km. The Circumvesuviana railway service covers a wide catchment area of over 2 million people, distributed in 47 municipalities, including Scafati, San Valentino Torio and Sarno in the province of Salerno and Avella and Baiano in the province of Avellino; the network forms an important commercial artery, provides services to the important tourist destinations of Pompeii and Herculaneum. All routes start from the Napoli Porta Nolana terminus near the Porta Nolana, pass through Napoli Garibaldi station before splitting into several branches to towns in the province. A journey along the entirety of the longest route, the 47 km from Naples to Sorrento, takes about one hour.
On 27 December 2012 the company was absorbed by the Ente Autonomo Volturno. All lines are powered by electric overhead lines; the network uses two types of rolling stock, both electrically powered: FE220 units, ETR211 "Metrostar" articulated trains. Power is supplied by overhead catenary and the train motors can generate up to 500 kW of power; the FE220 cars are coupled together to form a two- or three-car multiple units, painted white with red doors and ends. There FE220 trains come in two different variations. Twenty-six ETR211 "Metrocar" three-car articulated units were introduced between November 2008 and September 2009. Manufactured by a consortium of Firema and AnsaldoBreda, these trains are capable of carrying 450 passengers and are styled by Pininfarina; as well as being more powerful than the FE220 units, they have computer driving aids, self-levelling suspension. These units are used to provide the express service whilst the FE220 provide cheaper, stopping services which tend to be far more crowded.
Metropolitana di Napoli List of suburban and commuter rail systems Official Circumvesuviana site Unofficial site Current schedules on the EAV site
Medium-capacity rail system
A medium-capacity system is a rail transport system with a capacity greater than light rail, but less than typical heavy-rail rapid transit. It is known as light metro or light rapid transit. Since ridership determines the scale of a rapid transit system, statistical modeling allows planners to size the rail system for the needs of the area; when the predicted ridership falls between the service requirements of a light rail and heavy rail or metro system, an MCS project is indicated. An MCS may result when a rapid transit service fails to achieve the requisite ridership due to network inadequacies or changing demographics. In contrast with most light rail systems, an MCS runs on a grade separated exclusive right-of-way. In some cases, the distance between stations is much longer than found on heavy rail networks. An MCS may be suitable for branch line connections to another mode of a heavy-capacity transportation system, such as an airport or a main route of a metro network; the definition of a medium-capacity system varies due to its non-standardization.
Inconsistencies in international definitions are reflected within individual countries. For example, the Taiwan Ministry of Transportation and Communications states that each MCS system can board around 6,000–20,000 passengers per hour per direction, while the Taiwan Department of Rapid Transit Systems suggests an MCS has a capability of boarding around 20,000–30,000 p/h/d, a report from the World Bank places the capacity of an MCS at 15,000–30,000 p/h/d. For comparison, ridership capacity of more than 30,000 p/h/d has been quoted as the standard for metro or "heavy rail" standards rapid transit systems, while light rail systems have passenger capacity volumes of around 10,000–12,000 p/h/d or 12,000–18,000 p/h/d. Speaking, medium capacity systems has a lower ridership capacity when compared to other heavy rail systems in the same area. However, passenger capacity volume is just one possible criterion used to define a medium-capacity rail transit system. Another criterion that can be used to define a medium-capacity rail system is vehicle type.
For example, the train in an MCS may have a shorter configuration than the standard metro system three to six traincars, allowing for shorter platforms to be built and used. Rather than using steel wheels, rubber-tyred metro technology, such as the VAL system used on the Taipei Metro, is sometimes recommended, due to its low running noise, as well as the ability to climb steeper grades and turn tighter curves, thus allowing more flexible alignments. Heavy rail or metro systems have train headways of 10 minutes or better during peak hours; some systems that qualify as heavy rail/metro in every other way, but which have network inadequacies can only achieve lesser headways which result in lower passenger volume capacities, thus would be more defined as "light metro" or "medium-capacity" systems as a result. "Light metro" is a common alternative term used to describe the system worldwide. The term is used in European countries and South Korea. In some countries, light metro systems are conflated with light rail.
In South Korea, this tendency is be stronger since term "Light rail" is used as the translation for the original Korean term, "경전철" – its literal translation is "Light Metro", but it means "Any railway transit other than heavy rail, which has capacity between heavy rail and bus transit". For example, the U Line in Uijeongbu utilizes VAL system, a variant of medium-capacity rail transport, is therefore categorized "light metro" by LRTA and others, though the operator itself and South Korean sources refer to the U Line as "light rail". Busan–Gimhae Light Rail Transit is akin to a light metro in its appearance and features, thought the operator refers it as a "light rail". In India as well some articles refer to some "light metro"-type systems as "light rail"; as mentioned above, VAL systems are categorized in the medium-capacity rail systems family because their manufacturer defines their passenger capacities as being up to 30,000 p/h/d. A nonprofit organization, the Light Rail Transit Association categorizes several public transport systems as "light metro".
In Hong Kong, MTR's Ma On Shan Line could, in some contexts, be classified as a MCS but can attain up to 32,000 p/h/d, comparable to the passenger capacity of some full metro transit networks. This classification will not last for much longer as full-length, 8-car trains are being deployed on the line in advance of its merger with the West Rail Line to form the East West Corridor by 2019. Two other lines, the Disneyland Resort Line shuttle service to Hong Kong Disneyland Resort since 2005 and the South Island Line since December 2016, are built to MCS standards; the main reason to build a light metro instead of a regular metro is to reduce costs because this system employs shorter vehicles and shorter stations. Light metros may operate faster than heavy-rail rapid transit systems due to shorter dwell times at stations, the faster acceleration and deceleration of lighter trains. For example, express trains on the New York City Subway are about as fast as the Vancouver SkyTrain, but these express trains skip most stops on lines where they operate.
Medium-capacity systems have restricted growth capacities as ridership increases. For example, it is difficult to extend station platforms once a system is in operation for underground railway systems, since this work must b