Santo Domingo de los Tsáchilas Province
Santo Domingo de los Tsáchilas is a province in the Republic of Ecuador, created in October 2007 from territory in the province of Pichincha. The name of the province refers to a local ethnic group, the Tsáchila known as the Colorados on account of the custom of men dyeing their hair with paste made from achiote plants; the provincial capital is Santo Domingo. Its population is 500,000 inhabitants in 2008, fluctuating as it is the third largest city with more population following Guayaquil and Quito, its population is growing as it has a rich trade and the largest livestock market in the country. It is situated at an altitude of 165 meters. Santo Domingo limits are: on the north and east Pichincha, to the northwest Esmeraldas, Manabi on the west, to the south Los Rios and to the southeast with Cotopaxi. Located 133 km west of Quito, its usual temperature is around 21–33 °C in summer. During the winter, temperatures range around 23–32 °C and sometimes reach 36 °C, its average temperature is 25.5 °C.
This province is shown as part of the mountainous area of the coast of the western mountains known as the Province of Yumbo and the Hummingbird Capital. Located in the humid tropics of Latin America, its canton was held on July 3, 1967. On November 26, 2006 a consultation was carried out to determine and promote the status of province to the Central Government and the examiner; the provincialism was held on November 6, 2007. There is a conflict with the province of Esmeraldas in the jurisdiction of the Canton La Concordia, it consists of a single canton. Urban parishes are Santo Domingo, Rio Verde, Bombolí, Abraham Calazacón, Rio Toachi, its rural parishes are Alluriquín, Luz de America, Puerto Limon, San Jacinto del Bua, Valle Hermoso, El Esfuerzo and Santa Maria del Toachi. Las Mercedes, Julio Moreno and New Israel are parishes. Unique among the provinces of Ecuador, it has only two cantones, La Concordia and Santo Domingo, named after the city of Santo Domingo, the provincial capital. Provinces of Ecuador Cantons of Ecuador Media related to Santo Domingo de los Tsáchilas Province at Wikimedia Commons
Esmeraldas is a province in northwestern Ecuador. The capital is Esmeraldas; the province is home to the Afro-Ecuadorian culture. Ethnic groups as of the Ecuadorian census of 2010: Mestizo 44.7% Afro-Ecuadorian 43.9% White 5.9% Indigenous 2.8% Montubio 2.4% Other 0.3% The province is divided into 7 cantons. The following table lists each with its population at the time of the 2001 census, its area in square kilometres, the name of the canton seat or capital; the cantons are divided into many parroquias: In Muisne: Bellavista Daule Maldonado Muisne Pedro Carlo Tola Union of Daule Cantons of Ecuador Provinces of Ecuador
Carchi is a province in Ecuador. The capital is Tulcán; the Carchi River rises on the slopes of Chiles volcano and forms the boundary between Colombia and Ecuador near Tulcan. Rumichaca Bridge is the most important land route between Ecuador; the provincial economy is based on industrial, agriculture productions. Carchi produces food, drinks and dairy products; the agriculture sector produces potatoes, etc. The province is divided into 6 cantons; the following table lists each with its population at the 2010 census, its area in square kilometres, the name of the canton seat or capital. Ethnic groups as of the Ecuadorian census of 2010: Mestizo 86.9% Afro-Ecuadorian 6.4% Indigenous 3.4% White 2.9% Montubio 0.3% Other 0.1% Tulcán Cemetery - topiary garden cemetery. Three lakes of volcanic origin with blue - green water, rich with sulphur. Provinces of Ecuador Cantons of Ecuador Gobierno Provincial del Carchi, official website ¡Con el Carchi no se juega! "DEJA VU" OF HISTORY: YOU DON'T MESS WITH CARCHI
The Amazon rainforest known in English as Amazonia or the Amazon Jungle, is a moist broadleaf forest in the Amazon biome that covers most of the Amazon basin of South America. This basin encompasses 7,000,000 km2; this region includes territory belonging to nine nations. The majority of the forest is contained within Brazil, with 60% of the rainforest, followed by Peru with 13%, Colombia with 10%, with minor amounts in Venezuela, Bolivia, Guyana and France. States or departments in four nations contain "Amazonas" in their names; the Amazon represents over half of the planet's remaining rainforests, comprises the largest and most biodiverse tract of tropical rainforest in the world, with an estimated 390 billion individual trees divided into 16,000 species. The name Amazon is said to arise from a war Francisco de Orellana fought with the Tapuyas and other tribes; the women of the tribe fought alongside the men. Orellana derived the name Amazonas from the Amazons of Greek mythology, described by Herodotus and Diodorus.
The rainforest formed during the Eocene era. It appeared following a global reduction of tropical temperatures when the Atlantic Ocean had widened sufficiently to provide a warm, moist climate to the Amazon basin; the rainforest has been in existence for at least 55 million years, most of the region remained free of savanna-type biomes at least until the current ice age, when the climate was drier and savanna more widespread. Following the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event, the extinction of the dinosaurs and the wetter climate may have allowed the tropical rainforest to spread out across the continent. From 66–34 Mya, the rainforest extended as far south as 45°. Climate fluctuations during the last 34 million years have allowed savanna regions to expand into the tropics. During the Oligocene, for example, the rainforest spanned a narrow band, it expanded again during the Middle Miocene retracted to a inland formation at the last glacial maximum. However, the rainforest still managed to thrive during these glacial periods, allowing for the survival and evolution of a broad diversity of species.
During the mid-Eocene, it is believed that the drainage basin of the Amazon was split along the middle of the continent by the Purus Arch. Water on the eastern side flowed toward the Atlantic, while to the west water flowed toward the Pacific across the Amazonas Basin; as the Andes Mountains rose, however, a large basin was created. Within the last 5–10 million years, this accumulating water broke through the Purus Arch, joining the easterly flow toward the Atlantic. There is evidence that there have been significant changes in Amazon rainforest vegetation over the last 21,000 years through the Last Glacial Maximum and subsequent deglaciation. Analyses of sediment deposits from Amazon basin paleolakes and from the Amazon Fan indicate that rainfall in the basin during the LGM was lower than for the present, this was certainly associated with reduced moist tropical vegetation cover in the basin. There is debate, over how extensive this reduction was; some scientists argue that the rainforest was reduced to small, isolated refugia separated by open forest and grassland.
This debate has proved difficult to resolve because the practical limitations of working in the rainforest mean that data sampling is biased away from the center of the Amazon basin, both explanations are reasonably well supported by the available data. More than 56% of the dust fertilizing the Amazon rainforest comes from the Bodélé depression in Northern Chad in the Sahara desert; the dust contains phosphorus, important for plant growth. The yearly Sahara dust replaces the equivalent amount of phosphorus washed away yearly in Amazon soil from rains and floods. Up to 50 million tonnes of Sahara dust per year are blown across the Atlantic Ocean. NASA Video. NASA's CALIPSO satellite has measured the amount of dust transported by wind from the Sahara to the Amazon: an average 182 million tons of dust are windblown out of the Sahara each year, at 15 degrees west longitude, across 1,600 miles over the Atlantic Ocean at 35 degrees West longitude at the eastern coast of South America, 27.7 million tons of dust fall over the Amazon basin, 132 million tons of dust remain in the air, 43 million tons of dust are windblown and falls on the Caribbean Sea, past 75 degrees west longitude.
CALIPSO uses a laser range finder to scan the Earth's atmosphere for the vertical distribution of dust and other aerosols. CALIPSO tracks the Sahara-Amazon dust plume. CALIPSO has measured variations in the dust amounts transported – an 86 percent drop between the highest amount of dust transported in 2007 and the lowest in 2011. A possibility causing the variation is the Sahel, a strip of semi-arid land on the southern border of the Sahara; when rain amounts in the Sahel are higher, the volume of dust is lower. The higher rainfall could make more vegetation grow in the Sahel, leaving less sand exposed to winds to blow away. Based on archaeological evidence from an excavation at Caverna da Pedra Pintada, human inhabitants first settled in the Amazon region at least 11,200 years ago. Subsequent development led to late-prehistoric settlements along the periphery of the forest by AD 1250, which induced alterations in the fores
Ecuador the Republic of Ecuador, is a country in northwestern South America, bordered by Colombia on the north, Peru on the east and south, the Pacific Ocean to the west. Ecuador includes the Galápagos Islands in the Pacific, about 1,000 kilometres west of the mainland; the capital city is Quito, the largest city. What is now Ecuador was home to a variety of Amerindian groups that were incorporated into the Inca Empire during the 15th century; the territory was colonized by Spain during the 16th century, achieving independence in 1820 as part of Gran Colombia, from which it emerged as its own sovereign state in 1830. The legacy of both empires is reflected in Ecuador's ethnically diverse population, with most of its 16.4 million people being mestizos, followed by large minorities of European and African descendants. Spanish is the official language and is spoken by a majority of the population, though 13 Amerindian languages are recognized, including Quichua and Shuar; the sovereign state of Ecuador is a middle-income representative democratic republic with a developing economy, dependent on commodities, namely petroleum and agricultural products.
It is governed as a democratic presidential republic. One of 18 megadiverse countries in the world, Ecuador hosts many endemic plants and animals, such as those of the Galápagos Islands. In recognition of its unique ecological heritage, the new constitution of 2008 is the first in the world to recognize enforceable Rights of Nature, or ecosystem rights, it has the fifth lowest homicide rate in the Americas. Various peoples had settled in the area of the future Ecuador before the arrival of the Incas; the archeological evidence suggests that the Paleo-Indians' first dispersal into the Americas occurred near the end of the last glacial period, around 16,500–13,000 years ago. The first Indians who reached Ecuador may have journeyed by land from North and Central America or by boat down the Pacific Ocean coastline. Much migrations to Ecuador may have come via the Amazon tributaries, others descended from northern South America, others ascended from the southern part of South America through the Andes.
They developed different languages while emerging as unique ethnic groups. Though their languages were unrelated, these groups developed similar groups of cultures, each based in different environments; the people of the coast developed a fishing and gathering culture. Over time these groups began to interact and intermingle with each other so that groups of families in one area became one community or tribe, with a similar language and culture. Many civilizations arose in Ecuador, such as the Valdivia Culture and Machalilla Culture on the coast, the Quitus, the Cañari; each civilization developed its own distinctive architecture and religious interests. In the highland Andes mountains, where life was more sedentary, groups of tribes cooperated and formed villages. Through wars and marriage alliances of their leaders, a group of nations formed confederations. One region consolidated under a confederation called the Shyris, which exercised organized trading and bartering between the different regions.
Its political and military power came under the rule of the Duchicela blood-line. When the Incas arrived, they found that these confederations were so developed that it took the Incas two generations of rulers—Topa Inca Yupanqui and Huayna Capac—to absorb them into the Inca Empire; the native confederations that gave them the most problems were deported to distant areas of Peru and north Argentina. A number of loyal Inca subjects from Peru and Bolivia were brought to Ecuador to prevent rebellion. Thus, the region of highland Ecuador became part of the Inca Empire in 1463 sharing the same language. In contrast, when the Incas made incursions into coastal Ecuador and the eastern Amazon jungles of Ecuador, they found both the environment and indigenous people more hostile. Moreover, when the Incas tried to subdue them, these indigenous people withdrew to the interior and resorted to guerrilla tactics; as a result, Inca expansion into the Amazon Basin and the Pacific coast of Ecuador was hampered.
The indigenous people of the Amazon jungle and coastal Ecuador remained autonomous until the Spanish soldiers and missionaries arrived in force. The Amazonian people and the Cayapas of Coastal Ecuador were the only groups to resist Inca and Spanish domination, maintaining their language and culture well into the 21st century. Before the arrival of the Spaniards, the Inca Empire was involved in a civil war; the untimely death of both the heir Ninan Cuchi and the Emperor Huayna Capac, from a European disease that spread into Ecuador, created a power vacuum between two factions. The northern faction headed by Atahualpa claims that Huayna Capac gave a verbal decree before his death about how the empire should be divided, he gave the territories pertaining to present-day Ecuador and northern Peru to his favorite son Atahualpa, to rule from Quito. He willed that his heart be buried in Quito, his favorite city, the rest of his body be buried with his ancestors in Cuzco. Huáscar did not recognize his fa
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. The term is used in connection with national population and housing censuses; the United Nations defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory and defined periodicity", recommends that population censuses be taken at least every 10 years. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions and other useful information to co-ordinate international practice; the word is of Latin origin: during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. The modern census is essential to international comparisons of any kind of statistics, censuses collect data on many attributes of a population, not just how many people there are. Censuses began as the only method of collecting national demographic data, are now part of a larger system of different surveys.
Although population estimates remain an important function of a census, including the geographic distribution of the population, statistics can be produced about combinations of attributes e.g. education by age and sex in different regions. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the same level of detail but raise concerns about privacy and the possibility of biasing estimates. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, planning, as a baseline for designing sample surveys by providing a sampling frame such as an address register. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling. Stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations. In some countries, the census provides the official counts used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions.
In many cases, a chosen random sample can provide more accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a population rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a sampling frame to count the population; this is the only way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on and individuals could be missed. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known and a new estimate is to be made by the analysis of primary data; the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is known. However, a census is used to collect attribute data on the individuals in the nation; this process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, a house to house process or the product of an imperial decree, the modern statistical project. The sampling frame used by census is always an address register.
Thus it is not known how many people there are in each household. Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, an enumerator calls, or administrative records for the dwelling are accessed; as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, this can be out of date and some dwellings may contain a number of independent households. A particular problem is what are termed'communal establishments' which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc; as these are not enumerated by a single householder, they are treated differently and visited by special teams of census workers to ensure they are classified appropriately. Individuals are counted within households and information is collected about the household structure and the housing. For this reason international documents refer to censuses of housing.
The census response is made by a household, indicating details of individuals resident there. An important aspect of census enumerations is determining which individuals can be counted from which cannot be counted. Broadly, three definitions can be used: de facto residence; this is important to consider individuals who have temporary addresses. Every person should be identified uniquely as resident in one place but where they happen to be on Census Day, their de facto residence, may not be the best place to count them. Where an individual uses services may be more useful and this is at their usual, or de jure, residence. An individual may be represented at a permanent address a family home for students or long term migrants, it is necessary to have a precise definition of residence to decide whether visitors to a country should be included in the population count. This is becoming more important as students travel abroad for education for a period of several years. Other groups causing problems of enumeration are new born babies, people away on holiday, people moving home around census day, people without a fixed address.
People having second homes because of working in another part of the country or retaining a holiday cottage are dif
Pichincha is a province of Ecuador located in the northern sierra region. It is bordered by Imbabura and Esmeraldas to the north and Santo Domingo de los Tsáchilas to the south and Sucumbíos to the east, Esmeraldas and Santo Domingo de los Tsáchilas to the west. Prior to 2008, the canton Santo Domingo de los Colorados was part of the Pichincha Province, it has since become Santo Domingo de los Tsáchilas. The province is home to many rose plantations, which make up the bulk of Ecuador's floriculture industry; the province is divided into eight cantons. Media related to Pichincha Province at Wikimedia Commons Provinces of Ecuador Cantons of Ecuador Centro de Levantamientos Integrados de Recursos Naturales por Sensores Remotos Santa Lucia Cloud Forest Gobierno de la Provincia Pichincha Web site of the Pichincha prefecture Data of Pichincha Geographical Data of the Province. Web site of the Pichincha Prefecture Provincial Prefecture's official page