Battle of Austerlitz
The Battle of Austerlitz, known as the Battle of the Three Emperors, was one of the most important and decisive engagements of the Napoleonic Wars. The battle occurred near the town of Austerlitz in the Austrian Empire, Austerlitz brought the War of the Third Coalition to a rapid end, with the Treaty of Pressburg signed by the Austrians in the month. The battle is cited as a tactical masterpiece, in the same league as other historic engagements like Cannae or Arbela. After eliminating an Austrian army during the Ulm Campaign, French forces managed to capture Vienna in November 1805, the Austrians avoided further conflict until the arrival of the Russians bolstered Allied numbers. Napoleon sent his army north in pursuit of the Allies, and he deployed the French army below the Pratzen Heights and deliberately weakened his right flank, enticing the Allies to launch a major assault there in the hopes of rolling up the whole French line. A forced march from Vienna by Marshal Davout and his III Corps plugged the gap left by Napoleon just in time.
Meanwhile, the heavy Allied deployment against the French right weakened the allied center on the Pratzen Heights, with the Allied center demolished, the French swept through both enemy flanks and sent the Allies fleeing chaotically, capturing thousands of prisoners in the process. The Allied disaster significantly shook the faith of Emperor Francis in the British-led war effort and Austria agreed to an armistice immediately and the Treaty of Pressburg followed shortly after, on 26 December. Pressburg took Austria out of both the war and the Coalition while reinforcing the earlier treaties of Campo Formio and of Lunéville between the two powers, the treaty confirmed the Austrian loss of lands in Italy and Bavaria to France, and in Germany to Napoleons German allies. It imposed an indemnity of 40 million francs on the defeated Habsburgs and allowed the fleeing Russian troops free passage through hostile territories and back to their home soil. Critically, victory at Austerlitz permitted the creation of the Confederation of the Rhine and these achievements, did not establish a lasting peace on the continent.
Prussian worries about growing French influence in Central Europe sparked the War of the Fourth Coalition in 1806, Europe had been in turmoil since the start of the French Revolutionary Wars in 1792. In 1797, after five years of war, the French Republic subdued the First Coalition, an alliance of Austria, Great Britain, Spain, in March 1802, France and Britain agreed to end hostilities under the Treaty of Amiens. For the first time in ten years, all of Europe was at peace, but many problems persisted between the two sides, making implementation of the treaty increasingly difficult. The British government resented having to return the Cape Colony and most of the Dutch West Indian islands to the Batavian Republic, Napoleon was angry that British troops had not evacuated the island of Malta. The tense situation only worsened when Napoleon sent a force to crush the Haitian Revolution. In May 1803, Britain declared war on France, in December 1804, an Anglo-Swedish agreement led to the creation of the Third Coalition.
Having been defeated twice in recent memory by France, and being keen on revenge, before the formation of the Third Coalition, Napoleon had assembled an invasion force, called the Armée dAngleterre around six camps at Boulogne in Northern France
Battle of Blaauwberg
It established British rule in South Africa, which was to have many ramifications for the region during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. A bi-centennial commemoration was held in January 2006, the battle was an incident in Europes Napoleonic Wars. At that time, the Cape Colony belonged to the Batavian Republic, because the sea route around the Cape was important to the British, they decided to seize the colony in order to prevent it—and the sea route—from coming under French control. A British fleet was despatched to the Cape in July 1805, the colony was governed by Lieutenant General Jan Willem Janssens, who was commander-in-chief of its military forces. The forces were small and of quality, and included foreign units hired by the Batavian government. They were backed up by local militia units, the first British warship reached the Cape on Christmas Eve 1805, and attacked two supply ships off the Cape Peninsula. Janssens placed his garrison on alert, when the main fleet sailed into Table Bay on 4 January 1806, he mobilised the garrison, declared martial law, and called up the militia.
After a delay caused by rough seas, two British infantry brigades, under the command of Lt Gen Sir David Baird, landed at Melkbosstrand, north of Cape Town, Janssens moved his forces to intercept them. He had decided that victory could be considered impossible, but the honour of the fatherland demanded a fight and his intention was to attack the British on the beach and to withdraw to the interior, where he hoped to hold out until the French troopships arrived. Janssens halted and formed a line across the veld, the battle began at sunrise, with exchanges of artillery fire. These were followed by an advance by Janssenss militia cavalry, one of Janssenss hired foreign units, in the centre of his line and ran from the field. A British bayonet charge disposed of the units on Janssenss right flank, Janssens began the battle with 2,049 troops, and lost 353 in casualties and desertions. Baird began the battle with 5,399 men, and had 212 casualties, from Blaauwberg, Janssens moved inland to a farm in the Tygerberg area, and from there his troops moved to the Elands Kloof in the Hottentots Holland Mountains, about 50km from Cape Town.
The British forces reached the outskirts of Cape Town on 9 January, to spare the town and its civilian population from attack, the commandant of Cape Town, Lieutenant-Colonel Hieronymus Casimir von Prophalow, sent out a white flag. He handed over the fortifications to Baird, and terms of surrender were negotiated in the day. The formal Articles of Capitulation for the town and the Cape Peninsula were signed the following afternoon,10 January, although the cottage has long since been demolished, Treaty Street still commemorates the event. The tree under which they signed remains to this day and he had only 1,238 men with him, and 211 deserted in the days that followed. Janssens held out in the mountains for a further week, after further consideration, and consultation with his senior officers and advisers, Janssens decided that the bitter cup must be drunk to the bottom
Battle of Ulm
In 1805, the United Kingdom, the Austrian Empire and the Russian Empire formed the Third Coalition to overthrow the French Empire. When Bavaria sided with Napoleon, the Austrians,72,000 strong under Mack, the Austrians expected the main battles of the war to take place in northern Italy, not Germany, and intended only to protect the Alps from French forces. A popular but apocryphal legend has it that the Austrians used the Gregorian calendar and this meant that their dates did not correspond, and the Austrians were brought into conflict with the French before the Russians could come into line. This simple but implausible explanation for the Russian army being far behind the Austrian is dismissed by scholar Frederick Kagan as a bizarre myth, Napoleon had 177,000 troops of the Grande Armée at Boulogne, ready to invade England. They marched south on August 27 and by September 24 were ready to cross the Rhine from Mannheim to Strasbourg, after crossing the Rhine, the greater part of the French army made a gigantic right wheel so that its corps reached the Danube simultaneously, facing south.
On October 7, Mack learned that Napoleon planned to cross the Danube and he accordingly changed front, placing his left at Ulm and his right at Rain, but the French went on and crossed the Danube at Neuburg, Donauwörth, and Ingolstadt. Unable to stop the French avalanche, Michael von Kienmayers Austrian corps abandoned its positions along the river, on 8 October 1805, Franz Auffenbergs division was cut to pieces by Joachim Murats Cavalry Corps and Jean Lannes V Corps at the Battle of Wertingen. The following day, Mack attempted to cross the Danube and move north and he was defeated in the Battle of Günzburg by Jean-Pierre Firmin Malhers division of Michel Neys VI Corps which was still operating on the north bank. During the action, the French seized a bridgehead on the south bank, after first withdrawing to Ulm, Mack tried to break out to the north. His army was blocked by Pierre Dupont de lEtangs VI Corps division, by the 11th, Napoleons corps were spread out in a wide net to snare Macks army.
Nicolas Soults IV Corps reached Landsberg am Lech and turned east to cut off Mack from the Tyrol, jean-Baptiste Bernadottes I Corps and Louis Nicolas Davouts III Corps converged on Munich. Auguste Marmonts II Corps was at Augsburg, Ney and the Imperial Guard began closing in on Ulm. Mack ordered the corps of Franz von Werneck to march northeast, the Austrian commander sent Franz Jellacics corps south toward the Tyrol and held the remainder of his army at Ulm. On 14 October, Ney crushed Rieschs small corps at the Battle of Elchingen, murat detected Wernecks force and raced in pursuit with his cavalry. Over the next few days, Wernecks corps was overwhelmed in a series of actions at Langenau, Herbrechtingen, Nördlingen, on 18 October he surrendered the remainder of his troops. Only Archduke Ferdinand Karl Joseph of Austria-Este and a few other generals escaped to Bohemia with about 1,200 cavalry, Soult secured the surrender of 4,600 Austrians at Memmingen and swung north to box in Mack from the south.
Jellacic slipped past Soult and escaped to the only to be hunted down. By 16 October, Napoleon had surrounded Macks entire army at Ulm, and three days Mack surrendered with 25,000 men,18 generals,65 guns, some 20,000 escaped,10,000 were killed or wounded, and the rest made prisoner
Treaty of Amiens
The Treaty of Amiens temporarily ended hostilities between the French Republic and Great Britain during the French Revolutionary Wars. It was signed in the city of Amiens on 25 March 1802, by Joseph Bonaparte, the consequent Peace of Amiens lasted only one year and engendered the only period of general peace in Europe between 1793 and 1814. Under the treaty, Britain recognised the French Republic, the British parliament had dropped Englands historical claim to the now-defunct French Kingdom only two years previously. Together with the Treaty of Lunéville, the Treaty of Amiens marked the end of the Second Coalition, the War of the Second Coalition started well for the coalition, with successes in Egypt and Germany. After Frances victories at the Battles of Marengo and Hohenlinden, Austria and Naples sued for peace, horatio Nelsons victory at the Battle of Copenhagen on 2 April 1801 halted the creation of the League of Armed Neutrality and led to a negotiated ceasefire. The French First Consul, Napoleon Bonaparte, first made truce proposals to British foreign secretary Lord Grenville as early as 1799.
Because of the stance of Grenville and Prime Minister William Pitt the Younger, their distrust of Bonaparte. However, Pitt resigned in February 1801 over domestic issues and was replaced by the more accommodating Henry Addington, at this point, according to Schroeder, Britain was motivated by the danger of a war with Russia. Hawkesbury stated that he wanted to open discussions on terms for a peace agreement, generally under detailed instructions from Bonaparte, engaged in negotiations with Hawkesbury in mid-1801. Unhappy with the dialogue with Otto, Hawkesbury sent diplomat Anthony Merry to Paris, by mid-September, written negotiations had progressed to the point where Hawkesbury and Otto met to draft a preliminary agreement. On 30 September, they signed the agreement in London. Malta was to be restored to the Order of St. John, France was to restore Egypt to Ottoman control, withdraw from most of the Italian peninsula and agree to preserve Portuguese sovereignty. Ceylon, previously a Dutch territory, was to remain with the British, Britain was to recognise the Seven Islands Republic established by France on islands in the Ionian Sea that are now part of Greece.
Both sides were to be allowed access to the outposts on the Cape of Good Hope, in a blow to Spain, the preliminary agreement included a secret clause in which Trinidad was to remain with Britain. News of the peace was greeted in Britain with illuminations. Peace, it was thought in Britain, would lead to the withdrawal of the tax imposed by Pitt, a reduction of grain prices. In November 1801, the Marquess Cornwallis was sent to France with plenipotentiary powers to negotiate a final agreement, the expectation among the British populace that peace was at hand put enormous pressure on Cornwallis, something Bonaparte realised and capitalised on. The Dutch role in the negotiations was marked by a lack of respect on the part of the French and Cornwallis negotiated agreements on the status of Ceylon, the Cape of Good Hope, and the indemnification of the deposed House of Orange-Nassau for its losses
The English Channel, called simply the Channel, is the body of water that separates southern England from northern France, and links the southern part of the North Sea to the Atlantic Ocean. It is about 560 km long and varies in width from 240 km at its widest to 33.3 km in the Strait of Dover and it is the smallest of the shallow seas around the continental shelf of Europe, covering an area of some 75,000 km2. The International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the English Channel as follows, a line joining Isle Vierge to Lands End. The southwestern limit of the North Sea, the IHO defines the southwestern limit of the North Sea as a line joining the Walde Lighthouse and Leathercoat Point. The Walde Lighthouse is 6 km east of Calais, and Leathercoat Point is at the end of St Margarets Bay. The Strait of Dover, at the Channels eastern end, is its narrowest point and it is relatively shallow, with an average depth of about 120 m at its widest part, reducing to a depth of about 45 m between Dover and Calais.
Eastwards from there the adjoining North Sea reduces to about 26 m in the Broad Fourteens where it lies over the watershed of the land bridge between East Anglia and the Low Countries. It reaches a depth of 180 m in the submerged valley of Hurds Deep,48 km west-northwest of Guernsey. The eastern region along the French coast between Cherbourg and the mouth of the Seine river at Le Havre is frequently referred to as the Bay of the Seine. There are several islands in the Channel, the most notable being the Isle of Wight off the English coast. The coastline, particularly on the French shore, is indented, several small islands close to the coastline, including Chausey. The Cotentin Peninsula in France juts out into the Channel, whilst on the English side there is a parallel channel known as the Solent between the Isle of Wight and the mainland. The Celtic Sea is to the west of the Channel, the time difference of about six hours between high water at the eastern and western limits of the Channel is indicative of the tidal range being amplified further by resonance.
It was never defined as a border and the names were more or less descriptive. It was not considered as the property of a nation, before the development of the modern nations, British scholars very often referred to it as Gaulish and the French one as British or English. The name English Channel has been used since the early 18th century. In modern Dutch, however, it is known as Het Kanaal, later, it has been known as the British Channel or the British Sea having been called the Oceanus Britannicus by the 2nd-century geographer Ptolemy. The same name is used on an Italian map of about 1450, the Anglo-Saxon texts often call it Sūð-sǣ as opposed to Norð-sǣ
Planned French invasion of Britain (1759)
A French invasion of Great Britain was planned to take place in 1759 during the Seven Years War, but due to various factors was never launched. The French planned to land 100,000 French soldiers in Britain to end British involvement in the war, the invasion was one of several abandoned attempts during the 18th century to invade the British Isles. Fighting broke out between France and Britain in 1754, but war was formally declared in 1756 when France went to war with a British ally. From 1757 the British government was dominated by William Pitt, who orchestrated a series of British military expeditions to attack French colonies such as Senegal and New France. Pitt saw the war in Europe primarily as a holding action, French strategy was entirely the opposite. The French concentrated the bulk of their efforts on Continental Europe, by late 1758 they had made numerous advances against the Prussians, who they believed were only kept from collapse by British support. The invasion was planned by the Duc de Choiseul who became French foreign minister in December 1758 and he wanted to launch a bold initiative that would knock Britain out of the war with one stroke.
French pride had been stung the previous year by the ease with which the British had captured Louisbourg and launched raids on the French coast during 1758. British financial subsidies and military aid to her only ally Prussia had kept that country afloat since 1756, choiseuls brief as foreign minister was to overturn this situation. Choiseul was interested in the concept of a French invasion of Britain and he perceived that Britain’s strength was its naval power. He saw that if a large French force managed to cross the Channel without being intercepted, Choiseul initially ignored perceived wisdom that any invasion would have to involve French warships. He believed that trying to bring out of the blockaded port at Brest would cause unnecessary delays. A mixed force as he saw it would suffer the fate as the Spanish Armada. A previous attempt by France in 1744 had to be abandoned, an essential component of the plan was speed. The French would wait for a wind and cross the Channel quickly. Once they landed, they believed they would easily overpower the small army Britain retained on home soil, Choiseul managed to overcome opposition in the French cabinet and the invasion was approved as the cornerstone of French strategy for 1759 along with an attempt to capture Hanover.
A secret meeting was arranged with Charles Stuart in Paris in February 1759, Charles turned up late and drunk, and proved surly and uncooperative. Convinced that the Jacobites were of material help, Choiseul dropped them from the plan
Planned French invasion of Britain (1744)
A planned invasion of Great Britain was to be undertaken by France in 1744 shortly after the declaration of war between them as part of the War of the Austrian Succession. A large invasion force was prepared and put to sea from Dunkirk in February 1744, only to be partly wrecked, deciding that circumstances were not favourable to an invasion, the French government suspended the attempt, and deployed their forces elsewhere. The failure of the 1744 invasion attempt played a role in the planning of the next French attempt to invade Britain, in 1759. Britain had been at war with Frances ally Spain since 1739, sporadic fighting in the Americas had broken down into a stalemate. A separate war had broken out on continental Europe regarding the Austrian Succession in which Britain and Spain were on opposite sides and in which France remained initially neutral. It was clear to many in countries that war between them could not be far off, and the British had been particularly alarmed by extensive fortifications in the French port of Dunkirk.
British and French troops had fought in Europe at battles such as Dettingen. In January 1744 the French King Louis XV formally declared war on Britain and his Ministers were convinced that a strong, immediate strike was needed against Britain and began advocating an invasion of the British Isles. British financial subsidies were essential to keeping its continental allies Austria, France believed that by invading Britain and knocking them out of the war, they could pave the way to an easy victory over their enemies to the east. Many flat-bottomed troop ships were built and provisioned in the ports under the Pellerins direction. The King strongly approved this plan, the French planned to install the Jacobite James Edward Stuart in London as James III. He would end Britains involvement in the war, and would turn Britain into a client state of Louis XVs government, the Anglo-Austrian Alliance would be terminated, as would Britains alliance with the Dutch. This would reverse Britains past successful policy of forming Grand Alliances against France on the continent through military support, who was living in exile in a French palace in Paris, was made aware of these plans.
It was hoped that Jacobite supporters in the British navy and army would assist the French, in some cases this proved wildly optimistic, as the officers listed as being committed Jacobites were often not or had already deceased. France now gathered an estimated at somewhere between 6-15,000 in size at Dunkirk under the command of Marshal Saxe. The French planned for a landing at Maldon in Essex, a squadron under Roq would sail from Brest, checking that the Channel between Dunkirk and the English coast was clear of the British fleet. A message would be sent to Saxes invasion force at Dunkirk, British agents in Rome and Paris got word of these preparations, and steps were taken to prepare. Of the 10,000 active troops in Britain,7,000 were deployed to defend London, the covering squadron under Rocquefeuil sailed from Brest on
French campaign in Egypt and Syria
It was the primary purpose of the Mediterranean campaign of 1798, a series of naval engagements that included the capture of Malta. On the scientific front, the led to the discovery of the Rosetta Stone. At the time of the invasion, the Directoire had assumed power in France. The notion of annexing Egypt as a French colony had been discussion since François Baron de Tott undertook a secret mission to the Levant in 1777 to determine its feasibility. Baron de Totts report was favorable, but no action was taken. Nevertheless, Egypt became a topic of debate between Talleyrand and Napoleon, which continued in their correspondence during Napoleons Italian campaign, in early 1798, Bonaparte proposed a military expedition to seize Egypt. Bonaparte wished to establish a French presence in the Middle East, with the dream of linking with Frances ally Tipu Sultan. At the time, Egypt had been an Ottoman province since 1517, but was now out of direct Ottoman control, in France, Egyptian fashion was in full swing – intellectuals believed that Egypt was the cradle of western civilization and wished to conquer it.
French traders already based on the River Nile were complaining of harassment by the Mamluks and he assured the Directoire that as soon as he had conquered Egypt, he will establish relations with the Indian princes and, together with them, attack the English in their possessions. The Directoire agreed to the plan in March 1798, though troubled by its scope, they saw that it would remove the popular and over-ambitious Napoleon from the center of power, though this motive long remained secret. Rumors became rife as 40,000 soldiers and 10,000 sailors were gathered in French Mediterranean ports, a large fleet was assembled at Toulon,13 ships of the line,14 frigates, and 400 transports. To avoid interception by the British fleet under Nelson, the target was kept secret. It was known only to Bonaparte himself, his generals Berthier and Caffarelli, Bonaparte was the commander, with subordinates including Thomas Alexandre Dumas, Kléber, Berthier, Lannes, Murat, Andréossy, Belliard and Zajączek. His aides de camp included his brother Louis Bonaparte, Eugène de Beauharnais, Thomas Prosper Jullien, and the Polish nobleman Joseph Sulkowski.
The fleet at Toulon was joined by squadrons from Genoa and Bastia and was put under the command of Admiral Brueys and Contre-amirals Villeneuve, Du Chayla, Decrès and Ganteaume. The fleet was about to set sail when a crisis developed with Austria, the crisis was resolved in a few weeks, and Bonaparte received orders to travel to Toulon as soon as possible. It is claimed that, in a meeting with the Directoire, Bonaparte threatened to dissolve them and directeur Reubell gave him a pen saying Sign there. Bonaparte arrived at Toulon on 9 May 1798, lodging with Benoît Georges de Najac, grand Master von Hompesch replied that only two foreign ships would be allowed to enter the port at a time
House of Bourbon
The House of Bourbon is a European royal house of French origin, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. Bourbon kings first ruled France and Navarre in the 16th century, by the 18th century, members of the Bourbon dynasty held thrones in Spain, Naples and Parma. Spain and Luxembourg currently have Bourbon monarchs, the royal Bourbons originated in 1268, when the heiress of the lordship of Bourbon married a younger son of King Louis IX. The house continued for three centuries as a branch, while more senior Capetians ruled France, until Henry IV became the first Bourbon king of France in 1589. Restored briefly in 1814 and definitively in 1815 after the fall of the First French Empire, a cadet Bourbon branch, the House of Orléans, ruled for 18 years, until it too was overthrown. The Princes de Condé were a branch of the Bourbons descended from an uncle of Henry IV. Both houses were prominent in French affairs, even during exile in the French Revolution, until their respective extinctions in 1830 and 1814.
When the Bourbons inherited the strongest claim to the Spanish throne, the claim was passed to a cadet Bourbon prince, a grandson of Louis XIV of France, who became Philip V of Spain. The Spanish House of Bourbon has been overthrown and restored several times, reigning 1700–1808, 1813–1868, 1875–1931, Bourbons ruled in Naples from 1734–1806 and in Sicily from 1734–1816, and in a unified Kingdom of the Two Sicilies from 1816–1860. They ruled in Parma from 1731–1735, 1748–1802 and 1847–1859, all legitimate, living members of the House of Bourbon, including its cadet branches, are direct agnatic descendants of Henry IV. The term House of Bourbon is sometimes used to refer to this first house and the House of Bourbon-Dampierre, the second family to rule the seigneury. In 1268, Count of Clermont, sixth son of King Louis IX of France, married Beatrix of Bourbon, heiress to the lordship of Bourbon and their son Louis was made Duke of Bourbon in 1327. His descendant, the Constable of France Charles de Bourbon, was the last of the senior Bourbon line when he died in 1527.
Because he chose to fight under the banner of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and lived in exile from France, the remaining line of Bourbons henceforth descended from James I, Count of La Marche, the younger son of Louis I, Duke of Bourbon. With the death of his grandson James II, Count of La Marche in 1438, all future Bourbons would descend from James IIs younger brother, who became the Count of Vendôme through his mothers inheritance. In 1514, Count of Vendôme had his title raised to Duke of Vendôme and his son Antoine became King of Navarre, on the northern side of the Pyrenees, by marriage in 1555. Two of Antoines younger brothers were Cardinal Archbishop Charles de Bourbon, Louis male-line, the Princes de Condé, survived until 1830. Finally, in 1589, the House of Valois died out and he was born on 13 December 1553 in the Kingdom of Navarre