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Napoleonic Wars

The Napoleonic Wars were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions and led by the United Kingdom. The wars stemmed from the unresolved disputes associated with the French Revolution and its resultant conflict; the wars are categorised into five conflicts, each termed after the coalition that fought Napoleon: the Third Coalition, the Fourth, the Fifth, the Sixth, the Seventh. Napoleon, upon ascending to First Consul of France in 1799, had inherited a chaotic republic. In 1805, Austria and Russia waged war against France. In response, Napoleon defeated the allied Russo-Austrian army at Austerlitz in December 1805, considered his greatest victory. At sea, the British defeated the joint Franco-Spanish navy in the Battle of Trafalgar on 21 October 1805; this victory prevented the invasion of Britain itself. Concerned about increasing French power, Prussia led the creation of the Fourth Coalition with Russia and Sweden, the resumption of war in October 1806.

Napoleon defeated the Prussians in Jena and the Russians in Friedland, bringing an uneasy peace to the continent. The peace failed, though, as war broke out in 1809, when the badly prepared Fifth Coalition, led by Austria, was defeated in Wagram. Hoping to isolate Britain economically, Napoleon launched an invasion of Portugal, the only remaining British ally in continental Europe. After occupying Lisbon in November 1807, with the bulk of French troops present in Spain, Napoleon seized the opportunity to turn against his former ally, depose the reigning Spanish Bourbon family and declare his brother King of Spain in 1808 as Joseph I; the Spanish and Portuguese revolted with British support and expelled the French from Iberia in 1814 after six years of fighting. Concurrently, unwilling to bear economic consequences of reduced trade violated the Continental System, enticing Napoleon to launch a massive invasion of Russia in 1812; the resulting campaign ended with the dissolution and disastrous withdrawal of the French Grande Armée.

Encouraged by the defeat, Prussia and Russia formed the Sixth Coalition and began a new campaign against France, decisively defeating Napoleon at Leipzig in October 1813 after several inconclusive engagements. The Allies invaded France from the east, while the Peninsular War spilled over into southwestern France. Coalition troops forced Napoleon to abdicate in April, he was exiled to the island of Elba, the Bourbons were restored to power. But Napoleon escaped in February 1815, reassumed control of France for about hundred days. In the Seventh Coalition, the Allies defeated him permanently at Waterloo in June 1815 and exiled him to St Helena, where he died six years later; the Congress of Vienna redrew the borders of Europe, brought a period of relative peace. The wars had profound consequences on global history, including the spread of nationalism and liberalism, the rise of the British Empire as the world's foremost power, the appearance of independence movements in Latin America and subsequent collapse of the Spanish Empire, the fundamental reorganisation of German and Italian territories into larger states, the establishment of radically new methods of conducting warfare.

Napoleon seized power in 1799. There are a number of opinions on the date to use as the formal beginning of the Napoleonic Wars; the Napoleonic Wars began with the War of the Third Coalition, the first of the Coalition Wars against the First French Republic after Napoleon's accession as leader of France. Britain ended the Treaty of Amiens and declared war on France in May 1803. Among the reasons were Napoleon's changes to the international system in Western Europe in Switzerland, Germany and the Netherlands. Kagan argues that Britain was irritated in particular by Napoleon's assertion of control over Switzerland. Furthermore, Britons felt insulted when Napoleon stated that their country deserved no voice in European affairs though King George III was an elector of the Holy Roman Empire. For its part, Russia decided that the intervention in Switzerland indicated that Napoleon was not looking toward a peaceful resolution of his differences with the other European powers; the British hastily enforced a naval blockade of France to starve it of resources.

Napoleon responded with economic embargoes against Britain, sought to eliminate Britain's Continental allies to break the coalitions arrayed against him. The so-called Continental System formed a league of armed neutrality to disrupt the blockade and enforce free trade with France; the British responded by capturing the Danish fleet, breaking up the league, secured dominance over the seas, allowing it to continue its strategy. Napoleon won the War of the Third Coalition at Austerlitz, forcing the Austrian Empire out of the war and formally dissolving the Holy Roman Empire. Within months, Prussia declared war; this war ended disastrously for Prussia and occupied within 19 days of the beginning of the campaign. Napoleon subsequently defeated the Russian Empire at Friedland, creating powerful client states in Eastern Europe and ending the fourth coalition. Concurrently, the refusal of Portugal to commit to the Continental System, and

List of trolleybus systems in Russia

This is a list of trolleybus systems in Russia. It includes all trolleybus systems and present. List of trolleybus systems, for all other countries List of town tramway systems in Russia List of light-rail transit systems List of rapid transit systems Trolleybuses in former Soviet Union countries Trolleybus usage by country Murray, Alan. 2000. "World Trolleybus Encyclopaedia". Reading, Berkshire, UK: Trolleybooks. Peschkes, Robert. 1987. "World Gazetteer of Tram and Rapid Transit Systems, Part Two: Asia & USSR /Africa/Australia". London: Rapid Transit Publications. "Straßenbahnatlas ehem. Sowjetunion / Tramway Atlas of the former USSR". 1996. Berlin: Arbeitsgemeinschaft Blickpunkt Straßenbahn, in conjunction with Light Rail Transit Association, London. Tarkhov, Sergei. 2000. "Empire of the Trolleybus: Vol 1 - Russia". London: Rapid Transit Publications. Trolleybus Magazine. National Trolleybus Association. Bimonthly. Media related to Trolleybuses in Russia at Wikimedia Commons World Tram and Trolleybus Systems

Chaim Topol

Chaim Topol spelled Haym Topol, mononymously known as Topol, is an Israeli actor, comedian, voice artist, film producer and illustrator. He is best known for his portrayal of Tevye the Dairyman, the lead role in the musical Fiddler on the Roof, on both stage and screen, having performed this role more than 3,500 times in shows and revivals from the late 1960s through to 2009. Topol began his acting career during his Israeli army service in the Nahal entertainment troupe, toured Israel with kibbutz theatre and satirical theatre companies, he was a co-founder of the Haifa Theatre. His breakthrough film role came in 1964 as the title character in Sallah Shabati, by Israeli writer Ephraim Kishon, for which he won a Golden Globe for Most Promising Newcomer—Male. Topol went on to appear in more than 30 films in Israel and the United States, including Galileo, Flash Gordon and For Your Eyes Only, he was described as Israel's only internationally recognized entertainer from the 1960s through the 1980s.

He won a Golden Globe for Best Actor and was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Actor for his 1971 film portrayal of Tevye, was nominated for a Tony Award for Best Actor for a 1991 Broadway revival of Fiddler on the Roof. He is a founder of Variety Israel, an organization serving children with special needs, Jordan River Village, a year-round camp for Arab and Jewish children with life-threatening illnesses, for which he serves as chairman of the board. In 2015 he was awarded the Israel Prize for lifetime achievement. Topol was born on September 9, 1935, in Tel Aviv, in what was Mandatory Palestine, his father, Jacob Topol, had immigrated to Mandatory Palestine from Poland in the early 1930s and worked as a plasterer. His mother, Imrela "Rel" Topol, was a seamstress. Both of Topol's parents had been involved in the Betar Zionist youth movement in Poland before immigrating, his father had Hasidic roots, with a mother coming from a family of Gerrer Hasidim, while his father came from Aleksander Hasidim.

Chaim and his two younger sisters grew up in the South Tel Aviv working-class neighborhood of Florentin. As a young child, although he wanted to become a commercial artist, his elementary school teacher, the writer Yemima Avidar-Tchernovitz, saw a theatrical side to him, encouraged him to act in school plays and read stories to the class. At age 14 he began working as a printer at the Davar newspaper while pursuing his high school studies at night, he moved to Kibbutz Geva. A year he enlisted in the Israeli army and became a member of the Nahal entertainment troupe and acting in traveling shows, he rose in rank to troupe commander. Twenty-three days after being discharged from military service on October 2, 1956, two days after marrying Galia Finkelstein, a fellow Nahal troupe member, Topol was called up for reserve duty in the Sinai Campaign, he performed for soldiers stationed in the desert. After the war, he and his wife settled in Kibbutz Mishmar David, where Topol worked as a garage mechanic.

Topol assembled. The theatre company was in existence from early 1957 to the mid-1960s. Topol both sang and acted with the group, doing both "loudly". Between 1960 and 1964, Topol performed with the Batzal Yarok satirical theatre company, which toured Israel. Other members of the group included Uri Zohar, Nechama Hendel, Zaharira Harifai, Arik Einstein, Oded Kotler. In 1960, Topol co-founded the Haifa Municipal Theatre with Yosef Milo, serving as assistant to the director and acting in plays by Shakespeare and Brecht. In 1965 he performed in the Cameri Theatre in Tel Aviv. Topol's first film appearance was in the 1961 film I Like Mike, followed by the 1963 Israeli film El Dorado, his breakthrough role came as the lead character in the 1964 film Sallah Shabati. Adapted for the screen by Ephraim Kishon from his original play, the social satire depicts the hardships of a Sephardic immigrant family in the rough conditions of ma'abarot, immigrant absorption camps in Israel in the 1950s, satirizing "just about every pillar of Israeli society: the Ashkenazi establishment, the pedantic bureaucracy, corrupt political parties, rigid kibbutz ideologues and... the Jewish National Fund's tree-planting program".

Topol, 29 during the filming, was familiar playing the role of the family patriarch, having performed skits from the play with his Nahal entertainment troupe during his army years. He contributed his own ideas for the part, playing the character as a more universal Mizrahi Jew instead of a Yemenite, Iraqi, or Moroccan Jew, asking Kishon to change the character's first name from Saadia to Sallah; the film won the Golden Globe Award for Best Foreign Language Film, Topol won the 1964 Golden Gate Award for Best Actor at the San Francisco International Film Festival and the 1965 Golden Globe for Most Promising Newcomer—Male, alongside Harve Presnell and George Segal. Sallah Shabati was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film, losing to the Italian-language Yesterday and Tomorrow. In 1966, Topol made his English-language film debut as Abou Ibn Kaqden in the Mickey Marcus biopic Cast a Giant Shadow. Topol came to greatest prominence in his portrayal of Tevye the Dairyman on screen.

He first played the lead role in the Israeli production of the musical Fiddler on the Roof in 1966, replacing Shmuel Rodensky for 10 weeks when Roden