Rishi is a Vedic term from ancient India for an inspired poet of hymns from the Vedas. Post-Vedic tradition of Hinduism regards the rishis as "Jogi", "great sadhus" or "sages" who after intense meditation realized the supreme truth and eternal knowledge, which they composed into hymns; the word Rishi may be derived from two different meanings of the root'rsh'. Sanskrit grammarians derive this word from the second meaning: "to go, to move". V. S. Apte gives this particular meaning and derivation, Monier-Williams gives the same, with some qualification. Another form of this root means "to flow, to move near by flowing".. Monier-Williams quotes Tārānātha who compiled the great dictionary named "ṛṣati jñānena saṃsāra-pāram". More than a century ago, Monier-Williams tentatively suggested a derivation from drś "to see". Monier-Williams quotes the Hibernian form arsan and arrach as related to rishi. Monier-Williams conjectures that the root drish might have given rise to an obsolete root rish meaning "to see".
However, the root has a close Avestan cognate ərəšiš "an ecstatic". Yet the Indo-European dictionary of Julius Pokorny connects the word to a PIE root *h3er-s meaning "rise, protrude", in the sense of "excellent" and thus cognate with Ṛta and right and Asha. In Sanskrit, forms of the root rish become arsh- in many words, Modern etymological explanations such as by Manfred Mayrhofer in his Etymological Dictionary leave the case open, do not prefer a connection to ṛṣ "pour, flow", rather one with German rasen "to be ecstatic, be in a different state of mind"; some of the earliest lists of Rishi are found in Jaiminiya Brahmana verse 2.218 and Brihadaranyaka Upanishad verse 2.2.6. In the Vedas, the word denotes an inspired poet of Vedic hymns. In particular, Ṛṣi refers to the authors of the hymns of the Rigveda. Post-Vedic tradition regards the Rishis as "sages" or saints, constituting a peculiar class of divine human beings in the early mythical system, as distinct from Asuras and mortal men. Swami Vivekananda described "Rishi"s as Mantra-drashtas or "the seers of thought".
He told— "The truth came to the Rishis of India — the Mantra-drashtâs, the seers of thought — and will come to all Rishis in the future, not to talkers, not to book-swallowers, not to scholars, not to philologists, but to seers of thought."The notable female rishikas who contributed to the composition of the Vedic scriptures are: The Rig Veda mentions Romasha, Apala, Visvavara, Juhu, Paulomi, Indrani and Devayani. The Sama Veda adds Nodha, Akrishtabhasha and Gaupayana. In Mahabharata 12, on the other hand, there is the post-Vedic list of Marīci, Angiras, Kratu and Vashista; the Mahābhārata list explicitly refers to the saptarshis of the first manvantara and not to those of the present manvantara. Each manvantara had a unique set of saptarshi. In Harivamsha 417ff, the names of the Rishis of each manvantara are enumerated. In addition to the Saptarṣi, there are other classifications of sages. In descending order of precedence, they are Brahmarshi, Rajarshi. Devarṣi, Paramrṣi, Shrutarṣi and Kāndarṣi are added in Manusmriti iv-94 and xi-236 and in two dramas of Kālidasa.
The Chaturvarga-Chintāmani of Hemādri puts'riṣi' at the seventh place in the eightfold division of Brāhmanas. Amarakosha mentions seven types of riṣis: Shrutarshi, Kāndarshi, Maharshi, Rājarshi and Devarshi. Amarakosha distinguishes Rishi from other types of sages, such as sanyāsi, bhikṣu, parivrājaka, muni, brahmachāri, etc. Most medieval era Hindu temples of Java, Indonesia show Rishi Agastya statues or reliefs guarding the southern side of Shaivite temples; some examples include the Prambanan temple near Yogyakarta. Rishi Agastya is known as Phra Reusi Akkhot in Thailand. Ruesi is the equivalent of Rishi in India. In Myanmar, there are some known as ရေသ့ Rase. Rishi is a male given name, less a Brahmin last name. In Carnatic music, "Rishi" is the seventh chakra of Melakarta ragas; the names of chakras are based on the numbers associated with each name. In this case, there are seven rishis and hence the 7th chakra is "Rishi"; the descendant families of these Rishis, refer to their ancestral lineage through their family "gotra".
This is a common practice among the Brahmin sects of the current Hindu society. The name "Rishi" is the basis of one of the letters of the Thai alphabet, so reu-si. Apte, Vaman Shivram, The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary, New Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-0567-5 Apte, Vaman Shivram, Sanskrit-Hindi Koṣa, New Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Chopra, Life After Death: The Burden of Proof, Boston: Harmony Books Kosambi, D. D. An Introduction to the Study of Indian History, Bombay: Popular Prakashan Pvt Ltd, 35c Tardeo Road, Popular Press Bldg, Bombay-400034 Śāstri, Amarkoṣa with Hindi commentary, Vārānasi: Chowkhambā Sanskrit Series Office Rishikas of the Rigveda The dictionary definition of rishi at Wiktionary
Kurukshetra is a city in the state of Haryana, India. It is known as Dharmakshetra, it is known as the "Land of the Bhagavad Gita". Kurukshetra lies at distance of 160 km from New Delhi and about 93 km from Chandigarh - city with the nearest airport. According to the Puranas, Kurukshetra is a region named after King Kuru, the ancestor of Kauravas and Pandavas, as depicted in epic Mahabharata; the importance of the place is attributed to the fact that the Kurukshetra War of the Mahabharata was fought on this land and the Bhagavad Gita was preached here during the war when Lord Krishna found Arjuna in a terrible dilemma. Before the establishment of a refugee camp named Kurukshetra in 1947, Thanesar was the name of the tehsil headquarters and the town. Thanesar or Sthaneswar is a historical town located adjacent to what is now the newly created Kurukshetra city. Thanesar derives its name from the word "Sthaneshwar", which means "Place of God"; the Sthaneshwar Mahadev Temple, whose presiding deity is Lord Shiva, is believed to be the oldest temple in the vicinity.
Local hearsay identifies the legendary "Kurukshetra" with a place near Thanesar. A few kilometers from Kurukshetra is the village known as Amin, where there are remnants of a fort, believed to be Abhimanyu's. In most ancient Hindu texts, Kurukshetra is not a city but a region; the boundaries of Kurukshetra correspond to the central and western parts of state of Haryana and southern Punjab. Thus according to the Taittiriya Aranyaka 5.1.1. The Kurukshetra region is north of Khandava, east of Maru and west of Parin, it is written in Puranas that Kurukshetra is named after King Kuru of the Bharata Dynasty, ancestor of Pandavas and Kauravas. The Vamana Purana tells, he chose this land at the banks of Sarasvati River for embedding spirituality with eight virtues: austerity, forgiveness, purity, charity and Brahmacharya. Lord Vishnu was blessed him. God gave him two boons: one that this land forever will be known as a Holy Land after his name as Kurukshetra and the other that anyone dying on this land will go to heaven.
The land of Kurukshetra was situated between two rivers -- the Drishadvati. This land has been known as Uttarvedi, Brahmavedi and Kurukshetra at different periods; when King Kuru came on this land it was called Uttarvedi. According to the Hindu epic, the Battle of Mahabharata was fought on this land, during which Lord Krishna preached Bhagavad Gita to Arjuna. By the archaeological grounds it has been proved that Ashoka the Great made Kurukshetra a centre of learning for people from all over the world, it reached the zenith of its progress during the reign of King Harsha, during which Chinese scholar Xuanzang visited Thanesar. Gita Jayanti has been celebrated in Kurukshetra for decades. For long it was known as Kurukshetra Utsav. In 2016, The Government of Haryana decided to give it a global flavour and thus organised International Gita Mahotsav at Kurukshetra from 1 December to 11 December; the Gita Jayanti was celebrated on 10 December as per the traditional calendar. In 2016, over 2 million people visited the event.
In 2017 Gita Jayanti was celebrated on 30 November as per traditional calendar, over 2.5 Million people visited the event. As per Hindu calendar it comes on Mokshda Ekadashi in the month of Margshirsh; the idea of celebrating International Gita Mahotsav was came from Swami Gyananand. The climate of the district is much hot in summer and cold in winter with rains in July and August. In 2017, the government declared Kurukshetra a Holy City and the sale and consumption of meat are banned within the limits of the Municipal Corporation owing to its religious significance. Brahma Sarovar: Every year lakhs of people come to take a holy bath at Brahma Sarovar on the occasion of "Somavati Amavasya" and on solar eclipse believing that a bath in holy sarovar frees all sins and cycle of birth-death, it is supposed to be the world's largest man-made pond. The Hindu genealogy registers at Kurukshetra, Haryana are kept here. Sannihit Sarovar: This sarovar is believed to be the meeting point of seven sacred Saraswatis.
The sarovar, according to popular belief, contains sacred water. Bathing in the waters of the tank on the day of Amavasya or on the day of an eclipse bestows blessings equivalent to performing the Ashvamedh Yajna. Jyotisar: The famous site where Bhagavad Gita was delivered to Arjuna under the tree; the tree of that time is the witness to Gita. Kurukshetra Panorama and Science Centre: A depicting the Mahabharata war. Dharohar Museum: tradition and culture of Haryana. Sthaneshwar Mahadev Sheikh Chilli's Tomb: This monument is maintained by the Archaeological Survey of India, it was built during the Mughal era in remembrance of Sufi Saint Sheikh Chehli, believed to be the spiritual teacher of Mughal Prince Dara Shikoh. However, this is an erroneous belief, since the Prince's main'Murshid' or'Sheikh' is known to have been Hazrat Sheikh Mian Mir Sahib, of Lahore, although Sheikh Chehli might have been an additional/minor guide. There is another theory that the site of the supposed'makbara' or tomb was one of the meditative'Chillas' or sites of Hazrat Mian Mir Sahib, who might have visited the area during his wanderings.
It is possible that a caretaker, some disciple of the
Naranarayan was the last ruler of the undivided Koch kingdom of Kamata. He succeeded his father Biswa Singha. Under him the Koch kingdom reached its political zenith. Under his rule, under the military command of his brother Chilarai, he was able to subjugate the entire Brahmaputra valley, including the Ahom kingdom; this influence was halted. He introduced a silver coin, called the Narayani, that influenced the numismatics of Assam, he gave Srimanta Sankardeva the first royal patronage to Ekasarana Dharma. At the time of his father's death and his step brother, were in Varanasi and another brother, Nara Singha, succeed the throne. Malladev, as he was known, hastened back with Chilarai and with the help of their supporters among the courtier, took over the throne. Nara Singha was pursued, who escaped first to the Morung kingdom, thence to Nepal and Kashmir. Malladev ascended the throne in 1540, in the same year that his father had died, acquired the title Narayan, to become the dynastic title of his succeeding kings.
He issued coins, his seal was made. He appointed the commander-in-chief of the military; the Koch kingdom was a tributary the eastern Ahom kingdom and soon after his ascension began preparing to throw off the vassalage. A border tiff at Sala, just above Kaliabar escalated in 1546 with three step-brothers forging ahead into the Ahom kingdom, to meet with their deaths. After a series of battles with varying fortunes, the Koch army was defeated by the Ahoms under Suklenmung who led the military, at the Battle of Pichala in 1547; this was followed by a period of preparation. The preparations for a push east was made and deliberately. After the reverses of Biswa Singha in 1547 due to logistics, his own in 1547, he made calculated moves, he sent a diplomatic mission in 1555 to court of the new Ahom king Sukhaamphaa to gather information about its state. Nara Narayan had his step-brother, Kamal Narayan, surreptitious lay a road along the foothills of the eastern Himalayas from the capital to the eastern frontier.
He consolidated his alliance with the tribal groups, with the help of whom his father had established the kingdom and decreed that their religious practice should prevail north of the Gohain Kamal Ali. He was able to receive the alliance of the Bhuyans, who were inimical to his father, Biswa Singha. In the part of 1562 Chilarai, the commander, marched at the head of a 60,000 strong force, with Naranarayan at the rear, and as he marched, he obtained the support of the Mech-Kacharis, Dafla and Brahmins and reached Barnadi. Some princes of the erstwhile Chutiya kingdom submitted their support. Naranarayan forced his way into the Ahom kingdom, set up camp at Majuli. By April 1563 the Ahom king Sukhaamphaa had to abandon his capital, occupied by the Koch Koch army; the Treaty of Majuli was settled, which established the Koch hegemony in the Brahmaputra valley and extended the boundary in the east to Narayanpur. On the way back, Chalarai halted at Maibang, where the Kachari king, Durlabhnarayan submitted without a fight.
Chilarai established Gohain Kamal as a governor at Brahmapur and left a contingent of soldier, who came to be called Dehan. This was followed by the submission of the Manipuri king; the Jaintia king, gave fight and was slain, his son was established as the king. After the Jaintia campaign, Chilarai marched against the Tippera kingdom. At Langai in 1567, the Tripura king, Ananta Manikya, was killed along with 18,000 of his soldiers, his brother was placed on the throne; the Khairam raja, a Khasi chief of Nongkhrem, too submitted. Chilarai found a tougher foe in the Governor of Sylhet, allied with Suleiman Karrani engaged in an expedition in Odisha; the two brothers returned to their capital via Dimarua and Raha. In 1581 Raghu Deva, the son of his brother Shukladhvaj became the de facto ruler of the eastern part of his kingdom Koch Hajo, though under suzerainty of his uncle. After the death of Nara Narayan, he declared his independence. Nara Narayan's son Lakshmi Narayan succeeded him after his death, but only inherited the western part of his kingdom Koch Bihar.
On 23 December 1596 Man Singh I married Nara Narayan's daughter Kshamadevi. Maharaj Nara Narayan is known as the'Vikramaditya' of Kamrup. Nara Narayan was a noted patron of literature. Apart from Sankardeva, a galaxy of saints and scholars studied art and literature at Coochbehar making it a centre of Vaishnavite learning and teaching, they brightened Maharaja Naranarayan's Royal court. For the housewives, Madhabdeva wrote Janma Rahashya following the request of Kamalapriya,the wife of Chilarai. Chilarai, younger brother of Nara Narayan requested Ram Saraswati to translate the verses from the Mahabharata, he encouraged asked Sridhar to write Jyotish Sastra. Following his request, Bakul Kayastha wrote a landmark on mathematics. During Nara Narayan's reign, Purushottam Vidyavagish wrote the Prayogaratnamala, a treatise on Sanskrit grammar. A scholar par excellence, Chilarai himself wrote an analytical annotation of poet Joydeva's Geet Govinda as Sarabatisar and left an indelible imprint in Sanskrit literature
Indra is a Vedic deity in Hinduism, a guardian deity in Buddhism, the king of the highest heaven called Saudharmakalpa in Jainism. His mythologies and powers are similar to other Indo-European deities such as Jupiter, Perkūnas, Taranis and Thor. In the Vedas, Indra is the king of Svarga and the Devas, he is the god of the heavens, thunder, rains, river flows, war. Indra is the most referred to deity in the Rigveda, he is celebrated for his powers, the one who kills the great symbolic evil named Vritra who obstructs human prosperity and happiness. Indra destroys Vritra and his "deceiving forces", thereby brings rains and the sunshine as the friend of mankind, his importance diminishes in the post-Vedic Indian literature where he is depicted as a powerful hero but one, getting in trouble with his drunken and adulterous ways, the god who disturbs Hindu monks as they meditate because he fears self-realized human beings may become more powerful than him. Indra rules over the much sought Devas realm of rebirth within the Samsara doctrine of Buddhist traditions.
However, like the Hindu texts, Indra is a subject of ridicule and reduced to a figurehead status in Buddhist texts, shown as a god that suffers rebirth and redeath. In the Jainism traditions, like Buddhism and Hinduism, Indra is the king of gods and a part of Jain rebirth cosmology, he is the god who appears with his wife Indrani to celebrate the auspicious moments in the life of a Jain Tirthankara, an iconography that suggests the king and queen of gods reverentially marking the spiritual journey of a Jina. Indra's iconography shows him wielding a lightning thunderbolt known as Vajra, riding on a white elephant known as Airavata. In Buddhist iconography the elephant sometimes features three heads, while Jaina icons sometimes show the elephant with five heads. Sometimes a single elephant is shown with four symbolic tusks. Indra's heavenly home is near Mount Meru; the etymological roots of Indra are unclear, it has been a contested topic among scholars since the 19th-century, one with many proposals.
The significant proposals have been: root ind-u, or "rain drop", based on the Vedic mythology that he conquered rain and brought it down to earth. Root ind, or "equipped with great power"; this was proposed by Vopadeva. Root idh or "kindle", ina or "strong". Root indha, or "igniter", for his ability to bring light and power that ignites the vital forces of life; this is based on Shatapatha Brahmana. Root idam-dra, or "It seeing", a reference to the one who first perceived the self-sufficient metaphysical Brahman; this is based on Aitareya Upanishad. Roots in ancient Indo-European, Indo-Aryan deities. For example, states John Colarusso, as a reflex of proto-Indo-European *h₂nḗr-, Greek anēr, Sabine nerō, Avestan nar-, Umbrian nerus, Old Irish nert, Ossetic nart, others which all refer to "most manly" or "hero". Colonial era scholarship proposed that Indra shares etymological roots with Zend Andra derived from Old High German Antra, or Jedru of Old Slavonic, but Max Muller critiqued these proposals as untenable.
Scholarship has linked Vedic Indra to the European Aynar, Abaza and Innara of Hittite mythology. Colarusso suggests a Pontic origin and that both the phonology and the context of Indra in Indian religions is best explained from Indo-Aryan roots and a Circassian etymology, he is known in Burmese as သိကြားမင်း, pronounced. Indra has many epithets in the Indian religions, notably Śakra, Vṛṣan, Vṛtrahan, Meghavāhana, Devarāja, Surendra, Vajrapāṇī and Vāsava. Indra is of unclear origin. Aspects of Indra as a deity are cognate to other Indo-European gods; the similarities between Indra of Hindu mythologies and of Thor of Nordic and Germanic mythologies are significant, states Max Muller. Both Indra and Thor are storm gods, with powers over lightning and thunder, both carry hammer or equivalent, for both the weapon returns to their hand after they hurl it, both are associated with bulls in the earliest layer of respective texts, both use thunder as a battle-cry, both are heroic leaders, both protectors of mankind, both are described with legends about "milking the cloud-cows", both are benevolent giants, gods of strength, of life, of marriage and the healing gods, both are worshipped in respective texts on mountains and in forests.
Michael Janda suggests that Indra has origins in the Indo-European *trigw-welumos "smasher of the enclosure" and diye-snūtyos "impeller of streams". Brave and heroic Innara or Inra, which sounds like Indra, is mentioned among the gods of the Mitanni, a Hurrian-speaking people of Hittite region. Indra as a deity had a presence in northeastern Asia minor, as evidenced by the inscriptions on the Boghaz-köi clay tablet
Dharma is a key concept with multiple meanings in Indian religions like Hinduism, Jainism and others. There is no single-word translation for dharma in Western languages. In Hinduism, dharma signifies behaviors that are considered to be in accord with Ṛta, the order that makes life and universe possible, includes duties, laws, virtues and "right way of living". In Buddhism, dharma means "cosmic law and order", is applied to the teachings of Buddha. In Buddhist philosophy, dhamma/dharma is the term for "phenomena". Dharma in Jainism refers to the teachings of tirthankara and the body of doctrine pertaining to the purification and moral transformation of human beings. For Sikhs, the word dharm means the path of proper religious practice; the word dharma was in use in the historical Vedic religion, its meaning and conceptual scope has evolved over several millennia. The ancient Tamil moral text of Tirukkural is based on aṟam, the Tamil term for dharma; the antonym of dharma is adharma. The Classical Sanskrit noun dharma or the Prakrit Dhaṃma are a derivation from the root dhṛ, which means "to hold, keep", takes the meaning of "what is established or firm", hence "law".
It is derived from an older Vedic Sanskrit n-stem dharman-, with a literal meaning of "bearer, supporter", in a religious sense conceived as an aspect of Rta. In the Rigveda, the word appears as an n-stem, dhárman-, with a range of meanings encompassing "something established or firm". Figuratively, it means "sustainer" and "supporter", it is semantically similar to the Greek Themis. In Classical Sanskrit, the noun becomes thematic: dharma-; the word dharma derives from Proto-Indo-European root *dʰer-, which in Sanskrit is reflected as class-1 root dhṛ. Etymologically it is related to Avestan dar-, Latin firmus, Lithuanian derė́ti, Lithuanian dermė and darna and Old Church Slavonic drъžati. Classical Sanskrit word dharmas would formally match with Latin o-stem firmus from Proto-Indo-European dʰer-mo-s "holding", were it not for its historical development from earlier Rigvedic n-stem. In Classical Sanskrit, in the Vedic Sanskrit of the Atharvaveda, the stem is thematic: dhárma-. In Prakrit and Pāli, it is rendered dhamma.
In some contemporary Indian languages and dialects it alternatively occurs as dharm. Ancient translationsWhen the Mauryan Emperor Ashoka wanted in the 3rd century BCE to translate the word "Dharma" into Greek and Aramaic, he used the Greek word Eusebeia in the Kandahar Bilingual Rock Inscription and the Kandahar Greek Edicts, the Aramaic word Qsyt in the Kandahar Bilingual Rock Inscription. Dharma is a concept of central importance in Indian religion, it has multiple meanings in Hinduism and Jainism. It is difficult to provide a single concise definition for dharma, as the word has a long and varied history and straddles a complex set of meanings and interpretations. There is no equivalent single-word synonym for dharma in western languages. There have been numerous, conflicting attempts to translate ancient Sanskrit literature with the word dharma into German and French; the concept, claims Paul Horsch, has caused exceptional difficulties for modern commentators and translators. For example, while Grassmann's translation of Rig-veda identifies seven different meanings of dharma, Karl Friedrich Geldner in his translation of the Rig-veda employs 20 different translations for dharma, including meanings such as "law", "order", "duty", "custom", "quality", "model", among others.
However, the word dharma has become a accepted loanword in English, is included in all modern unabridged English dictionaries. The root of the word dharma is "dhri", which means "to support, hold, or bear", it is the thing that regulates the course of change by not participating in change, but that principle which remains constant. Monier-Williams, the cited resource for definitions and explanation of Sanskrit words and concepts of Hinduism, offers numerous definitions of the word dharma, such as that, established or firm, steadfast decree, law, custom, right, virtue, ethics, religious merit, good works, character, property. Yet, each of these definitions is incomplete, while the combination of these translations does not convey the total sense of the word. In common parlance, dharma means "right way of living" and "path of rightness"; the meaning of the word dharma depends on the context, its meaning has evolved as ideas of Hinduism have developed through history. In the earliest texts and ancient myths of Hinduism, dharma meant cosmic law, the rules that created the universe from chaos, as well as rituals.
In certain contexts, dharma designates human behaviours considered necessary for order of things in the universe, principles that prevent chaos and action necessary to all life in nature, family as well as at the individual level. Dharma encompasses ideas such as duty, character, religion and all behaviour considered appropriate, correct or morally upright; the antonym of dharma is adharma, meaning that, "not dharma"
Shiva known as Mahadeva is one of the principal deities of Hinduism. He is the supreme being within one of the major traditions within contemporary Hinduism. Shiva is known as "The Destroyer" within the Trimurti, the Hindu trinity that includes Brahma and Vishnu. In Shaivism tradition, Shiva is the supreme being who creates and transforms the universe. In the tradition of Hinduism called Shaktism, the Goddess, or Devi, is described as supreme, yet Shiva is revered along with Vishnu and Brahma. A goddess is stated to be the energy and creative power of each, with Parvati the equal complementary partner of Shiva, he is one of the five equivalent deities in Panchayatana puja of the Smarta tradition of Hinduism. According to the Shaivism sect, the highest form of Shiva is formless, limitless and unchanging absolute Brahman, the primal Atman of the universe. There are many both fearsome depictions of Shiva. In benevolent aspects, he is depicted as an omniscient Yogi who lives an ascetic life on Mount Kailash as well as a householder with wife Parvati and his two children and Kartikeya.
In his fierce aspects, he is depicted slaying demons. Shiva is known as Adiyogi Shiva, regarded as the patron god of yoga and arts; the iconographical attributes of Shiva are the serpent around his neck, the adorning crescent moon, the holy river Ganga flowing from his matted hair, the third eye on his forehead, the trishula or trident, as his weapon, the damaru drum. He is worshipped in the aniconic form of Lingam. Shiva is a pan-Hindu deity, revered by Hindus, in India and Sri Lanka. Shiva is called as Bhramhan which can be said as Parabhramhan. Shiva means nothingness; the word shivoham means the consciousness of one individual, lord says that he is omnipotent, omnipresent, as he is present in the form of one's consciousness. In Tamil, he was called by different names other than Sivan. Nataraaja Rudra and Dhakshinamoorthy. Nataraja is the only form of Shiva worshipped in a human figure format. Elsewhere he is worshipped in Lingam figure. Pancha bootha temples are located in south India. Pancha Bhoota Stalam.
Tamil literature is enriched by Shiva devotees called 63 Nayanmars The Sanskrit word "Śiva" means, states Monier Monier-Williams, "auspicious, gracious, kind, friendly". The roots of Śiva in folk etymology are śī which means "in whom all things lie, pervasiveness" and va which means "embodiment of grace"; the word Shiva is used as an adjective in the Rig Veda, as an epithet for several Rigvedic deities, including Rudra. The term Shiva connotes "liberation, final emancipation" and "the auspicious one", this adjective sense of usage is addressed to many deities in Vedic layers of literature; the term evolved from the Vedic Rudra-Shiva to the noun Shiva in the Epics and the Puranas, as an auspicious deity, the "creator and dissolver". Sharva, sharabha presents another etymology with the Sanskrit root śarv-, which means "to injure" or "to kill", interprets the name to connote "one who can kill the forces of darkness"; the Sanskrit word śaiva means "relating to the god Shiva", this term is the Sanskrit name both for one of the principal sects of Hinduism and for a member of that sect.
It is used as an adjective to characterize certain practices, such as Shaivism. Some authors associate the name with the Tamil word śivappu meaning "red", noting that Shiva is linked to the Sun and that Rudra is called Babhru in the Rigveda; the Vishnu sahasranama interprets Shiva to have multiple meanings: "The Pure One", "the One, not affected by three Guṇas of Prakṛti". Shiva is known by many names such as Viswanatha, Mahandeo, Mahesha, Shankara, Rudra, Trilochana, Neelakanta, Subhankara and Ghrneshwar; the highest reverence for Shiva in Shaivism is reflected in his epithets Mahādeva, Maheśvara, Parameśvara. Sahasranama are medieval Indian texts that list a thousand names derived from aspects and epithets of a deity. There are at least eight different versions of the Shiva Sahasranama, devotional hymns listing many names of Shiva; the version appearing in Book 13 of the Mahabharata provides one such list. Shiva has Dasha-Sahasranamas that are found in the Mahanyasa; the Shri Rudram Chamakam known as the Śatarudriya, is a devotional hymn to Shiva hailing him by many names.
The Shiva-related tradition is a major part of Hinduism, found all over India, Sri Lanka, Bali. Scholars have interpreted early prehistoric paintings at the Bhimbetka rock shelters, carbon dated to be from pre-10,000 BCE period, as Shiva dancing, Shiva's trident, his mount Nandi. Rock paintings from Bhimbetka, depicting a figure with a trishul, have been described as Nataraja by Erwin Neumayer, who dates them to the mesolithic. Of several Indus valley seals that show animals, one seal that has attracted attention shows a large central figure, either horned or wearing a horned headdress and ithyphallic, seated in a posture reminiscent of the Lotus position, surrounded by animals; this figure was named by early excavators of Mohenjo-daro as Pashupati (Lord of Animals, Sansk
Vasanta known as Basant, refers to the Indian spring, ritu means season. One of the main festivals of the Vasanta season is celebrated on Vasanta Panchami which in Nepali and Indian society is a cultural and religious festival, celebrated annually on the first day of spring, the fifth day of the Hindu month Magh. In Sanskrit Vasanta means spring. Panchami is the fifth day of Shukla Paksha, the fortnight of the waxing moon in the Hindu month of Magh. Vasanta Panchami, which marks the end of the winter and heralds in spring, is dedicated to goddess Saraswati, she is a goddess of a river bearing her name. Her water originates in the Himalayas, flows southeast and meets the Ganges at Prayag near its confluence with the Yamuna. Saraswati is a goddess of speech and learning who blesses the world with vach, hymns and the wealth of knowledge, it is auspicious for children to learn their first word on this day. In the ancient Indian texts, the Vedas, the prayer for Sarasvati depicts her as a pristine lady in a white dress embellished with white flowers and white pearls.
She sits on a white lotus blooming in a wide stretch of water. She holds a string instrument similar to a sitar. No animal is sacrifices and Indians have a vegetarian meal. Saraswati's prayer concludes, "Oh, Mother Sarasvati, remove the darkness of my mind and bless me with the eternal knowledge." In India, Vasanta is not a national holiday. However, it is celebrated in Eastern India. Students participate in the preparation of their place of worship. A few weeks before the celebration, schools become active in organizing various annual competitions of music, debate and other activities. Prizes are distributed on the day of Vasanta Panchami. Many schools organize cultural activities in the evening of the Saraswati Puja day when parents and other community members attend the functions to encourage the children. On Vasanta Pachami day, everyone rises early to bathe, dress in yellow clothes, adorn their forehead with the yellow of turmeric, worship the sun goddess, Mother Ganga, the earth. Books, musical instruments, tools for art such as earthen inkpots and bamboo quills, are placed in front of the goddess to receive her blessings.
The ink is made from red colour powder and silver glitter called avro. Although it is auspicious for children to learn their first word on this day of celebration, everyone abstains from their usual reading and writing in deference to the goddess; the colour yellow represents good fortune, the ripening of the spring crops and the recent harvest. Food is coloured with saffron; the goddess Saraswati is dressed in yellow. In some traditional homes, sweetmeats of yellowish hues, such as kesar halva are offered to relatives and friends. Yellow flowers are used in abundance to decorate the places of worship; the yellow flowers of the mustard crop covers the field in such a way that it seems as if gold is spread over the land, glittering in the rays of the sun. The Sufis introduced the festival to the Muslim community in India. By the Mughal period, Basant was a popular festival at major Sufi shrines. There are, for example, historical records of Nizam Auliya ki Basant, Khwaja Bakhtiar Kaki ki Basant, Khusrau ki Basant.
Amir Khusro and Nizamuddin Auliya celebrated the festival with songs. Khusrau, a Sufi-poet of the thirteenth century, composed verses about Vasanta: The first day of Spring of Bengali month Falgun, of the Bengali calendar, celebrated in Bangladesh and West Bengal with processions and family time. In Bengali, Pahela stands; this day is marked with colourful celebration and traditionally, women wear yellow saris to celebrate this day. This celebration is as Basanta Utsab. Basant celebrations in Pakistan are limited. Instead, the Jashn-e-baharaan spring festival is celebrated for one month. However, Basant does continue in Punjab. Various fairs are held throughout the region. One such fair was started by Kalu Ram dedicated to the memory of Haqiqat Rai. Maharaja Ranjit Singh held many fairs and introduced kite flying to such fairs which he held at Sufi shrines. Controversy about the celebration of Basant in Pakistan is due to its Hindu origin in a now Islamic republic, due to concerns about its safety.
Safety concerns include the use of metal or glass coated kite strings, power breakdowns due to damage from kites and the use of firearms. In small villages, disadvantaged children were trying to pull down kites. In 2005, kite flying was banned in Pakistan. In 2009, nine people in Pakistan died in kite flying related incidents. In the Punjab region, the Vasanta Pachami is known as the Basant Panchami. In the towns and villages of North India, Vasanta Pachami is celebrated as the secular Basant Festival of kites by all communities as a seasonal festival. Fields of mustard present a colourful sight all over rural Punjab; the phrase Ayi Basant Pala Udant, meaning, "with the onset of spring, winter bids adieu" is used. Culture of India "Spring festival of South Asia." C C India. "Holy Days, Basant." Chapati Mystery website "Basant 2007, Lahore." Wired.com website