Nara Prefecture is a prefecture of Japan located in the Kansai region of Honshu. Nara Prefecture has a population of 1,348,930 and has a geographic area of 3,691 km². Nara Prefecture borders Kyoto Prefecture to the north, Osaka Prefecture to the northwest, Wakayama Prefecture to the southwest, Mie Prefecture to the east. Nara is the capital and largest city of Nara Prefecture, with other major cities including Kashihara and Yamatokōriyama. Nara Prefecture is located in the center of the Kii Peninsula on Japan's Pacific Ocean coast, is one of only eight landlocked prefectures. Nara Prefecture has the distinction of having more UNESCO World Heritage listings than any other prefecture in Japan. Nara Prefecture region is considered one of the oldest regions in Japan, having been in existence for thousands of years. Like Kyoto, Nara was one of Imperial Japan's earliest capital cities; the current form of Nara Prefecture was created in 1887 when it became independent of Osaka Prefecture. Nara Prefecture was known as Yamato-no-kuni or Yamato Province.
From the third century to the fourth century, a poorly documented political force existed at the foot of Mount Miwa, east of Nara Basin. It sought unification of most parts in Japan. Since the historical beginning of Japan, Yamato was its political center. Ancient capitals of Japan were built on the land of Nara, namely Asuka-kyō, Fujiwara-kyō and Heijō-kyō; the capital cities of Fujiwara and Heijō are believed to have been modeled after Chinese capitals at the time, incorporating grid layout patterns. The royal court established relations with Sui and Tang dynasty China and sent students to the Middle Kingdom to learn high civilization. By 7th century, Nara accepted the many immigrants including refugees of Baekje who had escaped from war disturbances of the southern part of the Korean Peninsula; the first high civilization with royal patronage of Buddhism flourished in today's Nara city. In 784, Emperor Kanmu decided to relocate the capital to Nagaoka-kyō in Yamashiro Province, followed by another move in 794 to Heian-kyō, marking the start of the Heian period.
The temples in Nara remained powerful beyond the move of political capital, thus giving Nara a synonym of "Nanto" as opposed to Heian-kyō, situated in the north. Close to the end of Heian period, Taira no Shigehira, a son of Taira no Kiyomori, was ordered by his father to depress the power of various parties Kōfuku-ji and Tōdai-ji, who were backing up an opposition group headed by Prince Mochihito; the movement led to a collision between the Taira and the Nara temples in 1180. This clash led to Kōfuku-ji and Tōdai-ji being set on fire, resulting in vast destruction of architectural heritage. At the rise of the Minamoto to its ruling seat and the opening of Kamakura shogunate, Nara enjoyed the support of Minamoto no Yoritomo toward restoration. Kōfuku-ji, being the "home temple" to the Fujiwara since its foundation, not only regained the power it had before but became a de facto regional chief of Yamato Province. With the reconstruction of Kōfuku-ji and Tōdai-ji, a town was growing again near the two temples.
The Nanboku-chō period, starting in 1336, brought more instability to Nara. As Emperor Go-Daigo chose Yoshino as his base, a power struggle arose in Kōfuku-ji with a group supporting the South and another siding the North court. Local clans were split into two. Kōfuku-ji recovered its control over the province for a short time at the surrender of the South Court in 1392, while the internal power game of the temple itself opened a way for the local samurai clans to spring up and fight with each other acquiring their own territories, thus diminishing the influence of Kōfuku-ji overall; the whole province of Yamato got drawn into the confusion of the Sengoku period. Tōdai-ji was once again set on fire in 1567, when Matsunaga Hisahide, appointed by Oda Nobunaga to the lord of Yamato Province, fought for supremacy against his former master Miyoshi family. Followed by short appointments of Tsutsui Junkei and Toyotomi Hidenaga by Toyotomi Hideyoshi to the lord, the Tokugawa shogunate ruled the city of Nara directly, most parts of Yamato province with a few feudal lords allocated at Kōriyama and other places.
With industry and commerce developing in the 18th century, the economy of the province was incorporated into prosperous Osaka, the commercial capital of Japan at the time. The economic dependency to Osaka characterizes today's Nara Prefecture, for many inhabitants commute to Osaka to work or study there. A first prefecture named Nara was established in the Meiji Restoration in 1868 as successor to the shogunate administration of the shogunate city and shogunate lands in Yamato. After the 1871 Abolition of the han system, Nara was merged with other prefectures and cleared of ex-/enclaves to encompass all of Yamato province. In 1876, Nara was merged into Sakai which in turn became part of Osaka in 1881. In 1887, Nara became independent again; the first prefectural assembly of Nara was elected in the same year and opened its first session in 1888 in the gallery of the main hall of Tōdai temple. In the 1889 Great Meiji mergers which subdivided all prefectures into modern municipalities, Nara prefecture's 16 districts were subdivided into 154 municipalities: 10 towns and 144 villages.
The first city in Nara was only established in 1898 when Nara Town from Soekami District was made district-independent to become Nara City. Nara Prefecture is p
Carlos Ruiz Chapellín was a Venezuelan showman and performer. He is remembered for creating slapstick comedy films in the late 19th century. Ruiz's first business was in putting on popular shows, a pursuit he never gave up through his filmmaking efforts. In 1897, shortly after it opened, Ruiz rented the Circo Metropolitano, where he would show zarzuelas and circus variety shows, he planned to go into the film business after the release of the first Venezuelan films in Maracaibo in January 1897, forming a partnership with Ricardo Rouffet to create their own films. He hired a man, W. O. Wolcopt from the United States, as part of this venture. Wolcopt brought a Projectoscope from New York, displayed in the Circo from 26 June to 14 July 1897. Ruiz and Wolcopt may have shown a film called Disputa entre Andracistas y Rojistas, which showed a fight between supporters of that year's political candidates Ignacio Andrade and Juan Pablo Rojas Paúl. After the show Wolcopt traveled the country for four months with the Projectoscope before returning to Caracas.
Ruiz hired Gabriel Veyre to show his Cinematograph at the Circo after seeing him project another film at the Fortuna Hall in Caracas. Ruiz and Veyre had a dispute, with Ruiz claiming Veyre was in breach of contract and sent a letter saying so to Veyre's mother. Azuaga García describes Ruiz's choice to hold film showings in a circus as "gaudy", as the previous screenings were held in spectacular theatres and halls, but suggests it was Ruiz's attempt to "truly bring cinema to the popular classes". Elisa Martínez de Badra reviews the cinema of early Venezuela shortly by suggesting that the partnership of Ruiz and Wolcopt, along with the first Venezuelan films shown in January 1897, can be considered early examples of attempts at narrative cinema, he returned to films in 1899, before going back to his production business. Ruiz became a devoted writer in his life, he died in August 1912, is interred at the Cementerio General del Sur in Caracas. Literature Web
This is a list of candidates of the 1978 New South Wales state election. The election was held on 7 October 1978. Note: Tom Lewis MLA, George Neilly MLA and Bruce Webster MLA all resigned some months prior to the election, but avoiding by-elections for their seats was one of the pretexts for the early election. William Coulter MLC Walter Geraghty MLC Edna Roper MLC Amelia Rygate MLC Leroy Serisier MLC Norman Thom MLC Douglas Darby MLA Keith Doyle MLA Ian Griffith MLA Gordon Mackie MLA Thomas Erskine MLC Stanley Eskell MLC Dick Evans MLC Ted Humphries MLC Thomas McKay MLC Anne Press MLC Walter Scott MLC Sir Edward Warren MLC Sir Harry Budd MLC Otway Falkiner MLC Sir John Fuller MLC Sir Asher Joel MLC Geoffrey Keighley MLC Richmond Manyweathers MLC Ronald Raines MLC Sitting members are shown in bold text. Successful candidates are highlighted in the relevant colour. Where there is possible confusion, an asterisk is used. Sitting members are shown in bold text. Tickets that elected at least one MLC are highlighted in the relevant colour.
Successful candidates are identified by an asterisk. Members of the New South Wales Legislative Assembly, 1978–1981 Members of the New South Wales Legislative Council, 1978–1981 Green, Antony. "1978 Election candidate index". New South Wales Election Results 1856-2007. New South Wales Parliament. Parliament of New South Wales. Parliamentary Papers