Innes National Park
Innes National Park is a protected area in the Australian state of South Australia located on the southwest tip of Yorke Peninsula about 300 kilometres west of the state capital of Adelaide. Known as Innes by many, the national park is a popular destination for camping, fishing and scuba diving. Innes National Park is located on the southern western extremity of Yorke Peninsula in South Australia about 300 kilometres by road from the Adelaide city centre, it is located within the locality known as Inneston. The national park occupies most of the land on the south-western tip of Yorke Peninsula south west of a line running from Willyama Bay on the south coast of the peninsula near Marion Bay to Gym Beach on the west coast of the peninsula and the following four islands adjoining the coastline: Chinamans Hat Island, Middle Island and South Island west of Pondalowie Bay, Royston Island west of Royston Head. Within the above area, land excluded from the national park includes the following saline lakes which were associated with gypsum mining at the time of proclamation of the national park - Marion Lake, Snow Lake and Spider Lake.
As of 2014, the national park included the following "no access" areas - a section of coastline between Cape Spencer and Ethel Beach and Middle Islands at the entrance to Pondalowie Bay, Royston Island, the coastline between Royston Head and Dolphin Beach, the coastline between Browns Beach and Gym Beach. The coastline extending from Willyama Bay to Cape Spencer consists of a number of bays such as Cable Bay and Stenhouse Bay with some prominent headlands such as Rhino Head and a line of cliffs between Cable Bay and Stenhouse Bay. From Cape Spencer to West Cape, an unbroken line of cliffs ranging in height between 37 metres and 79 metres with some sandy beaches at their feet make up the south west coast of Yorke Peninsula. From West Cape to Pondalowie Bay, the cliff line is of a lower height. From the south end of Pondalowie Bay to Gym Beach, areas of sand dunes dominate the shoreline and the land adjoining it with the exception of Royston Head and the cliff line extending eastward to Dolphin Beach.
The land between the national park's boundary and the road system is dominated in part by a network of saline lakes. The national park is serviced by a road connected to the western end of the Yorke Highway which passes through Marion Bay; the road which starts at Stenhouse Bay follows the coastline as a sealed road passing Chinamans Hat Island, Cable Bay and the turn-offs to Cape Spencer, Ethel Beach, West Cape and two camping grounds at Pondalowie Bay. The road concludes as a sealed road at the turn-off to the Pondalowie Surf Break Carpark, it continues as an unsealed road, passing turn-offs to Dolphin Beach and Shell Beach, to terminate at Browns Beach in the north west of the national park. Gym Beach in the extreme north west, while being accessible via the national park's walking trail system can only reached via vehicle from the Marion Bay Road, located to the east of the national park's boundary; the national park is classified as an IUCN category II protected area. As of 2003, 333 species of native plants had been recorded in Innes National Park of which 115 species were of conservation significance including 24 scheduled in the South Australian National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972 and the following four species listed in the Australian Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999: annual candles, winter spider-orchid, bead samphire and splendid bush-pea.
Native mammals found within the national park as of 2003 included New Zealand fur seal, western pygmy possum, Gould's wattle bat, chocolate wattled bat, common dolphin, southern right whale, western grey kangaroo, Australian sea lion, short-beaked echidna and bottlenose dolphin. Birds found within the national park as of 2003 included 111 species of native bird of which 13 species were scheduled in Australian and state legislation; the following 13 species were listed in the National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972 either as being vulnerable or rare species - chestnut quail-thrush, eastern reef egret, fairy tern, hooded plover, little tern, osprey, painted button-quail, peregrine falcon, rock parrot, shy heathwren, western whipbird and white-bellied sea-eagle while the malleefowl was recognised nationally as a vulnerable species under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999. Reptiles found within the national park as of 2003 included marbled gecko, mallee snake-eye, painted dragon, barking gecko, yellow-faced whipsnake, black tiger snake, eastern stone gecko, eastern bearded dragon, bull skink, eastern brown snake, four-toed earless skink, peninsula brown snake, southern four-toed slider, common scaly-foot, dwarf skink, western bluetongue, Adelaide snake-eye, sleepy lizard and prickly dragon.
Introduced animals found within the national park as of 2003 included rock dove, rabbit, house mouse, house sparrow, black rat, common starling and fox. Innes National Park was declared on 5 March 1970 under the National Parks Act 1966 to "conserve important habitat for the western whipbird, the mallee fowl and to protect a number of heritage buildings at Inneston." Land was added to the national park in 1977, 1984 and 1993 in order to deal with increased recreational use. The Narungga people occupied the Yorke Peninsula for thousands of years, they consisted of four clans, the Kurnara of the north, the Windera of the east, the Wari of the West and the Dilpa of the south. European colonisation of the area began in 1846 with sheep grazing near Cape Spencer. Crops were grown on a small scale in the early 20th century. Innes National Park was named after William Innes, who disc
Government of South Australia
The Government of South Australia referred to as the South Australian Government, is the Australian state democratic administrative authority of South Australia. The Government of South Australia, a parliamentary constitutional monarchy, was formed in 1856 as prescribed in its Constitution, as amended from time to time. Since the Federation of Australia in 1901, South Australia has been a state of the Commonwealth of Australia, the Constitution of Australia regulates its relationship with the Commonwealth. Under the Australian Constitution, South Australia ceded legislative and judicial supremacy to the Commonwealth, but retained powers in all matters not in conflict with the Commonwealth. South Australia is governed according to the principles of the Westminster system, a form of parliamentary government based on the model of the United Kingdom. Legislative power rests with the Parliament of South Australia, which consists of the South Australian Legislative Council and the South Australian House of Assembly, with general elections held every four years.
Executive power rests formally with the executive council, which consists of the governor and senior ministers. In practice, executive power is exercised by the premier of South Australia and the cabinet, who are appointed by the governor, but who hold office by virtue of their ability to command the support of a majority of members of the House of Assembly. Judicial power is exercised by the Supreme Court of South Australia and a system of subordinate courts, but the High Court of Australia and other federal courts have overriding jurisdiction on matters which fall under the ambit of the Australian constitution; the current ministry of the South Australian Government comprises the following Liberal members: The South Australian Government delivers services, determines policy and regulations, including legal interpretation, by a number of agencies grouped under areas of portfolio responsibility. Each portfolio is led by a government minister, a member of the Parliament; as of July 2016 there were twenty one lead agencies, called government departments, that consist of: Attorney-General's Department Auditor-General's Department Department for Communities and Social Inclusion Department for Correctional Services Country Fire Service Courts Administration Authority Defence SA Department for Education and Child Development Electoral Commission of South Australia Department of Environment and Natural Resources Department for Health and Ageing Legal Services Commission South Australian Metropolitan Fire Service Department of Planning and Infrastructure Department of the Premier and Cabinet Department of Primary Industries and Regions Department of Treasury and Finance SAFECOM South Australia Police Department of State Development State Emergency ServiceA range of other agencies support the functions of these departments.
South Australian Forestry Corporation trading as ForestrySA South Australian Water Corporation trading as SA Water List of South Australian government agencies List of South Australian Ministries Government of South Australia website The Constitution of South Australia
A national park is a park in use for conservation purposes. It is a reserve of natural, semi-natural, or developed land that a sovereign state declares or owns. Although individual nations designate their own national parks differently, there is a common idea: the conservation of'wild nature' for posterity and as a symbol of national pride. An international organization, the International Union for Conservation of Nature, its World Commission on Protected Areas, has defined "National Park" as its Category II type of protected areas. While this type of national park had been proposed the United States established the first "public park or pleasuring-ground for the benefit and enjoyment of the people", Yellowstone National Park, in 1872. Although Yellowstone was not termed a "national park" in its establishing law, it was always termed such in practice and is held to be the first and oldest national park in the world. However, the Tobago Main Ridge Forest Reserve, the area surrounding Bogd Khan Uul Mountain are seen as the oldest protected areas, predating Yellowstone by nearly a century.
The first area to use "national park" in its creation legislation was the U. S.'s Mackinac, in 1875. Australia's Royal National Park, established in 1879, was the world's third official national park. In 1895 ownership of Mackinac National Park was transferred to the State of Michigan as a state park and national park status was lost; as a result, Australia's Royal National Park is by some considerations the second oldest national park now in existence. Canada established Parks Canada in 1911, becoming the world's first national service dedicated to protecting and presenting natural and historical treasures; the largest national park in the world meeting the IUCN definition is the Northeast Greenland National Park, established in 1974. According to the IUCN, 6,555 national parks worldwide met its criteria in 2006. IUCN is still discussing the parameters of defining a national park. National parks are always open to visitors. Most national parks provide outdoor recreation and camping opportunities as well as classes designed to educate the public on the importance of conservation and the natural wonders of the land in which the national park is located.
In 1969, the IUCN declared a national park to be a large area with the following defining characteristics: One or several ecosystems not materially altered by human exploitation and occupation, where plant and animal species, geomorphological sites and habitats are of special scientific and recreational interest or which contain a natural landscape of great beauty. In 1971, these criteria were further expanded upon leading to more clear and defined benchmarks to evaluate a national park; these include: Minimum size of 1,000 hectares within zones in which protection of nature takes precedence Statutory legal protection Budget and staff sufficient to provide sufficient effective protection Prohibition of exploitation of natural resources qualified by such activities as sport, fishing, the need for management, etc. While the term national park is now defined by the IUCN, many protected areas in many countries are called national park when they correspond to other categories of the IUCN Protected Area Management Definition, for example: Swiss National Park, Switzerland: IUCN Ia - Strict Nature Reserve Everglades National Park, United States: IUCN Ib - Wilderness Area Victoria Falls National Park, Zimbabwe: IUCN III - National Monument Vitosha National Park, Bulgaria: IUCN IV - Habitat Management Area New Forest National Park, United Kingdom: IUCN V - Protected Landscape Etniko Ygrotopiko Parko Delta Evrou, Greece: IUCN VI - Managed Resource Protected AreaWhile national parks are understood to be administered by national governments, in Australia national parks are run by state governments and predate the Federation of Australia.
In Canada, there are both national parks operated by the federal government and provincial or territorial parks operated by the provincial and territorial governments, although nearly all are still national parks by the IUCN definition. In many countries, including Indonesia, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, national parks do not adhere to the IUCN definition, while some areas which adhere to the IUCN definition are not designated as national parks. In 1810, the English poet William Wordsworth described the Lake District as a sort of national property, in which every man has a right and interest who has an eye to perceive and a heart to enjoy; the painter George Catlin, in his travels through the American West, wrote during the 1830s that the Native Americans in the United States might be preserved...in a magnificent park... A nation's Park, containing man and beast, in all the wild and freshness of their nature's beauty! The first effort by the U. S. Federal government to set aside such protected lands was on 20 April 1832, when President Andrew Jackson signed legislation that the 22nd United States Congress had enacted to set aside four sections of land around what is now Hot Springs, Arkansas, to protect the natural, thermal springs and adjoining mountainsides for the futur
South Australia is a state in the southern central part of Australia. It covers some of the most arid parts of the country. With a total land area of 983,482 square kilometres, it is the fourth-largest of Australia's states and territories by area, fifth largest by population, it has a total of 1.7 million people, its population is the second most centralised in Australia, after Western Australia, with more than 77 percent of South Australians living in the capital, Adelaide, or its environs. Other population centres in the state are small. South Australia shares borders with all of the other mainland states, with the Northern Territory; the state comprises less than 8 percent of the Australian population and ranks fifth in population among the six states and two territories. The majority of its people reside in greater Metropolitan Adelaide. Most of the remainder are settled in fertile areas along River Murray; the state's colonial origins are unique in Australia as a settled, planned British province, rather than as a convict settlement.
Colonial government commenced on 28 December 1836, when the members of the council were sworn in near the Old Gum Tree. As with the rest of the continent, the region had been long occupied by Aboriginal peoples, who were organised into numerous tribes and languages; the South Australian Company established a temporary settlement at Kingscote, Kangaroo Island, on 26 July 1836, five months before Adelaide was founded. The guiding principle behind settlement was that of systematic colonisation, a theory espoused by Edward Gibbon Wakefield, employed by the New Zealand Company; the goal was to establish the province as a centre of civilisation for free immigrants, promising civil liberties and religious tolerance. Although its history is marked by economic hardship, South Australia has remained politically innovative and culturally vibrant. Today, it is known for numerous cultural festivals; the state's economy is dominated by the agricultural and mining industries. Evidence of human activity in South Australia dates back as far as 20,000 years, with flint mining activity and rock art in the Koonalda Cave on the Nullarbor Plain.
In addition wooden spears and tools were made in an area now covered in peat bog in the South East. Kangaroo Island was inhabited; the first recorded European sighting of the South Australian coast was in 1627 when the Dutch ship the Gulden Zeepaert, captained by François Thijssen and mapped a section of the coastline as far east as the Nuyts Archipelago. Thijssen named the whole of the country eastward of the Leeuwin "Nuyts Land", after a distinguished passenger on board; the coastline of South Australia was first mapped by Matthew Flinders and Nicolas Baudin in 1802, excepting the inlet named the Port Adelaide River, first discovered in 1831 by Captain Collet Barker and accurately charted in 1836–37 by Colonel William Light, leader of the South Australian Colonization Commissioners"First Expedition' and first Surveyor-General of South Australia. The land which now forms the state of South Australia was claimed for Britain in 1788 as part of the colony of New South Wales. Although the new colony included two-thirds of the continent, early settlements were all on the eastern coast and only a few intrepid explorers ventured this far west.
It took more than forty years before any serious proposal to establish settlements in the south-western portion of New South Wales were put forward. On 15 August 1834, the British Parliament passed the South Australia Act 1834, which empowered His Majesty to erect and establish a province or provinces in southern Australia; the act stated that the land between 132° and 141° east longitude and from 26° south latitude to the southern ocean would be allotted to the colony, it would be convict-free. In contrast to the rest of Australia, terra nullius did not apply to the new province; the Letters Patent, which used the enabling provisions of the South Australia Act 1834 to fix the boundaries of the Province of South Australia, provided that "nothing in those our Letters Patent shall affect or be construed to affect the rights of any Aboriginal Natives of the said Province to the actual occupation and enjoyment in their own Persons or in the Persons of their Descendants of any Lands therein now occupied or enjoyed by such Natives."
Although the patent guaranteed land rights under force of law for the indigenous inhabitants it was ignored by the South Australian Company authorities and squatters. Survey was required before settlement of the province, the Colonization Commissioners for South Australia appointed William Light as the leader of its'First Expedition', tasked with examining 1500 miles of the South Australian coastline and selecting the best site for the capital, with planning and surveying the site of the city into one-acre Town Sections and its surrounds into 134-acre Country Sections. Eager to commence the establishment of their whale and seal fisheries, the South Australian Company sought, obtained, the Commissioners' permission to send Company ships to South Australia, in advance of the surveys and ahead of the Commissioners' colonists; the Company's settlement of seven vessels and 636 people was temporarily made at Kingscote on Kangaroo Island, until
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a numeric commercial book identifier, intended to be unique. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency. An ISBN is assigned to each variation of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN; the ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country; the initial ISBN identification format was devised in 1967, based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108. Published books sometimes appear without an ISBN; the International ISBN agency sometimes assigns such books ISBNs on its own initiative.
Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines and newspapers. The International Standard Music Number covers musical scores; the Standard Book Numbering code is a 9-digit commercial book identifier system created by Gordon Foster, Emeritus Professor of Statistics at Trinity College, for the booksellers and stationers WHSmith and others in 1965. The ISBN identification format was conceived in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the United States by Emery Koltay; the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108. The United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. ISO has appointed the International ISBN Agency as the registration authority for ISBN worldwide and the ISBN Standard is developed under the control of ISO Technical Committee 46/Subcommittee 9 TC 46/SC 9; the ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978.
An SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit "0". For example, the second edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has "SBN 340 01381 8" – 340 indicating the publisher, 01381 their serial number, 8 being the check digit; this can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8. Since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format, compatible with "Bookland" European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each variation of a book. For example, an ebook, a paperback, a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN; the ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. An International Standard Book Number consists of 4 parts or 5 parts: for a 13-digit ISBN, a prefix element – a GS1 prefix: so far 978 or 979 have been made available by GS1, the registration group element, the registrant element, the publication element, a checksum character or check digit. A 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces. Figuring out how to separate a given ISBN is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN is most used among others special identifiers to describe references in Wikipedia and can help to find the same sources with different description in various language versions. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency, responsible for that country or territory regardless of the publication language; the ranges of ISBNs assigned to any particular country are based on the publishing profile of the country concerned, so the ranges will vary depending on the number of books and the number and size of publishers that are active. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture and thus may receive direct funding from government to support their services. In other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded.
A full directory of ISBN agencies is available on the International ISBN Agency website. Partial listing: Australia: the commercial library services agency Thorpe-Bowker.
Naracoorte, South Australia
Naracoorte is a town in the Limestone Coast region of South Australia 336 kilometres south-east of Adelaide and 100 kilometres north of Mount Gambier on the Riddoch Highway. Naracoorte was formed from the merger of two towns, founded in 1845 by Scottish explorer William Macintosh, Narracoorte, established as a government settlement in 1847; the name has gone through a number of spellings, is believed to be derived from the Aboriginal words for place of running water or large waterhole. It grew during the 1850s as a service town for people going to and from the Victorian gold rush; the Post Office opened on 22 March 1853 and was known as Mosquito Plains until 1861. The District Council of Naracoorte was proclaimed in August 1870 to locally govern the lands of the Hundred of Naracoorte. In 1888 the size of the district was expanded to include surrounding areas not yet locally governed; as a consequence, in February 1924 the Corporate Town of Naracoorte was established to provide dedicated local governance to the township.
The Kingston-Naracoorte railway line was closed on 28 November 1987 and dismantled on 15 September 1991 following the Mount Gambier to Wolseley line closed on 12 April 1995 still pending for gauge standardization. Since 1993 Naracoorte has been locally governed by the amalgamated Naracoorte Lucindale Council, it is in the federal Division of Barker. The town has relied on sheep and wheat farming. In recent decades, tourism has become a major industry due to its proximity to several wine regions and internationally-recognised natural features. Both the World-Heritage-listed Naracoorte Caves National Park, the Ramsar-listed Bool and Hacks Lagoons are south of the township; the wine regions of Coonawarra and Wrattonbully lie further south, while the Padthaway lies to the north, placing Naracoorte at the centre of the three. In addition to the Naracoorte Caves, the township has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: 6 Church Street: St Andrew's Presbyterian Church DeGaris Place: Commercial Bank of South Australia Building 2 Laurie Crescent: St Paul's Anglican Church MacDonnell Street: Simpson's Flour Mill 23-25 McDonnell Street: Limbert's Store and Residence 30 McLeay Street: Dartmoor Homestead 13 Ormerod Street: Old Naracoorte District Council Chambers 81 Smith Street: National Bank Building Other places of interest to tourists include: The Visitor Information Centre & Sheep's Back Museum - MacDonnell Street Lions Pioneer Park - MacDonnell Street Tiny Train Park & Mini Golf - Park Terrace Naracoorte Art Gallery - Ormerod Street Mini Jumbuk Centre - 61 Smith Street Swimming Lake - Moore Street Jubilee Nature Park - Moore Street Russet Ridge Winery - Cnr Caves Road and Riddoch Highway Struan House - Riddoch Highway There are three schools: Naracoorte High on Stewart Terrace, Naracoorte Primary on Park Terrace and Naracoorte South Primary.
Independent schools include Naracoorte Christian School on Caves Road. Naracoorte Hospital Police Banks - ANZ Bank, Bank SA, Commonwealth Bank, National Bank, People's Choice Credit Union RAA - Kincraig Motors or Vans Automotive Service Service stations - MoGas, Caltex Shell and On The Run Supermarkets - Woolworths/Kincraig Plaza & Foodland Transport - Bus station The town is home to The Naracoorte Herald, a newspaper published in the town since 1948. Prior to that, the newspaper had used the older spelling of the town, was known as The Narracoorte Herald, which had begun publication on 14 December 1875, it is now part of Fairfax Media, with the Fairfax regional office located in the town on Smith Street. In 1912, a nearby publication, the Tatiara and Lawloit News, which printed in Naracoorte, was absorbed into the Herald; the town has an Australian Rules football team competing in the Kowree-Naracoorte-Tatiara Football League. And supplies players for a number of surrounding teams such as Kybybolite and Border Districts.
Naracoorte has a soccer club competing in the Limestone Coast Football Association. Aaron Fiora Alex Forster Alexander McLachlan Alan Rawlinson Allan Rodda Alice Monfries Elizee De Garis Emily Beaton George Ash George Byng Scott Greg Rowe Indira Naidoo Lachie Neale Jack Trengove James Gardiner Jessica Trengove John Baxter Mather Mountifort Conner Sam Burston Thomas Wilde Boothby Park Laurie Paul Rofe Percy Hutton Russell Dumas William Shiels FairfaxDigital Travel - Naracoorte Naracoorte Lucindale Council Accessed 5 March 2011
International Union for Conservation of Nature
The International Union for Conservation of Nature is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources. It is involved in data gathering and analysis, field projects and education. IUCN's mission is to "influence and assist societies throughout the world to conserve nature and to ensure that any use of natural resources is equitable and ecologically sustainable". Over the past decades, IUCN has widened its focus beyond conservation ecology and now incorporates issues related to sustainable development in its projects. Unlike many other international environmental organisations, IUCN does not itself aim to mobilize the public in support of nature conservation, it tries to influence the actions of governments and other stakeholders by providing information and advice, through building partnerships. The organization is best known to the wider public for compiling and publishing the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, which assesses the conservation status of species worldwide.
IUCN has a membership of over 1400 non-governmental organizations. Some 16,000 scientists and experts participate in the work of IUCN commissions on a voluntary basis, it employs 1000 full-time staff in more than 50 countries. Its headquarters are in Switzerland. IUCN has observer and consultative status at the United Nations, plays a role in the implementation of several international conventions on nature conservation and biodiversity, it was involved in establishing the World Wide Fund for Nature and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. In the past, IUCN has been criticized for placing the interests of nature over those of indigenous peoples. In recent years, its closer relations with the business sector have caused controversy. IUCN was established in 1948, it was called the International Union for the Protection of Nature and the World Conservation Union. Establishment IUCN was established on 5 October 1948, in Fontainebleau, when representatives of governments and conservation organizations signed a formal act constituting the International Union for the Protection of Nature.
The initiative to set up the new organisation came from UNESCO and from its first Director General, the British biologist Julian Huxley. The objectives of the new Union were to encourage international cooperation in the protection of nature, to promote national and international action and to compile and distribute information. At the time of its founding IUPN was the only international organisation focusing on the entire spectrum of nature conservation Early years: 1948–1956 IUPN started out with 65 members, its secretariat was located in Brussels. Its first work program focused on saving species and habitats and applying knowledge, advancing education, promoting international agreements and promoting conservation. Providing a solid scientific base for conservation action was the heart of all activities. IUPN and UNESCO were associated, they jointly organized the 1949 Conference on Protection of Nature. In preparation for this conference a list of gravely endangered species was drawn up for the first time, a precursor of the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
In the early years of its existence IUCN depended entirely on UNESCO funding and was forced to temporarily scale down activities when this ended unexpectedly in 1954. IUPN was successful in engaging prominent scientists and identifying important issues such as the harmful effects of pesticides on wildlife but not many of the ideas it developed were turned into action; this was caused by unwillingness to act on the part of governments, uncertainty about the IUPN mandate and lack of resources. In 1956, IUPN changed its name to International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Increased profile and recognition: 1956–1965 In the 1950s and 1960s Europe entered a period of economic growth and formal colonies became independent. Both developments had impact on the work of IUCN. Through the voluntary involvement of experts in its Commissions IUCN was able to get a lot of work done while still operating on a low budget, it established links with the Council of Europe. In 1961, at the request of United Nations Economic and Social Council, the United Nations Economic and Social Council, IUCN published the first global list of national parks and protected areas which it has updated since.
IUCN's best known publication, the Red Data Book on the conservation status of species, was first published in 1964. IUCN began to play a part in the development of international treaties and conventions, starting with the African Convention on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Environmental law and policy making became a new area of expertise. Africa was the focus of many of the early IUCN conservation field projects. IUCN supported the ‘Yellowstone model’ of protected area management, which restricted human presence and activity in order to protect nature. IUCN and other conservation organisations were criticized for protecting nature against people rather than with people; this model was also applied in Africa and played a role in the decision to remove the Maasai people from Serengeti National Park and the Ngorongoro Conservation Area. To establish a stable financial basis for its work, IUCN participated in setting up the World Wildlife Fund