West Bengal is an Indian state, located in eastern region of the country on the Bay of Bengal. With over 91 million inhabitants, it is India's fourth-most populous state, it has an area of 88,752 km2. A part of the ethno-linguistic Bengal region of the Indian subcontinent, it borders Bangladesh in the east, Nepal and Bhutan in the north, it borders the Indian states of Odisha, Bihar and Assam. The state capital is Kolkata, the seventh-largest city in India, center of the third-largest metropolitan area in the country; as for geography, West Bengal includes the Darjeeling Himalayan hill region, the Ganges delta, the Rarh region, the coastal Sundarbans. The main ethnic group are the Bengalis, with Bengali Hindus forming the demographic majority; the area's early history featured a succession of Indian empires, internal squabbling, a tussle between Hinduism and Buddhism for dominance. Ancient Bengal was the site of several major Janapadas, while the earliest cities date back to the Vedic period; the region was part including the Mauryans and Guptas.
It was a bastion of regional kingdoms. The citadel of Gauda served as the capital of the Gauda Kingdom, the Buddhist Pala Empire and Hindu Sena Empire. From the 13th century onward, the region was ruled by several sultans, powerful Hindu states, Baro-Bhuyan landlords, until the beginning of British rule in the 18th century; the British East India Company cemented their hold on the region following the Battle of Plassey in 1757, Calcutta served for many years as the capital of British India. The early and prolonged exposure to British administration resulted in an expansion of Western education, culminating in developments in science, institutional education, social reforms in the region, including what became known as the Bengali Renaissance. A hotbed of the Indian independence movement through the early 20th century, Bengal was divided during India's independence in 1947 along religious lines into two separate entities: West Bengal, a state of India, East Bengal, a province of Pakistan which became independent Bangladesh.
Between 1977 and 2011 the state was administered by the world's longest elected Communist government. The economy of West Bengal is the sixth-largest state economy in India with ₹13.14 lakh crore in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of ₹108,000. The state's cultural heritage, besides varied folk traditions, includes authors in literature, such as Nobel laureate Rabindranath Tagore. Kolkata is known as the "cultural capital of India". West Bengal is known for its enthusiasm for the sport of association football, as well as cricket; the origin of the name Bengal is unknown. One theory suggests that the word derives from "Bang", a Dravidian tribe that settled the region around 1000 BCE; the Bengali word Bongo might have been derived from the ancient kingdom of Vanga. Although some early Sanskrit literature mentions the name Vanga, the region's early history is obscure. At the end of British rule over the Indian subcontinent, the Bengal region was partitioned in 1947 along religious lines into east and west.
The eastern part came to be known be as East Pakistan, the eastern wing of newly born Pakistan and the western part came to be known as West Bengal, which continued as an Indian state. In 2011 the Government of West Bengal proposed a change in the official name of the state to PaschimBanga; this is the native name of the state meaning western Bengal in the native Bengali language. In August 2016 the West Bengal Legislative Assembly passed another resolution to change the name of West Bengal to "Bengal" in English, "Bangla" in Bengali. Despite the Trinamool Congress government's efforts to forge a consensus on the name change resolution, the Indian National Congress, the Left Front, the Bharatiya Janata Party opposed the resolution. However, the central government has turned down the proposal stating that the state should have one single name for all languages instead of three and the name should not be the same as that of any other territory. Stone Age tools dating back 20,000 years have been excavated in the state, showing human occupation 8,000 years earlier than scholars had earlier thought.
The region was a part of the Vanga Kingdom, according to the Indian epic Mahabharata. Several Vedic realms were present in the Bengal region, including Vanga, Rarh and the Suhma Kingdom. One of the earliest foreign references to Bengal is a mention by the Ancient Greeks around 100 BCE of a land named Gangaridai, located at the mouths of the Ganges. Bengal had overseas trade relations with Suvarnabhumi. According to the Sri Lankan chronicle Mahavamsa, Prince Vijaya, a Vanga Kingdom prince, conquered Lanka and gave the name Sinhala Kingdom to the country; the kingdom of Magadha was formed in the 7th century BCE, consisting of the regions now comprising Bihar and Bengal. It was one of the four main kingdoms of India at the time of the lives of Mahavira, founder of Jainism, Gautama Buddha, founder of Buddhism, it kingdoms. Under Ashoka, the Maurya Empire of Magadha in the 3rd century BCE extended over nearly all of South Asia, including Afghanistan and parts of Balochistan. From the 3rd to the 6th centuries CE, the kingdom of Magadha served as the seat of the Gupta Empire.
Two kingdoms – Vanga or Samatata, Gauda –
Marine Lines is a locality in South Mumbai. The name Marine Lines is derived from the Marine Battalion Lines, a military establishment built by the British in the 19th century; the battalion was converted to an air force residential quarters, now lies just south of Metro Adlabs. It is the name of a railway station on the Mumbai suburban railway on the Western Railway railway line. Marine Lines was the name of the road on which Bombay Hospital and Liberty Cinema stand, it is now known as V Thackersey Marg. Marine Drive is the famous promenade near the station. Marine Drive has one of the finest Art Deco Residential Buildings facing the sea. Near the station there is a municipal crematorium. Adjoining the station is the famous Marine Drive flyover. New Marine Lines is the area just south of the station near Churchgate, it is home to a number of offices including the UTI, R. O. C. Customs, Income Tax office and various other Governmental agencies; the Church of Our Lady of Seven Dolours Hanuman Temple at Picket Road Kalbadevi TempleGol Masjid St. Xavier's College, Bombay Our Lady of Dolours High School HVB Academy Beramjee Jeejeebhoy Parsee Charitable Institution Elphinstone School "... at Mrs Inverarity’s house in Marine Lines."
From Rudyard Kipling's short story, Baa Baa Black Sheep, published 1888. List of city districts by population density
Hindi cinema metonymously referred to as Bollywood, known as Bombay cinema, is the Indian Hindi-language film industry, based in Mumbai, India. The term originates as a portmanteau of "Bombay" and "Hollywood"; the Hindi-language film industry is related to Tamil film industry, Telugu film industry and others industries, which combined are components of Indian Cinema, the largest film industry in the world. Although American film industry has produced more than 150 musicals films by 1930 with first introduction of The Jazz Singer in the west, the world's first musical-talkie film, it took India more than 3 years to import the sound sequence technology but went on to produce its first song-sequence talkie film Alam Ara in the year 1931. Since Bollywood has produced major motion pictures in this genre exceeding Hollywood's total musicals from the 1960s when musical era declined in the west. Today, Bollywood is popular for its musicals though non-musicals have continued to be produced in India.
Linguistically, Bollywood films tend to use a colloquial dialect of Hindi-Urdu, or Hindustani, mutually intelligible to both Hindi and Urdu speakers, while modern Bollywood films increasingly incorporate elements of Hinglish. Indian cinema is the world's largest film industry in terms of film production, with an annual output of 1,986 feature films as of 2017, Bollywood is its largest film producer, with 364 Hindi films produced annually as of 2017. Bollywood represents 43% of Indian net box office revenue, while Tamil and Telugu cinema represent 36%, the rest of the regional cinema constitute 21%, as of 2014. Bollywood is thus one of the largest centers of film production in the world. In terms of ticket sales in 2001, Indian cinema sold an estimated 3.6 billion tickets annually across the globe, compared to Hollywood's 2.6 billion tickets sold. The name "Bollywood" is a portmanteau derived from Bombay and Hollywood, the center of the American film industry. Bollywood does not exist as a physical place.
The name Bollywood is criticized by some film journalists and critics by arguing that it makes the industry look like a poor cousin to Hollywood. According to Madhava Prasad- had described "Bollywood" is inspired by "Tollywood"—once refer to the cinema of West Bengal, dating back in 1932. "Tollywood" was the earliest Hollywood-inspired name, referring to the Bengali film industry based in Tollygunge, whose name is reminiscent of "Hollywood" and was the centre of the cinema of India at the time. According to P. Anandam Kavoori and Aswin Punathambekar book "Global Bollywood"—the popular Calcutta-based Junior Statesman youth magazine, establishing a precedent for other film industries to use similar-sounding names leading to the coining of "Bollywood"; as of now "Tollywood" is referred to the Telugu film industry, a part of Indian cinema. According to OxfordDictionaries.com— the word "Bollywood" got originated in 1970's. and print media claims that it got originated in 1970's and was popularized in the time when Cinema of India overtook Hollywood in terms of film production.
Many journalists have been credited by newspapers for the invention of the word "Bollywood". According to "The Telegraph" article published in 2005, it was Amit Khanna who had coined the word "Bollywood". and according to The Hindu article published in 2004 it was journalist Bevinda Collaco. Raja Harishchandra, by Dadasaheb Phalke, is known as the first silent feature film made in India. By the 1930s, the industry was producing over 200 films per year; the first Indian sound film, Ardeshir Irani's Alam Ara, was a major commercial success. There was a huge market for talkies and musicals; the 1930s and 1940s were tumultuous times: India was buffeted by the Great Depression, World War II, the Indian independence movement, the violence of the Partition. Most Bollywood films were unabashedly escapist, but there were a number of filmmakers who tackled tough social issues, or used the struggle for Indian independence as a backdrop for their plots. In 1937, Ardeshir Irani, of Alam Ara fame, made the first color film in Kisan Kanya.
The next year, he made a version of Mother India. However, color did not become a popular feature until the late 1950s. At this time, lavish romantic musicals and melodramas were the staple fare at the cinema. Prior to the 1947 partition of India, which divided the country into the Republic of India and Pakistan, the Bombay film industry was linked to the Lahore film industry, as both industries produced films in Hindi-Urdu, or Hindustani, the lingua franca across northern and central India. Another major center of Hindi-Urdu film production was the Bengali film industry in Calcutta, Bengal Presidency, which produced Hindi-Urdu films along with local Bengali language films. In the 1940s, many actors and musicians from the Lahore industry migrated to the Bombay industry, including actors such as K. L. Saigal, Prithviraj Kapoor, Dilip Kumar, Dev Anand, singers such as Mohammed Rafi and Shamshad Begum. Around the same time and actors from the Calcutta film industry began migrating to the Bombay film industry.
As a result, Bombay became the center of Hindi-Urdu film production in the new Republic of India after partitio
Filmfare Award for Best Actress
The Filmfare Award for Best Actress is given by Filmfare as part of its annual Filmfare Awards for Hindi films, to recognise a female actor who has delivered an outstanding performance in a leading role. The award was first given in 1954 for the films released in preceding year 1953. Nutan and her niece Kajol, with five wins each, have maximum awards. Meena Kumari, Madhuri Dixit and Vidya Balan have four wins each. Vyjayanthimala, Jaya Bachchan and Shabana have three wins each. Nine actresses have won the award twice. Meena Kumari achieved an unusual feat by garnering all of the nominations in 1963 with no other actress being nominated. Uptil now, no other actress has equaled this record. Five actresses have won the award in consecutive years. There has been only one tie in the history of this category; this occurred in 1974 when Jaya Dimple Kapadia were both given the award. Madhuri Dixit holds the record for maximum 14 nominations, followed by Meena Kumari with 12, Hema Malini and Kajol with 11, Aishwarya Rai and Sridevi with 10 nominations.
Dixit holds the record for most consecutive nominations with 10 between 1989 and 1996. She thus holds the record of maximum awards and maximum nominations in a single decade, with 4 awards and 10 nominations in 1990s. On occasion of an actress receiving multiple nominations in the same year and won in either of them: Shabana Azmi received four nominations in 1984 and holds the record for the highest number of nominations in a single year. Meena Kumari and Kajol had three nominations each in 1999 respectively. Vyjayanthimala, Jaya Bachchan, Rekha, Shabana Azmi, Madhuri Dixit, Aishwarya Rai, Preity Zinta, Rani Mukerji, Vidya Balan and Alia Bhatt each received two nominations in 1959, 1974, 1977, 1981, 1985, 1990, 1995, 2000, 2004, 2006, 2012 and 2017 where Deepika Padukone is the only actress who achieved this feat twice in 2014 and 2016 and won in both years. On occasion of an actress receiving multiple nominations in the same year but failed to win in any of them: Jaya Bachchan, Madhuri Dixit and Kareena Kapoor each received two nominations in 1972, 1996 and 2010 where Hema Malini is the only actress who achieved this feet twice in 1975 and 1976 but won in none of the years.
Vyjayanthimala is the only actress to win the maximum awards, without losing, whenever been nominated. She received three awards among four nominations, being nominated twice in 1959 and once each in 1962 and 1965, winning in all three years, she was the first actress to win both Best Actress Award and Best Supporting Actress Award as well as the first actress to receive multiple nominations. Tabu holds the record of maximum nominations without winning, with six, followed by Mala Sinha, Saira Banu, Manisha Koirala, Urmila Matondkar, Anushka Sharma and Sonam Kapoor with four nominations each. Jaya Prada has three nominations. Nutan, who won the award for the fifth time in 1979 at the age of 42, is the eldest winner, while Sharmila Tagore became the eldest nominee in 2006 at the age of 61. Dimple Kapadia, in 1973, became the youngest winner and youngest nominee at the age of 16. Meena Kumari was the most victorious actress with two wins in the 1950s. Nutan peaked with three wins in'60s. Jaya Bachchan ruled the'70s with two wins.
Shabana Azmi and Rekha fetched two wins each in the'80s. In the'90s, Madhuri Dixit had four wins. Aishwarya Rai, Rani Mukerji and Kajol had two wins each in the 2000s. Vidya Balan was the most successful actress of 2010s with four wins. Only once have siblings been nominated during the same year: Karisma Kapoor and Kareena Kapoor in 2002, twice have cousins been nominated during the same year: Kajol and Rani Mukerji in 2007 and Priyanka Chopra and Parineeti Chopra in 2013. Among these, Kajol won in 2007. Karisma Kapoor and Kareena Kapoor are the only siblings to win the award, while Kajol and Rani Mukerji are the only cousins to win the award. Fourteen actresses who have won both Best Actress and Best Supporting Actress awards include Vyjayanthimala, Padmini Kolhapure, Dimple Kapadia, Karishma Kapoor, Jaya Bachchan, Madhuri Dixit, Rani Mukerji, Kareena Kapoor, Kangana Ranaut, Priyanka Chopra and Shabana Azmi. Rani Mukerji is the only actress to win both these awards in the same year. Aishwarya Rai did not win.
Rani Mukerji was again nominated in 2008 for best actress and best supporting actress for Laga Chunari Mai Dag and Saawariya movies but win for none. Anushka Sharma was nominated in 2016 for both best actress and best supporting actress for NH10 and Dil Dhadakne Do but did not win either. Nutan and Rakhee were nominated for both Best Actress and Best Supporting Actress awards for the same performance: Nutan for Saudagar and for Main Tulsi Tere Aangan Ki and Raakhee for Doosra Aadmi. Madhuri Dixit and Rani Mukerji are the overall most nominated performers in the female acting categories, each with overall sixteen nominations. While Madhuri Dixit has fourteen nominations for Best Actress and two for Best Supporting Actress, Rakhee has eight nominations in each of these categories and Rani Mukerji has nine nominations for Best Actress and seven nominations for Best Support
Raj Kapoor was an Indian film actor and director of Indian cinema. Born at Kapoor Haveli in Peshawar to actor Prithviraj Kapoor– he was a member of the Kapoor family which produced several Bollywood superstars. Kapoor is regarded as one of the greatest and most influential actors and filmmakers in the history of cinema. and known as "the greatest showman of Hindi cinema". He received multiple accolades, including 3 National Film Awards and 11 Filmfare Awards in India; the Filmfare Lifetime Achievement Award is named after Raj Kapoor. He was a two-time nominee for the Palme d'Or grand prize at the Cannes Film Festival for his films Awaara and Boot Polish, his performance in Awaara was ranked as one of the top ten greatest performances of all time by Time magazine. His films attracted worldwide audiences in Asia and Europe, he was called "the Clark Gable of the Indian film industry". The Government of India honoured him with the Padma Bhushan in 1971 for his contributions to the arts. India's highest award in cinema, the Dadasaheb Phalke Award, was bestowed on him in 1987 by the Government of India.
Kapoor was born into a Punjabi Hindu family in 1924 at Kapoor Haveli, a house owned by his father, in Peshawar, North Western Frontier Province, British India, to Prithviraj Kapoor and Ramsarni Devi Kapoor. He was the eldest of six children in the family, he was the grandson of Dewan Basheshwarnath Kapoor and great-grandson of Dewan Keshavmal Kapoor, part of the famous Kapoor family. His brothers were Shammi Kapoor, he had a sister named Urmila Sial. Two other siblings died in infancy, they on moved from Peshawar into present-day India for residence and for education. His maternal cousin, Juggal Kishore Mehra, was a singer, whose granddaughter, Salma Agha became a Bollywood actress; as Prithviraj moved from city to city early in his career during the 1930s, the family had to move too. Raj Kapoor attended several different schools like Colonel Brown Cambridge School, Dehradun and and Mumbai. At the age of ten, he appeared in Bollywood films in 1935's Inquilab. Ranbir Raj Kapoor's big break came with the lead role in Neel Kamal opposite Madhubala in her first role as a leading lady.
In 1948, at the age of twenty-four, he established his own studio, R. K. Films, became the youngest film director of his time making his directorial debut with Aag starring himself, Kamini Kaushal and Premnath. In 1949 he co-starred alongside Dilip Kumar and Nargis in Mehboob Khan's hit film Andaz, his first major success as an actor, he had his first success as producer and star of Barsaat released that year. He went on to produce and star in several hit films made under his R. K. Banner including Awaara, Shree 420, Jagte Raho and Jis Desh Men Ganga Behti Hai, the last was directed by Radhu Karmakar, his longtime cinematographer, which won Filmfare Award for Best Film; these films established his screen image modeled on Charlie Chaplin's most famous screen persona of The Tramp. Outside of his home productions, his other notable films as a leading actor included Dastan, Aah, Chori Chori, Anari and Dil Hi To Hai, he produced the hit social films Boot Polish. and Ab Dilli Door Nahin. In 1964, he produced and starred in the romantic musical Sangam alongside Rajendra Kumar and Vyjayantimala, his first film in colour.
This was his last major success as a leading actor as his films like Around the World and Sapnon Ka Saudagar with younger starlets Rajshree and Hema Malini were box office flops. In 1965 he was a member of the jury at the 4th Moscow International Film Festival. In 1970 he produced and starred in his ambitious film Mera Naam Joker which took more than six years to complete, his son Rishi Kapoor made his debut in this film playing the younger version of his character. When released in 1970, it was a box office disaster and put Kapoor and his family into a financial crisis. In years it was acknowledged as a cult classic. In 1971, he launched his eldest son Randhir Kapoor in the family drama Kal Aaj Aur Kal starring himself, his son Randhir, his father Prithviraj Kapoor as well as Randhir's to-be wife Babita, he launched his second son Rishi Kapoor's career in 1973 when he produced and directed Bobby, a huge box office success and introduced actress Dimple Kapadia a popular actress. Dimple wore bikinis, quite unique for Indian films then.
In 1975 he acted alongside his son Randhir again in Dharam Karam, which Randhir directed. In the latter half of the 1970s and early 1980s he produced and directed films that focused on the female protagonists: Satyam Shivam Sundaram with Zeenat Aman, Prem Rog with Padmini Kolhapure and Ram Teri Ganga Maili which introduced Mandakini, he acted in fewer films by the late 1970s and early 1980s but played a notable supporting role alongside Rajesh Khanna in Naukri and as the titular character alongside Sanjay Khan in Abdullah. He played a detective in two comedy films: Do Jasoos and Gopichand Jasoos, both directed by Naresh Kumar. In 1979 he was a member of the jury at the 11th Moscow International Film Festival. Raj Kapoor's last major film appearance was in Vakil Babu where he appeared with his younger brother Shashi. A film he had shot and completed in 1982 titled Chor Mandali in which he appeared opposite fellow veteran actor Ashok Kumar remained unreleased due to a legal dispute. H
India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle
The Academy Awards known as the Oscars, are a set of awards for artistic and technical merit in the film industry. Given annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, the awards are an international recognition of excellence in cinematic achievements as assessed by the Academy's voting membership; the various category winners are awarded a copy of a golden statuette called the "Academy Award of Merit", although more referred to by its nickname "Oscar". The award was sculpted by George Stanley from a design sketch by Cedric Gibbons. AMPAS first presented it in 1929 at a private dinner hosted by Douglas Fairbanks in the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel; the Academy Awards ceremony was first broadcast on radio in 1930 and televised for the first time in 1953. It is now seen live worldwide, its equivalents – the Emmy Awards for television, the Tony Awards for theater, the Grammy Awards for music – are modeled after the Academy Awards. The 91st Academy Awards ceremony, honoring the best films of 2018, was held on February 24, 2019, at the Dolby Theatre, in Los Angeles, California.
The ceremony was broadcast on ABC. A total of 3,072 Oscar statuettes have been awarded from the inception of the award through the 90th ceremony, it was the first ceremony since 1988 without a host. The first Academy Awards presentation was held on 16 May 1929, at a private dinner function at the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel with an audience of about 270 people; the post-awards party was held at the Mayfair Hotel. The cost of guest tickets for that night's ceremony was $5. Fifteen statuettes were awarded, honoring artists and other participants in the film-making industry of the time, for their works during the 1927–28 period; the ceremony ran for 15 minutes. Winners were announced to media three months earlier; that was changed for the second ceremony in 1930. Since for the rest of the first decade, the results were given to newspapers for publication at 11:00 pm on the night of the awards; this method was used until an occasion when the Los Angeles Times announced the winners before the ceremony began.
The first Best Actor awarded was Emil Jannings, for his performances in The Last Command and The Way of All Flesh. He had to return to Europe before the ceremony, so the Academy agreed to give him the prize earlier. At that time, the winners were recognized for all of their work done in a certain category during the qualifying period. With the fourth ceremony, the system changed, professionals were honored for a specific performance in a single film. For the first six ceremonies, the eligibility period spanned two calendar years. At the 29th ceremony, held on 27 March 1957, the Best Foreign Language Film category was introduced; until foreign-language films had been honored with the Special Achievement Award. The 74th Academy Awards, held in 2002, presented the first Academy Award for Best Animated Feature. Since 1973, all Academy Awards ceremonies have ended with the Academy Award for Best Picture. Traditionally, the previous year's winner for Best Actor and Best Supporting Actor present the awards for Best Actress and Best Supporting Actress, while the previous year's winner for Best Actress and Best Supporting Actress present the awards for Best Actor and Best Supporting Actor.
See § Awards of Merit categories The best known award is the Academy Award of Merit, more popularly known as the Oscar statuette. Made of gold-plated bronze on a black metal base, it is 13.5 in tall, weighs 8.5 lb, depicts a knight rendered in Art Deco style holding a crusader's sword standing on a reel of film with five spokes. The five spokes represent the original branches of the Academy: Actors, Directors and Technicians; the model for the statuette is said to be Mexican actor Emilio "El Indio" Fernández. Sculptor George Stanley sculpted Cedric Gibbons' design; the statuettes presented at the initial ceremonies were gold-plated solid bronze. Within a few years the bronze was abandoned in favor of Britannia metal, a pewter-like alloy, plated in copper, nickel silver, 24-karat gold. Due to a metal shortage during World War II, Oscars were made of painted plaster for three years. Following the war, the Academy invited recipients to redeem the plaster figures for gold-plated metal ones; the only addition to the Oscar since it was created is a minor streamlining of the base.
The original Oscar mold was cast in 1928 at the C. W. Shumway & Sons Foundry in Batavia, which contributed to casting the molds for the Vince Lombardi Trophy and Emmy Award's statuettes. From 1983 to 2015 50 Oscars in a tin alloy with gold plating were made each year in Chicago by Illinois manufacturer R. S. Owens & Company, it would take between four weeks to manufacture 50 statuettes. In 2016, the Academy returned to bronze as the core metal of the statuettes, handing manufacturing duties to Walden, New York-based Polich Tallix Fine Art Foundry. While based on a digital scan of an original 1929 Oscar, the statuettes retain their modern-era dimensions and black pedestal. Cast in liquid bronze from 3D-printed ceramic molds and polished, they are electroplated in 24-karat gold by Brooklyn, New York–based Epner Technology; the time required to produce 50 such statuettes is three months. R. S. Owens i