Kiko, Princess Akishino
Kiko, Princess Akishino, is the wife of Fumihito, Prince Akishino, the second son of Emperor Akihito and Empress Michiko. She is known as Princess Kiko. Kiko was born at Shizuoka Saiseikai General Hospital in Suruga-ku, Japan, she is the eldest daughter of his wife Kazuyo Sugimoto. The family moved to Philadelphia in 1967, he earned a doctorate at University of Pennsylvania in 1971 in regional science and taught there. Kiko attended elementary and high school in Vienna, when her father became the chief researcher at The International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis in Laxenburg, where he studied spatial science and NGO activities; the future princess became fluent in German. In 1972, they moved back to Japan, her father taught economics at Gakushuin University in Tokyo, she lived with her parents and brother in a tiny on-campus apartment in Tokyo. She graduated from the Department of Psychology in the Faculty of Letters of Gakushuin University with a Bachelor of Letters degree in Psychology in 1989 and received a Master of Humanities degree in Social Psychology from the Graduate School of Gakushuin University in 1995.
She received the PhD degree in Humanities from Ochanomizu University. She participated in The Ship for Southeast Asian and Japanese Youth Program in 1987 and continues to be a supporter of the program. Prince Fumihito first proposed marriage to Kiko Kawashima on 26 June 1986 while they were both undergraduates at Gakushuin. Three years Imperial Household Council announced the engagement on 12 September 1989 and the engagement ceremony was held on 12 January 1990. No marriage date would be set until the official one-year mourning period ended for Fumihito's grandfather, Emperor Hirohito, who had died in January 1989; the wedding took place at an exclusive shrine at the Tokyo Imperial Palace on 29 June 1990. The Imperial Household Council had granted the prince permission to establish a new branch of the Imperial Family and the Emperor granted him the title Akishino-no-miya on his wedding day. Upon marriage, his bride became Her Imperial Highness The Princess Akishino, known informally as Princess Kiko.
As of tradition dictates, upon her entry into the imperial family and like other members, she received a personal emblem: iris setosa. The engagement and marriage of Prince Akishino to the former Kiko Kawashima broke precedent in several respects. At the time, the groom was still a graduate student at Gakushuin and he would be married before his older brother, Crown Prince Naruhito. Officials at the Imperial Household Agency were opposed to the marriage, as was Prince Akishino's paternal-grandmother Empress Dowager Nagako; the first woman from a middle-class background to marry into the imperial family, she was given the nickname "the apartment princess" by the media. Although Empress Michiko was born a commoner, she was from a wealthy family; the Princess had said that she wanted to finish her master's degree, if circumstances permitted. She completed her post-graduate studies in psychology between her official duties and received her master's degree in psychology in 1995, she is known for the Deaf in Japan.
She learned Japanese sign language and she is a skilled sign language interpreter. She attends the "Sign Language Speech Contest for High School Students" held every August, "Praising Mothers Raising Children with Hearing Impairments" every December. In October 2008, she participated in the "38th National Deaf Women's Conference." She signs in informal Deaf gatherings. In March 2013, Kiko was granted a PhD degree in Psychology at the Graduate School of Humanities and Sciences, Ochanomizu University, for her thesis entitled "Knowledge, perceptions and behaviors related to tuberculosis: A study based on questionnaire surveys with seminar participants of the National Federation of Community Women's Organizations for TB Control and female college students."While being pregnant with her third child, Kiko was diagnosed with placenta praevia. The princess suffers from carpal tunnel syndrome osteoporosis aggravated by child-nursing, a symptom common among middle-aged women, her doctor said on 14 December 2007.
Since 1997, Prince Akishino and Princess Kiko and their children have maintained a principal residence on the grounds of the Akasaka Estate in Motoakasaka, Tokyo. The couple have two daughters and one son: Princess Mako Princess Kako Prince Hisahito The Prince and Princess are called upon to meet with important overseas visitors to improve diplomatic relations; the Princess was chosen as one of the Young Global Leaders for 2007, drawn from a poll of 4000 candidates. The Prince and Princess have made numerous official visits to foreign countries. In June 2002, they became the first members of the Imperial Family to visit Mongolia, in celebration of the 30th anniversary of diplomatic relations. In October 2002, they visited the Netherlands to attend the funeral of Prince Claus of the Netherlands. In September 2003, the Prince and Princess made goodwill visits to Fiji and Samoa, the first time members of the Imperial Family had visited these countries. In March 2004, the Prince and Pri
The violin, sometimes known as a fiddle, is a wooden string instrument in the violin family. Most violins have a hollow wooden body, it is highest-pitched instrument in the family in regular use. Smaller violin-type instruments exist, including the violino piccolo and the kit violin, but these are unused; the violin has four strings tuned in perfect fifths, is most played by drawing a bow across its strings, though it can be played by plucking the strings with the fingers and by striking the strings with the wooden side of the bow. Violins are important instruments in a wide variety of musical genres, they are most prominent in the Western classical tradition, both in ensembles and as solo instruments and in many varieties of folk music, including country music, bluegrass music and in jazz. Electric violins with solid bodies and piezoelectric pickups are used in some forms of rock music and jazz fusion, with the pickups plugged into instrument amplifiers and speakers to produce sound. Further, the violin has come to be played in many non-Western music cultures, including Indian music and Iranian music.
The name fiddle is used regardless of the type of music played on it. The violin was first known in 16th-century Italy, with some further modifications occurring in the 18th and 19th centuries to give the instrument a more powerful sound and projection. In Europe, it served as the basis for the development of other stringed instruments used in Western classical music, such as the viola. Violinists and collectors prize the fine historical instruments made by the Stradivari, Guarneri and Amati families from the 16th to the 18th century in Brescia and Cremona and by Jacob Stainer in Austria. According to their reputation, the quality of their sound has defied attempts to explain or equal it, though this belief is disputed. Great numbers of instruments have come from the hands of less famous makers, as well as still greater numbers of mass-produced commercial "trade violins" coming from cottage industries in places such as Saxony and Mirecourt. Many of these trade instruments were sold by Sears, Roebuck and Co. and other mass merchandisers.
The parts of a violin are made from different types of wood. Violins can be strung with Perlon or other synthetic, or steel strings. A person who makes or repairs violins is called a violinmaker. One who makes or repairs bows is called an bowmaker; the word "violin" was first used in English in the 1570s. The word "violin" comes from "Italian violino, diminutive of viola"; the term "viola" comes from the expression for "tenor violin" in 1797, from Italian viola, from Old Provençal viola, Medieval Latin vitula" as a term which means "stringed instrument," from Vitula, Roman goddess of joy... or from related Latin verb vitulari, "to exult, be joyful." The related term "Viola da gamba" means "bass viol" is from Italian "a viola for the leg"." A violin is the "modern form of the smaller, medieval viola da braccio." The violin is called a fiddle, either when used in a folk music context, or in Classical music scenes, as an informal nickname for the instrument. The word "fiddle" was first used in English in the late 14th century.
The word "fiddle" comes from "fedele, fidel, earlier fithele, from Old English fiðele "fiddle,", related to Old Norse fiðla, Middle Dutch vedele, Dutch vedel, Old High German fidula, German Fiedel, "a fiddle. As to the origin of the word "fiddle", the "...usual suggestion, based on resemblance in sound and sense, is that it is from Medieval Latin vitula." The earliest stringed instruments were plucked. Two-stringed, bowed instruments, played upright and strung and bowed with horsehair, may have originated in the nomadic equestrian cultures of Central Asia, in forms resembling the modern-day Mongolian Morin huur and the Kazakh Kobyz. Similar and variant types were disseminated along East-West trading routes from Asia into the Middle East, the Byzantine Empire; the direct ancestor of all European bowed instruments is the Arabic rebab, which developed into the Byzantine lyra by the 9th century and the European rebec. The first makers of violins borrowed from various developments of the Byzantine lyra.
These included the lira da braccio. The violin in its present form emerged in early 16th-century northern Italy; the earliest pictures of violins, albeit with three strings, are seen in northern Italy around 1530, at around the same time as the words "violino" and "vyollon" are seen in Italian and French documents. One of the earliest explicit descriptions of the instrument, including its tuning, is from the Epitome musical by Jambe de Fer, published in Lyon in 1556. By this time, the violin had begun to spread throughout Europe; the violin proved popular, both among street musicians and the nobility. One of these "noble" instruments, the Charles IX, is the oldest surviving violin; the finest Renaissance carved and decorated violin in the world is the Gasparo da Salò owned by Ferdinand II, Archduke of Austria and from 1841, by the Norwegian virtuoso Ole Bull, who used it for forty years and thousands of concerts, for i
Emperor of Japan
The Emperor of Japan is the head of the Imperial Family and the head of state of Japan. Under the 1947 constitution, he is defined as "the symbol of the State and of the unity of the people." He was the highest authority of the Shinto religion. In Japanese, the Emperor is called Tennō "heavenly sovereign". In English, the use of the term Mikado for the Emperor was once common, but is now considered obsolete; the Emperor of Japan is the only head of state in the world with the English title of "Emperor". The Imperial House of Japan is the oldest continuing monarchical house in the world; the historical origins of the Emperors lie in the late Kofun period of the 3rd–7th centuries AD, but according to the traditional account of the Kojiki and Nihon Shoki, Japan was founded in 660 BC by Emperor Jimmu, said to be a direct descendant of the sun-goddess Amaterasu. The current Emperor is Akihito, he acceded to the Chrysanthemum Throne upon the death of his father, Emperor Shōwa, in 1989. The Japanese government announced in December 2017 that Akihito will abdicate on 30 April 2019.
The role of the Emperor of Japan has alternated between a ceremonial symbolic role and that of an actual imperial ruler. Since the establishment of the first shogunate in 1199, the Emperors of Japan have taken on a role as supreme battlefield commander, unlike many Western monarchs. Japanese Emperors have nearly always been controlled by external political forces, to varying degrees. In fact, between 1192 and 1867, the shōguns, or their shikken regents in Kamakura, were the de facto rulers of Japan, although they were nominally appointed by the Emperor. After the Meiji Restoration in 1867, the Emperor was the embodiment of all sovereign power in the realm, as enshrined in the Meiji Constitution of 1889. Since the enactment of the 1947 Constitution, he has been a ceremonial head of state without nominal political powers. Since the mid-nineteenth century, the Imperial Palace has been called Kyūjō Kōkyo, is on the former site of Edo Castle in the heart of Tokyo. Earlier, Emperors resided in Kyoto for nearly eleven centuries.
The Emperor's Birthday is a national holiday. Unlike most constitutional monarchs, the Emperor is not the nominal chief executive. Article 65 explicitly vests executive power in the Cabinet, of which the Prime Minister is the leader; the Emperor is not the commander-in-chief of the Japan Self-Defense Forces. The Japan Self-Defense Forces Act of 1954 explicitly vests this role with the Prime Minister; the Emperor's powers are limited only to important ceremonial functions. Article 4 of the Constitution stipulates that the Emperor "shall perform only such acts in matters of state as are provided for in the Constitution and he shall not have powers related to government." It stipulates that "the advice and approval of the Cabinet shall be required for all acts of the Emperor in matters of state". Article 4 states that these duties can be delegated by the Emperor as provided for by law. While the Emperor formally appoints the Prime Minister to office, Article 6 of the Constitution requires him to appoint the candidate "as designated by the Diet", without giving the Emperor the right to decline appointment.
Article 6 of the Constitution delegates the Emperor the following ceremonial roles: Appointment of the Prime Minister as designated by the Diet. Appointment of the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court as designated by the Cabinet; the Emperor's other duties are laid down in article 7 of the Constitution, where it is stated that "the Emperor, with the advice and approval of the Cabinet, shall perform the following acts in matters of state on behalf of the people." In practice, all of these duties are exercised only in accordance with the binding instructions of the Cabinet: Promulgation of amendments of the constitution, cabinet orders, treaties. Convocation of the Diet. Dissolution of the House of Representatives. Proclamation of general election of members of the Diet. Attestation of the appointment and dismissal of Ministers of State and other officials as provided for by law, of full powers and credentials of Ambassadors and Ministers. Attestation of general and special amnesty, commutation of punishment and restoration of rights.
Awarding of honors. Attestation of instruments of ratification and other diplomatic documents as provided for by law. Receiving foreign ambassadors and ministers. Performance of ceremonial functions. Regular ceremonies of the Emperor with a constitutional basis are the Imperial Investitures in the Tokyo Imperial Palace and the Speech from the Throne ceremony in the House of Councillors in the National Diet Building; the latter ceremony opens extra sessions of the Diet. Ordinary sessions are opened each January and after new elections to the House of Representatives. Extra sessions convene in the autumn and are opened then. Although the Emperor has been a symbol of continuity with the past, the degree of power exercised by the Emperor has varied throughout Japanese history. In the early 7th century, the Emperor had begun to be called the "Son of Heaven"; the title of Emperor was borrowed from China, being derived from Chinese characters and was retroactively applied to the legendary Japanese rulers who reigned before the 7th–8th centuries AD.
According to the traditional account of the Nihon Shoki, Japan was founded by Emperor Jimmu in 660 BC. Modern historians agree that the Emperors before the possible late 3rd century AD ruler known traditionally as Emperor Ōjin are legendary. Emperor Ank
Hanako, Princess Hitachi
Hanako, Princess Hitachi, is a member of the Japanese Imperial Family as the wife of Masahito, Prince Hitachi, the younger son of Emperor Shōwa and the only brother of the current emperor, Akihito. She was born at Tsugaru's family home in Tokyo, she is the fourth daughter of Count Yoshitaka Tsugaru, the last representative of the Tsugaru clan and adopted son of the daimyō of the Tsugaru Domain. Yoshitaka Tsugaru was from the Owari branch of the Tokugawa clan, he was a member of the aristocracy created by the Meiji Restoration. Her mother, Hisako Mōri, was a descendant of the Mōri clan and of the former daimyō of Chōshū Domain in the former province of Nagato. Hanako Tsugaru attended the prestigious Gakushūin School for her primary, junior high, high school education, a school for Peers founded to educate the children of the imperial family and the imperial aristocracy, she graduated from the Gakushūin Women's Junior College in 1961. Hanako met Prince Masahito, during her studies at Gakushuin.
The Imperial Household Council announced the engagement of Prince Masahito and Hanako Tsugaru on 28 February 1964 and the engagement ceremony was held on 14 April 1964. The wedding ceremony took place on 30 September 1964. Upon marriage, Prince Masahito received the title Prince Hitachi and authorization from the Imperial Household Economy Council to form a new branch of the Imperial Family; as tradition dictates, upon her entry into the imperial family and like other members, she received a personal emblem: rhododendron. They have no children. Since December 1976, Prince Hitachi and Princess Hitachi have their official residence in a palace in large grounds off Komazawadori in Higashi in the district of Shibuya in Tokyo. Princess Hitachi, like her husband, was elected on 5 September 2007 by the other members of the imperial family to be one of their main representatives to the Imperial Household Council as a member. Both the members and reserve members, including Princess Hitachi, were re-elected on 7 September 2011.
In 2017, the Princess was diagnosed with lumbar spondylosis and was hospitalized in September for further treatments. She made her first public appearance in April 2018, it was her first public engagement in 11 months. Princess Hitachi is president of various organizations that concern themselves with welfare and the arts, she has translated various children's books from English into Japanese. Princess Hitachi has translated various children books from English into Japanese; the Eighty-Ninth Kitten by Eleanor Nilsson The Most Obedient Dog in the World, by Anita Jeram It was Jake, by Anita Jeram A Guide Dog Puppy Grows Up, by Caroline Arnold Hanako is styled as Her Imperial Highness The Princess Hitachi. Prior to her marriage on 30 September 1964, she was styled as "Lady Hanako Tsugaru". Japan: Grand Cordon of the Order of the Precious Crown. Japan: Dame of the Decoration of the Red Cross. Japan: Recipient of the Red Cross Medal. Nepal: Member of the Order of Ojaswi Rajanya. Member of the Imperial House Council Honorary President of the Japan Ikebana Art Association Honorary President of the Japan Animal Welfare Society Honorary President of the Japan Equestrian Federation Honorary President of the Nippon-Latin American Ladies' Association Honorary Vice-President of the Japanese Red Cross Society On both sides of her family, Princess Hitachi is descended from the old feudal aristocracy.
She is a second cousin once removed of the late Kikuko, Princess Takamatsu who was, as were both Princess Hitachi's parents, a descendant of the Tokugawa clan of Mito. She is a second cousin to Takamasa Ikeda, former head of the Ikeda clan and husband of her sister-in-law, Atsuko Ikeda; the late Setsuko, Princess Chichibu was a descendant of the Mito-Tokugawa line, was her fourth cousin once removed. Prince and Princess Hitachi are cousins several times over, but are most directly fifth cousins through their descent from the Ōgimachisanjō clan; as a result, Princess Hitachi is a fifth cousin of the present Emperor and his siblings. and both a fourth cousin and a fifth cousin of Yuriko, Princess Mikasa. Their Imperial Highnesses Prince and Princess Hitachi at the Imperial Household Agency website
Prime Minister of Japan
The Prime Minister of Japan is the head of government of Japan. The Prime Minister is appointed by the Emperor of Japan after being designated by the National Diet and must enjoy the confidence of the House of Representatives to remain in office, he dismisses the other Ministers of State. The literal translation of the Japanese name for the office is Minister for the Comprehensive Administration of the Cabinet. Before the adoption of the Meiji Constitution, Japan had in practice no written constitution. A Chinese-inspired legal system known as ritsuryō was enacted in the late Asuka period and early Nara period, it described a government based on an elaborate and rational meritocratic bureaucracy, serving, in theory, under the ultimate authority of the Emperor. Theoretically, the last ritsuryō code, the Yōrō Code enacted in 752, was still in force at the time of the Meiji Restoration. Under this system, the Daijō-daijin was the head of the Daijō-kan, the highest organ of Japan's pre-modern Imperial government during the Heian period and until under the Meiji Constitution with the appointment of Sanjō Sanetomi in 1871.
The office was replaced in 1885 with the appointment of Itō Hirobumi to the new position of Prime Minister, four years before the enactment of the Meiji Constitution, which mentions neither the Cabinet nor the position of Prime Minister explicitly. It took its current form with the adoption of the Constitution of Japan in 1947. To date, 62 people have served this position; the current Prime Minister is Shinzō Abe, who re-took office on December 26, 2012. He is the first former Prime Minister to return to office since 1948, the 4th longest serving Prime Minister to date; the Prime Minister is designated by both houses of the Diet, before the conduct of any other business. For that purpose, each conducts a ballot under the run-off system. If the two houses choose different individuals a joint committee of both houses is appointed to agree on a common candidate. However, if the two houses do not agree within ten days, the decision of the House of Representatives is deemed to be that of the Diet. Therefore, the House of Representatives can theoretically ensure the appointment of any Prime Minister it wants.
The candidate is presented with his or her commission, formally appointed to office by the Emperor. In practice, the Prime Minister is always the leader of the majority party in the House of Representatives, or the leader of the senior partner in the governing coalition. Must be a member of either house of the Diet. Must be a "civilian"; this excludes serving members of the Japan Self-Defense Forces. Former military persons may be appointed prime minister despite the "civilian" requirement, Yasuhiro Nakasone being one prominent example. Exercises "control and supervision" over the entire executive branch. Presents bills to the Diet on behalf of the Cabinet. Signs laws and Cabinet orders. Appoints all Cabinet ministers, can dismiss them at any time. May permit legal action to be taken against Cabinet ministers. Must make reports on foreign relations to the Diet. Must report to the Diet upon demand to provide explanations. May advise the Emperor to dissolve the Diet's House of Representatives. Presides over meetings of the Cabinet.
Commander-in-chief of the Japan Self-Defense Forces. May override a court injunction against an administrative act upon showing of cause. In most other constitutional monarchies, the monarch is nominal chief executive, while being bound by convention to act on the advice of the cabinet. In contrast, the Constitution of Japan explicitly vests executive power in the Cabinet, of which the Prime Minister is the leader, his signature is required for Cabinet orders. While most ministers in parliamentary democracies have some freedom of action within the bounds of cabinet collective responsibility, the Japanese Cabinet is an extension of the Prime Minister's authority. Located near the Diet building, the Office of the Prime Minister of Japan is called the Kantei; the original Kantei served from 1929 until 2002, when a new building was inaugurated to serve as the current Kantei. The old Kantei was converted into the Official Residence, or Kōtei; the Kōtei lies to the southwest of the Kantei, is linked by a walkway.
The Prime Minister of Japan travels in a Lexus LS 600h L, the official transport for the head of government, or an unmodified Toyota Century escorted by a police motorcade of numerous Toyota Celsiors. For long distance air travel, Japan maintains two Boeing 747-400 aircraft for the Prime Minister of Japan, the Emperor and other members of the Imperial Family, operated by the Japan Air Self-Defense Force, they have the radio callsigns Japanese Air Force One and Japanese Air Force Two when operating on official business, Cygnus One and Cygnus Two when operating outside of official business. The aircraft always fly together on government missions, with one serving as the primary transport and the other serving as a backup with maintenance personnel on board; the aircraft are referred to as Japanese government exclusive aircraft. The aircraft were constructed at the Boeing factory at the same time as the U. S. Air Force One VC-25s, though the U. S. aircraft wer
The Chrysanthemum Throne is the throne of the Emperor of Japan. The term can refer to specific seating, such as the Takamikura throne in the Shishin-den at Kyoto Imperial Palace. Various other thrones or seats that are used by the Emperor during official functions, such as those used in the Tokyo Imperial Palace or the throne used in the Speech from the Throne ceremony in the National Diet, however, not known as the "Chrysanthemum Throne". In a metonymic sense, the "Chrysanthemum Throne" refers rhetorically to the head of state and the institution of the Japanese monarchy itself. Japan is the oldest continuing hereditary monarchy in the world. In much the same sense as the British Crown, the Chrysanthemum Throne is an abstract metonymic concept that represents the monarch and the legal authority for the existence of the government. Unlike its British counterpart, the concepts of Japanese monarchy evolved differently before 1947 when there was, for example, no perceived separation of the property of the nation-state from the person and personal holdings of the Emperor.
According to legend, the Japanese monarchy is said to have been founded in 660 BC by Emperor Jimmu. The extant historical records only reach back to Emperor Ōjin, considered to have reigned into the early 4th century. In the 1920s, then-Crown Prince Hirohito served as regent during several years of his father's reign, when Emperor Taishō was physically unable to fulfill his duties. However, the Prince Regent lacked the symbolic powers of the throne which he could only attain after his father's death; the current Constitution of Japan considers the Emperor as "the symbol of the State and of the unity of the people." The modern Emperor is a constitutional monarch. The metonymic meanings of "Chrysanthemum Throne" encompass the modern monarchy and the chronological list of legendary and historical monarchs of Japan; the actual throne Takamikura is located in the Kyoto Imperial Palace. It is the oldest surviving throne used by the monarchy, it sits on 5 metres above the floor. It is separated from the rest of the room by a curtain.
The sliding door that hides the Emperor from view is called the kenjō no shōji, has an image of 32 celestial saints painted upon it, which became one of the primary models for all of Heian period painting. The throne is used for the enthronement ceremony, along with the twin throne michodai; this flexible English term is a rhetorical trope. Depending on context, the Chrysanthemum Throne can be construed as a metonymy, a rhetorical device for an allusion relying on proximity or correspondence, as for example referring to actions of the Emperor or as "actions of the Chrysanthemum Throne." The Chrysanthemum throne is understood as a synecdoche, related to metonymy and metaphor in suggesting a play on words by identifying a related conceptualization, e.g. referring to a part with the name of the whole, such as "Chrysanthemum Throne" for the mystic process of transferring Imperial authority—as in:December 18, 876: In the 18th year of Emperor Seiwa's reign, he ceded the Chrysanthemum Throne to his son, which meant that the young child received the succession.
Shortly thereafter, Emperor Yōzei is said to have formally acceded to the throne.referring to the whole with the name of a part, such as "Chrysanthemum Throne" for the serial symbols and ceremonies of enthronement—as in:January 20, 877 Yōzei was formally installed on the Chrysanthemum Throne. During the State Visit in 2007 of the Emperor and Empress of Japan to the United Kingdom, the Times reported that "last night’s dinner was as informal as it could get when the House of Windsor entertains the Chrysanthemum Throne." Order of the Chrysanthemum List of Emperors of Japan Imperial Regalia of Japan National seals of Japan Imperial House of Japan National emblem Dragon Throne of the Emperors of China Throne of England and the Kings of England Phoenix Throne of the Kings of Korea Lion Throne of the Dalai Lama of Tibet Peacock Throne of the Mughal Empire Sun Throne of the Persian Empire and Iran Silver Throne - the Throne of Sweden The Lion Throne of Myanmar Aston, William George.. Nihongi: Chronicles of Japan from the Earliest Times to A.
D. 697. London: Kegan Paul, Trubner. Brown, Delmer M. and Ichirō Ishida, eds.. Gukanshō. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-03460-0 Martin, Peter.. The Chrysanthemum Throne: A History of the Emperors of Japan. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-2029-9 McLaren, Walter Wallace.. A Political History of Japan During the Meiji Era, 1867-1912. London: G. Allen & Unwin. OCLC 2371314 Ponsonby-Fane, Richard.. The Imperial House of Japan. Kyoto: Ponsonby Memorial Society. OCLC 194887 Post and Robert S. Robins; when Illness Strikes the Leader. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-06314-1 Titsingh, Isaac.. Nihon Odai Ichiran.
Hisako, Princess Takamado
Hisako, Princess Takamado, is a member of the Japanese Imperial Family as the widow of Norihito, Prince Takamado. Hisako was born in 10 July 1953 in Tokyo, she is the eldest daughter of Japanese industrialist Shigejiro Tottori. Hisako accompanied her father to England, where he was transferred for work, while still a child became fluent in the English language, she subsequently graduated from Girton College, Cambridge University in the UK in 1975 with undergraduate degrees in anthropology and archaeology. On her return to Japan, she obtained a position working for a translation company, but soon returned to England to learn about legal terminology used in statutes, she returned to Japan again in 1982. After her return, she was hired to assist Prince Mikasa as an interpreter and assistant at the 31st International Asian-North African Cultural Symposium. Princess Takamado received a PhD in arts from the Osaka University of Arts in February 2012. On 23 April 1984, she attended a reception hosted by the Embassy of Canada in Tokyo, where she first met Norihito, Prince Takamado.
He proposed on 20 May and the Imperial Household Council announced the engagement on 1 August 1984. The formal engagement ceremony made on 17 September 1984, the wedding held on 6 December 1984; the Prince and Princess had three daughters: Princess Tsuguko Princess Noriko. Princess Ayako. Prince and Princess Takamado were the most traveled couple in the Japanese Imperial Family, visiting 35 countries together in 15 years to represent Japan on various functions; the Prince’s last visits included Egypt and Morocco in May 2000, Hawaii in July 2001, to the Republic of Korea from May to June 2002. The latter was; the goodwill visit by the Prince and Princess to Korea was the first Japanese royal visit since World War II, was an important step in the promotion of friendly bilateral relations between Japan and Korea. While in Korea, the couple toured the country extensively, met with President Kim Dae-jung and ordinary Koreans, he visited the facilities for the physically disabled in South Korea that the Princess Masako Nashimoto had sponsored.
Prince Takamado died of ventricular fibrillation while playing squash with the Canadian ambassador, Robert G. Wright, at the Canadian Embassy, leaving a widow and three young daughters. Since the Prince’s death, Princess Takamado has been active in a large number of charitable organizations involving sports, cultural exchange and the environment, taking on all of the posts held by her late husband, as well as numerous new posts. In June 2003, she visited Ireland for the 2003 Special Olympics World Summer Games. In June 2004, she made an official visit to Canada, traveling extensively across the nation as part of the 75th Anniversary of the formal diplomatic relations between Canada and Japan. During this visit, she received two honorary doctorates in Law, one from the University of Alberta and the other from the University of Prince Edward Island. In November 2004, she visited Bangkok, Thailand, to attend the 3rd IUCN World Conference as Honorary President of BirdLife International. In March 2004, the Princess was elected to succeed Queen Noor of Jordan as Honorary President of BirdLife International.
She visited Montevideo, Uruguay in 2008, Buenos Aires, Argentina for the Birdlife World Conservation Conference. During this visit, she attended special high goal polo exhibition played by the Novillo Astrada brothers in her honor at the La Aguada Polo Club. In June 2005, she visited Germany to attend the 2005 FIFA Confederations Cup, attending matches between Germany against Argentina, Japan against Brazil. Afterwards, she visited Jordan to attend the royal wedding of Princess Badiya bint El Hassan. In November of the same year, returned to England for the Global Council Meeting of BirdLife International. In January 2006, she returned to Canada to attend the opening of the "Prince Takamado Gallery of Japan" at the Royal Ontario Museum, she returned to Germany that year in order to attend the 2006 FIFA World Cup. In June 2013, she visited Sweden to attend the wedding of Princess Madeleine of Sweden and Christopher O'Neill. On 18 June 2014, Princess Hisako departed for Federative Republic of Brazil, Republic of Colombia and French Republic.
In Brazil, she watched the World Cup soccer game as the honorary president of Japan Football Association. In Colombia, she visited Colombian Football Federation. In France, she attended the event of International Kyudo Federation as the honorary president of the federation, she came back to Japan on 24 June. The Princess is the author of two children's books published in English. Since November 2002, with the death of Prince Takamado, the princess has served as the Honorary President of the Prince Takamado Trophy, All Japan-Middle School English Oratorical Contest. Since he