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Narwhal

The narwhal, or narwhale, is a medium-sized toothed whale that possesses a large "tusk" from a protruding canine tooth. It lives year-round in the Arctic waters around Greenland and Russia, it is one of two living species of whale in the family Monodontidae, along with the beluga whale. The narwhal males are distinguished by a long, helical tusk, an elongated upper left canine; the narwhal was one of many species described by Carl Linnaeus in his publication Systema Naturae in 1758. Like the beluga, narwhals are medium-sized whales. For both sexes, excluding the male's tusk, the total body size can range from 3.95 to 5.5 m. The average weight of an adult narwhal is 800 to 1,600 kg. At around 11 to 13 years old, the males become sexually mature. Narwhals do not have a dorsal fin, their neck vertebrae are jointed like those of most other mammals, not fused as in dolphins and most whales. Found in Canadian Arctic and Greenlandic and Russian waters, the narwhal is a uniquely specialized Arctic predator.

In winter, it feeds on benthic prey flatfish, under dense pack ice. During the summer, narwhals eat Arctic cod and Greenland halibut, with other fish such as polar cod making up the remainder of their diet; each year, they migrate from bays into the ocean. In the winter, the male narwhals dive up to 1,500 m in depth, with dives lasting up to 25 minutes. Narwhals, like most toothed whales, communicate with "clicks", "whistles", "knocks". Narwhals can live up to 50 years, they are killed by suffocation after being trapped due to the formation of sea ice. Other causes of death among young whales, are starvation and predation by orcas; as previous estimates of the world narwhal population were below 50,000, narwhals are categorized by the International Union for Conservation of Nature as Nearly Threatened. More recent estimates list higher populations, thus lowering the status to Least Concern. Narwhals have been harvested for hundreds of years by Inuit people in northern Canada and Greenland for meat and ivory, a regulated subsistence hunt continues.

The narwhal was one of the many species described by Linnaeus in his Systema Naturae. Its name is derived from the Old Norse word nár, meaning "corpse", in reference to the animal's greyish, mottled pigmentation, like that of a drowned sailor and its summer-time habit of lying still at or near the surface of the sea; the scientific name, Monodon monoceros, is derived from the Greek: "one-tooth one-horn". The narwhal is most related to the beluga whale. Together, these two species comprise the only extant members of the family Monodontidae, sometimes referred to as the "white whales"; the Monodontidae are distinguished by their medium size, pronounced melons, short snouts, the absence of a true dorsal fin. Although the narwhal and the beluga are classified as separate genera, with one species each, there is some evidence that they may rarely, interbreed; the complete skull of an anomalous whale was discovered in West Greenland circa 1990. It was described by marine zoologists as unlike any known species, but with features midway between a narwhal and a beluga, consistent with the hypothesis that the anomalous whale was a narwhal-beluga hybrid.

The white whales and porpoises together comprise the superfamily Delphinoidea, which are of monophyletic origin. Genetic evidence suggests the porpoises are more related to the white whales, that these two families constitute a separate clade which diverged from the rest of Delphinoidea within the past 11 million years. Fossil evidence shows, they may have migrated to Arctic and sub-Arctic waters in response to changes in the marine food chain during the Pliocene. Narwhals are medium-sized whales, are around the same size as beluga whales. Total length in both sexes, excluding the tusk of the male, can range from 3.95 to 5.5 m. Males, at an average length of 4.1 m, are larger than females, with an average length of 3.5 m. Typical adult body weight ranges from 800 to 1,600 kg. Male narwhals attain sexual maturity at 11 to 13 years of age. Females become sexually mature at a younger age, between 5 and 8 years old, when they are around 3.4 m long. The pigmentation of narwhals is a mottled pattern, with blackish-brown markings over a white background.

They are darkest when become whiter with age. Old males may be pure white. Narwhals do not have a dorsal fin an evolutionary adaptation to swimming under ice, their neck vertebrae are jointed, like those of land mammals, instead of being fused together as in most whales, allowing a great range of neck flexibility. Both these characteristics are shared by the beluga whale; the tail flukes of female narwhals have front edges that are swept back, those of males have front edges that are more concave and lack a sweep-back. This is thought to be an adaptation for reducing drag caused by the tusk; the most conspicuous characteristic of the male narwhal is a single long tusk, in fact a canine tooth that projects from the left side of the upper jaw, through the lip, forms a left-handed helix spiral. The tusk grows throughout life, reaching a length of about 1.5 to 3.1

List of UK Albums Chart number ones of the 1990s

The UK Albums Chart is a weekly record chart based on album sales from Sunday to Saturday in the United Kingdom. Until 1 February 1994, the chart was compiled each week by Gallup – after this date, it was managed by Millward Brown, who expanded the number of sales figures sampled, extended the use of electronic point of sale machines. From July 1998 onwards, compilation of the chart was overseen by the Chart Information Network, jointly operated by the British Phonographic Industry and the British Association of Record Dealers. Throughout the decade, the chart was based on physical album sales, each week's number one was first announced on Sunday evenings on The Radio 1 Chart Show; the most successful artist of the 1990s was British band Simply Red, who topped the UK Albums Chart for 19 weeks with four different albums. Stars, their fourth studio album, sold 3.29 million copies in total, was the biggest-selling album of both 1991 and 1992. Stars was the second biggest-selling album of the decade.

It was the highest-certified album of the 1990s, achieving platinum certification 13 times. Following the album's success, Oasis's follow-up, Be Here Now, sold 663,000 copies in the first four days of its release, making it the fastest-selling album in UK chart history; the first number-one album of the 1990s was... But Seriously by Phil Collins – released in 1989... But Seriously first reached number one in December of that year, remained at the top for eight weeks, it stayed at number one for nine weeks during the decade, was the biggest-selling album of 1990. The final number one of the 1990s was Come On Over by Shania Twain. Like... But Seriously, Come On Over remained at number one into the following decade, was the biggest-selling album of its year. In chart terms, the most successful album of the nineties was Spice, the debut album from the Spice Girls, which spent 15 weeks at number one over five separate runs; the Spice Girls' record label, Virgin Records, was the most successful label of the decade – with an artist roster that included the Spice Girls, Phil Collins and Meat Loaf, Virgin topped the albums chart with 19 different albums for a total of 62 weeks.

Eight artists spent 12 weeks or more at number one on the album chart during the 1990s. Six record labels spent 20 weeks or more at number one on the album chart during the 1990s. In the UK, Christmas number one albums are those that are at the top of the UK Albums Chart on Christmas Day; this will refer to the album, announced as number one on the Sunday before 25 December—when Christmas Day falls on a Sunday itself, the official number one is considered by the OCC to be the one announced on that day's chart. During the 1990s, the following albums were Christmas number ones. "Official UK Albums Top 100 at the Official Charts Company". Archived from the original on 27 March 2013. Retrieved 6 April 2012; the Official UK Top 40 Albums Chart at BBC Radio 1

Fernando Verdasco career statistics

This is a list of the main career statistics of Spanish professional tennis player, Fernando Verdasco. To date, Verdasco has won seven ATP singles titles, with his biggest title coming at the 2010 Barcelona Open Banco Sabadell. Other highlights of Verdasco's career include reaching the final of the 2010 Monte-Carlo Rolex Masters. Verdasco is a successful doubles player, winning seven ATP doubles titles including one year-end championship at the 2013 ATP World Tour Finals with David Marrero, reaching six grand slam doubles quarterfinals at the Australian Open, French Open and US Open between 2004 and 2014, he was part of the Spanish teams which won the Davis Cup in 2008, 2009 and 2011 and the Hopman Cup in 2013. Verdasco achieved career high singles and doubles rankings of World No. 7 and World No. 8 on April 20, 2009 and November 11, 2013. Verdasco played with La Armada for seven straight years from 2005 to 2011, winning the trophy in 2008 and 2009, as well as in 2011. Current through the 2020 Rio Open.

1Madrid was played in the fall on indoor hard courts until 2008. In 2009 it switched to outdoor clay in the spring, he has a 28–106 record against players who were, at the time the match was played, ranked in the top 10. * Statistics correct as of 20 January 2020