New York Stock Exchange
The New York Stock Exchange is an American stock exchange located at 11 Wall Street, Lower Manhattan, New York City, New York. It is by far the world's largest stock exchange by market capitalization of its listed companies at US$30.1 trillion as of February 2018. The average daily trading value was US$169 billion in 2013; the NYSE trading floor is located at 11 Wall Street and is composed of 21 rooms used for the facilitation of trading. A fifth trading room, located at 30 Broad Street, was closed in February 2007; the main building and the 11 Wall Street building were designated National Historic Landmarks in 1978. The NYSE is owned by Intercontinental Exchange, an American holding company that it lists, it was part of NYSE Euronext, formed by the NYSE's 2007 merger with Euronext. The NYSE has been the subject of several lawsuits regarding fraud or breach of duty and in 2004 was sued by its former CEO for breach of contract and defamation; the earliest recorded organization of securities trading in New York among brokers directly dealing with each other can be traced to the Buttonwood Agreement.
Securities exchange had been intermediated by the auctioneers who conducted more mundane auctions of commodities such as wheat and tobacco. On May 17, 1792 twenty four brokers signed the Buttonwood Agreement which set a floor commission rate charged to clients and bound the signers to give preference to the other signers in securities sales; the earliest securities traded were governmental securities such as War Bonds from the Revolutionary War and First Bank of the United States stock, although Bank of New York stock was a non-governmental security traded in the early days. The Bank of North America along with the First Bank of the United States and the Bank of New York were the first shares traded on the New York Stock Exchange. In 1817 the stockbrokers of New York operating under the Buttonwood Agreement instituted new reforms and reorganized. After sending a delegation to Philadelphia to observe the organization of their board of brokers, restrictions on manipulative trading were adopted as well as formal organs of governance.
After re-forming as the New York Stock and Exchange Board the broker organization began renting out space for securities trading, taking place at the Tontine Coffee House. Several locations were used between 1865, when the present location was adopted; the invention of the electrical telegraph consolidated markets, New York's market rose to dominance over Philadelphia after weathering some market panics better than other alternatives. The Open Board of Stock Brokers was established in 1864 as a competitor to the NYSE. With 354 members, the Open Board of Stock Brokers rivaled the NYSE in membership "because it used a more modern, continuous trading system superior to the NYSE’s twice-daily call sessions." The Open Board of Stock Brokers merged with the NYSE in 1869. Robert Wright of Bloomberg writes that the merger increased the NYSE's members as well as trading volume, as "several dozen regional exchanges were competing with the NYSE for customers. Buyers and dealers all wanted to complete transactions as and cheaply as technologically possible and that meant finding the markets with the most trading, or the greatest liquidity in today’s parlance.
Minimizing competition was essential to keep a large number of orders flowing, the merger helped the NYSE to maintain its reputation for providing superior liquidity." The Civil War stimulated speculative securities trading in New York. By 1869 membership had to be capped, has been sporadically increased since; the latter half of the nineteenth century saw rapid growth in securities trading. Securities trade in the latter nineteenth and early twentieth centuries was prone to panics and crashes. Government regulation of securities trading was seen as necessary, with arguably the most dramatic changes occurring in the 1930s after a major stock market crash precipitated the Great Depression; the Stock Exchange Luncheon Club was situated on the seventh floor from 1898 until its closure in 2006. The main building, located at 18 Broad Street, between the corners of Wall Street and Exchange Place, was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1978, as was the 11 Wall Street building; the NYSE announced its plans to merge with Archipelago on April 21, 2005, in a deal intended to reorganize the NYSE as a publicly traded company.
NYSE's governing board voted to merge with rival Archipelago on December 6, 2005, became a for-profit, public company. It began trading under the name NYSE Group on March 8, 2006. A little over one year on April 4, 2007, the NYSE Group completed its merger with Euronext, the European combined stock market, thus forming NYSE Euronext, the first transatlantic stock exchange. Wall Street is the leading US money center for international financial activities and the foremost US location for the conduct of wholesale financial services. "It comprises a matrix of wholesale financial sectors, financial markets, financial institutions, financial industry firms". The principal sectors are securities industry, commercial banking, asset management, insurance. Prior to the acquisition of NYSE Euronext by the ICE in 2013, Marsh Carter was the Chairman of the NYSE and the CEO was Duncan Niederauer. Presently, the chairman is Jeffrey Sprecher. In 2016, NYSE owner Intercontinental Exchange Inc. earned $419 million in listings-related revenues.
The exchange was closed shortly after the beginning of World War I, but it re-opened on November 28 of that year in order to help the war effort by trading bonds, reopened for stock tradin
A public company, publicly traded company, publicly held company, publicly listed company, or public limited company is a corporation whose ownership is dispersed among the general public in many shares of stock which are traded on a stock exchange or in over the counter markets. In some jurisdictions, public companies over a certain size must be listed on an exchange. A public company can be unlisted. Public companies are formed within the legal systems of particular nations, therefore have national associations and formal designations which are distinct and separate. For example one of the main public company forms in the United States is called a limited liability company, in France is called a "society of limited responsibility", in Britain a public limited company, in Germany a company with limited liability. While the general idea of a public company may be similar, differences are meaningful, are at the core of international law disputes with regard to industry and trade. In the early modern period, the Dutch developed several financial instruments and helped lay the foundations of modern financial system.
The Dutch East India Company became the first company in history to issue bonds and shares of stock to the general public. In other words, the VOC was the first publicly traded company, because it was the first company to be actually listed on an official stock exchange. While the Italian city-states produced the first transferable government bonds, they did not develop the other ingredient necessary to produce a fledged capital market: corporate shareholders; as Edward Stringham notes, "companies with transferable shares date back to classical Rome, but these were not enduring endeavors and no considerable secondary market existed." The securities of a publicly traded company are owned by many investors while the shares of a held company are owned by few shareholders. A company with many shareholders is not a publicly traded company. In the United States, in some instances, companies with over 500 shareholders may be required to report under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. Public companies possess some advantages over held businesses.
Publicly traded companies are able to raise funds and capital through the sale of shares of stock. This is the reason publicly traded corporations are important; the profit on stock is gained in form of capital gain to the holders. The financial media and the public are able to access additional information about the business, since the business is legally bound, motivated, to publicly disseminate information regarding the financial status and future of the company to its many shareholders and the government; because many people have a vested interest in the company's success, the company may be more popular or recognizable than a private company. The initial shareholders of the company are able to share risk by selling shares to the public. If one were to hold a 100% share of the company, he or she would have to pay all of the business's debt; this increases asset liquidity and the company does not need to depend on funding from a bank. For example, in 2013 Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg owned 29.3% of the company's class A shares, which gave him enough voting power to control the business, while allowing Facebook to raise capital from, distribute risk to, the remaining shareholders.
Facebook was a held company prior to its initial public offering in 2012. If some shares are given to managers or other employees, potential conflicts of interest between employees and shareholders will be remitted; as an example, in many tech companies, entry-level software engineers are given stock in the company upon being hired. Therefore, the engineers have a vested interest in the company succeeding financially, are incentivized to work harder and more diligently to ensure that success. Many stock exchanges require that publicly traded companies have their accounts audited by outside auditors, publish the accounts to their shareholders. Besides the cost, this may make useful information available to competitors. Various other annual and quarterly reports are required by law. In the United States, the Sarbanes–Oxley Act imposes additional requirements; the requirement for audited books is not imposed by the exchange known as OTC Pink. The shares may be maliciously held by outside shareholders and the original founders or owners may lose benefits and control.
The principal-agent problem, or the agency problem is a key weakness of public companies. The separation of a company's ownership and control is prevalent in such countries as U. K and U. S. In the United States, the Securities and Exchange Commission requires that firms whose stock is traded publicly report their major shareholders each year; the reports identify all institutional shareholders, all company officials who own shares in their firm, any individual or institution owning more than 5% of the firm's stock. For many years, newly created companies were held but held initial
Extended-hours trading is stock trading that happens either before or after the trading day of a stock exchange, i.e. pre-market trading or after-hours trading. After-hours trading is the name for buying and selling of securities when the major markets are closed. Since 1985, the regular trading hours for major exchanges in the United States, such as the New York Stock Exchange and the Nasdaq Stock Market, have been from 9:30 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. Eastern Time. Pre-market trading occurs from 4:00 a.m. to 9:30 a.m. ET, although the majority of the volume and liquidity come to the pre-market at 8:00AM ET. After-hours trading on a day with a normal session occurs from 4:00 p.m. to 8:00 p.m. ET. Market makers and specialists do not participate in after hours trading, which can limit liquidity. Trading outside regular hours is not a new phenomenon but used to be limited to high-net-worth investors and institutional investors like mutual funds; the emergence of private trading systems, known as electronic communication networks, has allowed individual investors to participate in after-hours trading.
Financial Industry Regulatory Authority members who voluntarily enter quotations during the after-hours session are required to comply with all applicable limit order protection and display rules. Trading day Electronic trading platform List of market opening times List of stock exchanges "Trade After-Hours". Invest FAQ; this article incorporates public domain material from the United States Government document "https://www.sec.gov/investor/pubs/afterhours.htm"
A stock exchange, securities exchange or bourse, is a facility where stock brokers and traders can buy and sell securities, such as shares of stock and bonds and other financial instruments. Stock exchanges may provide for facilities the issue and redemption of such securities and instruments and capital events including the payment of income and dividends. Securities traded on a stock exchange include stock issued by listed companies, unit trusts, pooled investment products and bonds. Stock exchanges function as "continuous auction" markets with buyers and sellers consummating transactions via open outcry at a central location such as the floor of the exchange or by using an electronic trading platform. To be able to trade a security on a certain stock exchange, the security must be listed there. There is a central location at least for record keeping, but trade is less linked to a physical place, as modern markets use electronic communication networks, which give them advantages of increased speed and reduced cost of transactions.
Trade on an exchange is restricted to brokers. In recent years, various other trading venues, such as electronic communication networks, alternative trading systems and "dark pools" have taken much of the trading activity away from traditional stock exchanges. Initial public offerings of stocks and bonds to investors is done in the primary market and subsequent trading is done in the secondary market. A stock exchange is the most important component of a stock market. Supply and demand in stock markets are driven by various factors that, as in all free markets, affect the price of stocks. There is no obligation for stock to be issued through the stock exchange itself, nor must stock be subsequently traded on an exchange; such trading may be off over-the-counter. This is the usual way that bonds are traded. Stock exchanges are part of a global securities market. Stock exchanges serve an economic function in providing liquidity to shareholders in providing an efficient means of disposing of shares.
The idea of debt dates back to the ancient world, as evidenced for example by ancient Mesopotamian city clay tablets recording interest-bearing loans. There is little consensus among scholars as to; some see the key event as the Dutch East India Company's founding in 1602, while others point to earlier developments. Economist Ulrike Malmendier of the University of California at Berkeley argues that a share market existed as far back as ancient Rome. One of Europe's oldest stock exchanges is the Frankfurt Stock Exchange established in 1585 in Frankfurt am Main. In the Roman Republic, which existed for centuries before the Empire was founded, there were societates publicanorum, organizations of contractors or leaseholders who performed temple-building and other services for the government. One such service was the feeding of geese on the Capitoline Hill as a reward to the birds after their honking warned of a Gallic invasion in 390 B. C. Participants in such organizations had partes or shares, a concept mentioned various times by the statesman and orator Cicero.
In one speech, Cicero mentions "shares that had a high price at the time". Such evidence, in Malmendier's view, suggests the instruments were tradable, with fluctuating values based on an organization's success; the societas declined into obscurity in the time of the emperors, as most of their services were taken over by direct agents of the state. Tradable bonds as a used type of security were a more recent innovation, spearheaded by the Italian city-states of the late medieval and early Renaissance periods. While the Italian city-states produced the first transferable government bonds, they did not develop the other ingredient necessary to produce a fully-fledged capital market: the stock market in its modern sense. In the early 1600s the Dutch East India Company became the first company in history to issue bonds and shares of stock to the general public; as Edward Stringham notes, "companies with transferable shares date back to classical Rome, but these were not enduring endeavors and no considerable secondary market existed."
The VOC, formed to build up the spice trade, operated as a colonial ruler in what is now Indonesia and beyond, a purview that included conducting military operations against the wishes of the exploited natives and of competing colonial powers. Control of the company was held by its directors, with ordinary shareholders not having much influence on management or access to the company's accounting statements. However, shareholders were rewarded well for their investment; the company paid an average dividend of over 16% per year from 1602 to 1650. Financial innovation in Amsterdam took many forms. In 1609, investors led by Isaac Le Maire formed history's first bear market syndicate, but their coordinated trading had only a modest impact in driving down share prices, which tended to remain robust throughout the 17th century. By the 1620s, the company was expanding its securities issuance with the first use of corporate bonds. Joseph de la Vega known as Joseph Penso de la Vega and by other variations of his name, was an Amsterdam trader from a Spanish Jewish family and a prolific writer as well as a successful businessman in 17th-century Amsterdam.
His 1688 book Confusion of Confusions explained the workings of the city's stock market. It was the earliest book about stock trading and inner workings of a stock market, taking the form of a dialogue between a merchant, a shareholder and a philosopher, the book described a market, sophisticated but prone to excesses, de la Vega of
Adena T. Friedman is an American businessperson, she serves as the president and CEO of Nasdaq. She was the managing director and CFO of The Carlyle Group. In May 2014, it was announced that Friedman would return to NASDAQ OMX as the president of global corporate and information technology solutions. In November 2016, she was named the CEO of NASDAQ. Born Adena Robinson Testa and raised in metropolitan Baltimore, she is the daughter of Michael D. Testa, a managing director at T. Rowe Price, Adena W. Testa, an attorney in the Baltimore law firm of Stewart, Plant & Blumenthal, she attended Roland Park Country School. She earned a BA in political science from Williams College and an MBA from Vanderbilt University's Owen Graduate School of Management; as of 2017, she is listed as the 31st most powerful woman in the world by Forbes. Friedman became CEO on January 1, 2017 of the Nasdaq making her the first woman to lead a global exchange company. In 1993, she married Michael Cameron Friedman in a Presbyterian ceremony in New Hampshire.
They have two sons. She has a black belt in taekwondo
Deutsche Börse AG or the Deutsche Börse Group, is a marketplace organizer for the trading of shares and other securities. It is a transaction services provider, it gives investors access to global capital markets. It is a joint stock company and was founded in 1993; the headquarters are in Frankfurt. As of December 2010, the over 765 companies listed had a combined market capitalization of EUR 1.4 trillion. On 1 October 2014, Deutsche Börse AG became the 14th announced member of the United Nations Sustainable Stock Exchanges initiative. More than 3,200 employees service customers in Europe, the United States, Asia. Deutsche Börse has locations in Germany, Switzerland, Czech Republic, Spain, as well as representative offices in Beijing, Paris, New York, Hong Kong, Dubai. FWB Frankfurter Wertpapierbörse, is one of the world's largest trading centers for securities. With a share in turnover of around 90%, it is the largest of the German stock exchanges. Deutsche Börse AG operates the Frankfurt Stock Exchange.
Deutsche Börse is the owner of a clearing house based in Luxembourg. On 3 May 2000 it was announced that the London Stock Exchange would merge with Deutsche Börse, though the deal fell through before the merger could be realized. In 2001, Deutsche Börse tried again to merge with the London Stock Exchange, followed by a takeover bid in late 2004, but both offers rejected by the LSE. After CEO Werner Seifert was forced to resign by the main shareholders in 2005, Deutsche Börse changed plans and entered into advanced negotiations for a merger with Euronext which would have brought two of the biggest stock exchanges in Europe into one holding; the New York Stock Exchange beat out Deutsche Börse's final bid for Euronext in 2006. Since 2007 Deutsche Börse operates the joint venture Scoach with SIX Swiss Exchange to provide a European derivative trading platform. In July 2015, Deutsche Börse bought the 360T company for 725 million euros and acquired all shares of the joint venture STOXX AG for a purchase price of CHF 650 million from the SIX Group.
On 7 December 2008, Deutsche Börse rebuffed rumors that it might join with NYSE Euronext to create the world's leading stock exchange. While the company claims that it pursued the matter, on 8 December 2008, it reported that talks which began on 25 November 2008, were closed without any result due to differences in valuation of the company. Deutsche Börse had considered the acquisition again in 2009. On 9 February 2011, reports suggested that NYSE Euronext and Deutsche Börse were in advanced talks about an all-stock merger. Deutsche Börse was in advanced talks to buy NYSE Euronext in a deal that would create the world's largest trading powerhouse; the shares of both companies were temporarily frozen on the news due to the risk of large price movements and clarifications of the deal. A successful deal would see the new company becoming the world's largest stock exchange operator with a market capitalisation of listed companies equal to US$15 trillion, US$13.39 trillion of, part of the much larger NYSE Euronext, six times the size of Deutsche Börse.
President and deputy CEO of NYSE Euronext Dominique Cerutti would become the new company's president and head of commercial and internal technology. Roland Bellegarde of NYSE Euronext, would become the head of European cash equities; the new company would have 300 million euros in cost savings. However, the merger would be subject to review in both the United States and European Union under concerns it could create a "de facto monopoly". NYSE Euronext shareholders approved the Deutsche Börse’s all-stock deal on 7 July 2011, Deutsche Börse shareholders had accepted the deal by 15 July 2011. On 22 December 2011, Deutsche Boerse won U. S. antitrust approval to buy NYSE Euronext, on the condition that a Deutsche Börse subsidiary, the International Securities Exchange, divest its 31.5% interest in Direct Edge. NYSE Euronext and Deutsche Boerse AG delayed the deadline for completing their merger until 31 March 2012, as the exchange operators try to persuade European regulators to approve the deal; the European Commission blocked the merger on 1 February 2012, citing the fact that the merged company would have a near monopoly.
This measure taken by the EC is the fourth blocking in over a decade. The commission rejected the merger on antitrust grounds, saying the combined businesses would dominate Europe's on-exchange derivatives trading with an estimated 93% market share. "This is a black day for Europe and its global competitiveness on financial markets", said former Deutsche Börse chief executive Reto Francioni. NYSE Euronext chairman Jan-Michiel Hessels said: "While we are disappointed and disagree with the EU decision, based on a fundamentally different understanding of the derivatives market, it is now time to move on". In March 2016, the company announced it had reached an agreement with London Stock Exchange Group to merge; the companies will be brought under a new holding company, UK TopCo, will retain both headquarters in London and Frankfurt. The deal needs approval from regulators in the European Union, the U. S. and Russia. The London Stock Exchange said Russian approval was needed because it owns Exactpro, a firm with offices in Russia specializing in quality assurance for exchanges and financial organizations.
The European Commission opened an in-depth investigation into the proposed Deutsche Börse/LSEG merger on 28 September 2016. The European Commission delayed its decision on the deal by 15 working days to 6 March 2017. LSEG plans to hive off the French half of its LCH SA arm in a bid