Metropolitan Government of|
Nashville and Davidson County
|Nickname(s): Music City, Athens of the South|
Location of the consolidated city-county in the state of Tennessee.
|Named for||Francis Nash|
|• Mayor||David Briley (D)|
|• Vice Mayor||Sheri Weiner|
|• Consolidated||525.94 sq mi (1,362.2 km2)|
|• Land||504.03 sq mi (1,305.4 km2)|
|• Water||21.91 sq mi (56.7 km2)|
|Elevation||597 ft (182 m)|
|• Density||1,300/sq mi (510/km2)|
|Time zone||CST (UTC-6)|
|• Summer (DST)||CDT (UTC-5)|
|Area code(s)||615 and 629|
|Interstates||I-40, I-24, I-65, and I-440|
|Other main roadways||US 31, US 31W, US 31E, US 41, US 70, SR 155|
|Public transit||Nashville MTA|
|Regional rail||Music City Star|
Nashville (//) is the capital and most populous city of the U.S. state of Tennessee and the seat of Davidson County. It is located on the Cumberland River in northern Middle Tennessee, the city is a center for the music, healthcare, publishing, private prison, banking and transportation industries, and is home to numerous colleges and universities.
Since 1963, Nashville has had a consolidated city-county government, which includes six smaller municipalities in a two-tier system, the city is governed by a mayor, a vice-mayor, and a 40-member Metropolitan Council; 35 of the members are elected from single-member districts, while the other five are elected at-large. Reflecting the city's position in state government, Nashville is home to the Tennessee Supreme Court's courthouse for Middle Tennessee.
According to 2017 estimates from the U.S. Census Bureau, the total consolidated city-county population stood at 691,243. The "balance" population, which excludes semi-independent municipalities within Davidson County, was 667,560 (2017), the 2017 population of the entire 13-county Nashville metropolitan area was 1,903,045, making it the largest metropolitan statistical area in Tennessee. The 2015 population of the Nashville-Davidson–Murfreesboro–Columbia combined statistical area, a larger trade area, was 2,027,489.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Demographics
- 4 Economy
- 5 Culture
- 6 Sports
- 7 Parks and gardens
- 8 Law and government
- 9 Education
- 10 Media
- 11 Transportation
- 12 Sister cities
- 13 See also
- 14 Notes
- 15 References
- 16 Further reading
- 17 External links
The town of Nashville was founded by James Robertson, John Donelson, and a party of Overmountain Men in 1779, near the original Cumberland settlement of Fort Nashborough. It was named for Francis Nash, the American Revolutionary War hero. Nashville quickly grew because of its strategic location, accessibility as a port on the Cumberland River, a tributary of the Ohio River; and its later status as a major railroad center. By 1800, the city had 345 residents, including 136 enslaved African Americans and 14 free African American residents; in 1806, Nashville was incorporated as a city and became the county seat of Davidson County, Tennessee. In 1843, the city was named the permanent capital of the state of Tennessee.
The city government of Nashville owned 24 slaves by 1831, and 60 prior to the war, they were "put to work to build the first successful water system and maintain the streets."
By 1860, when the first rumblings of secession began to be heard across the South, antebellum Nashville was a prosperous city, the city's significance as a shipping port made it a desirable prize as a means of controlling important river and railroad transportation routes. In February 1862, Nashville became the first state capital to fall to Union troops, the state was occupied by Union troops for the duration of the war. The Battle of Nashville (December 15–16, 1864) was a significant Union victory and perhaps the most decisive tactical victory gained by either side in the war; it was also the war's final major military action, in which Tennessee regiments played a large part on both sides of the battle. Afterward, the Confederates conducted a war of attrition, making guerrilla raids and engaging in small skirmishes, with the Confederate forces in the Deep South almost constantly in retreat.
Meanwhile, the city had reclaimed its important shipping and trading position and developed a solid manufacturing base, the post–Civil War years of the late 19th century brought new prosperity to Nashville and Davidson County. These healthy economic times left the city with a legacy of grand classical-style buildings, including the Parthenon in Centennial Park, near downtown.
On April 30, 1892, Ephraim Grizzard, an African-American man, was lynched in front of a white mob of 10,000 in Nashville, it was described by journalist Ida B. Wells as "A naked, bloody example of the blood-thirstiness of the nineteenth century civilization of the Athens of the South." From 1877 to 1950, a total of six lynchings of blacks were conducted in Davidson County, most in Nashville near the turn of the century.
By the turn of the century, Nashville had become the cradle of the Lost Cause of the Confederacy, as the first chapter of the United Daughters of the Confederacy was founded here and the Confederate Veteran magazine was published here. Most "guardians of the Lost Cause" lived Downtown or in the West End, near Centennial Park, at the same time, Jefferson Street became the historic center of the African-American community, and it remained so until the construction of Interstate 40 in the late 1960s.
Circa 1950 the state legislature approved a new city charter that provided for the election of city council members from single-member districts, rather than at-large voting, this change was supported because at-large voting diluted the minority population's political power in the city. They could seldom gain a majority of the population to support a candidate of their choice.
Apportionment under the single-member districts meant that some districts had black majorities; in 1951, after passage of the new charter, African-American attorneys Z. Alexander Looby and Robert E. Lillard were elected to the city council.
Rapid suburbanization occurred during the years immediately after World War II, as new housing was being built outside city limits, this resulted in a demand for many new schools and other support facilities, which the county found difficult to provide. At the same time, suburbanization led to a declining tax base in the city, although many suburban residents used unique city amenities and services supported only by city taxpayers, after years of discussion, a referendum was held in 1958 on the issue of consolidating city and county government. It failed to gain approval although it was supported by elected leaders of both jurisdictions: County Judge Beverly Briley of Davidson and Mayor Ben West of Nashville.
Following the referendum's failure, Nashville annexed some 42 square miles of suburban jurisdictions to expand its tax base, this increased uncertainty among residents, and created resentment among many suburban communities. Under the second charter for metropolitan government, which was approved in 1962, two levels of service provision were proposed: the General Services District and the Urban Services District, to provide for a differential in tax levels. Residents of the Urban Services District had a full range of city services, the areas that made up the General Services District, however, had a lower tax rate until full services were provided. This helped reconcile aspects of services and taxation among the differing jurisdictions within the large metro region.
On April 19, 1960, the house of Z. Alexander Looby, an African-American attorney and council member, was bombed by segregationists. Protesters marched to the city hall the next day. Mayor Ben West said he supported the desegregation of lunch counters, which civil rights activists had called for.
In 1963, Nashville consolidated its government with Davidson County, forming a metropolitan government, the membership on the Metro Council, the legislative body, was increased from 21 to 40 seats. Of these, five members are elected at-large and 35 are elected from single-member districts, each to serve a term of four years.
On April 8, 1967, a riot broke out on the college campuses of Fisk University and Tennessee State University after Stokely Carmichael spoke at Vanderbilt University, although it was viewed as a "race riot", it had classist characteristics.
Since the 1970s, the city and county have undergone tremendous growth, particularly during the economic boom of the 1990s under the leadership of then-Mayor and later-Tennessee Governor, Phil Bredesen. Making urban renewal a priority, Bredesen fostered the construction or renovation of several city landmarks, including the Country Music Hall of Fame and Museum, the downtown Nashville Public Library, the Bridgestone Arena, and Nissan Stadium.
Nissan Stadium (formerly Adelphia Coliseum and LP Field) was built after the National Football League's (NFL) Houston Oilers agreed to move to the city in 1995, the NFL team debuted in Nashville in 1998 at Vanderbilt Stadium, and Nissan Stadium opened in the summer of 1999. The Oilers changed their name to the Tennessee Titans and finished the season with the Music City Miracle and a close Super Bowl game. The St. Louis Rams won in the last play of the game.
In 1997, Nashville was awarded a National Hockey League expansion team; this was named the Nashville Predators. Since the 2003–04 season, the Predators have made the playoffs in all but three seasons; in 2017, they made the Stanley Cup Finals for the first time in franchise history, but ultimately fell to the Pittsburgh Penguins, 4 games to 2, in the best-of-seven series.
The neutrality of this section is disputed. (December 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
The city bounced back after the Great Recession; in March 2012, a Gallup poll ranked Nashville in the top five regions for job growth. In 2013, Nashville was described as "Nowville" and "It City" by GQ, Forbes, and The New York Times.
Nashville elected its first female mayor, Megan Barry, on September 25, 2015, as a council member, Barry had officiated at the city's first same-sex wedding on June 26, 2015. In 2017, Nashville's economy was deemed the third fastest-growing in the nation, and the city was named the "hottest housing market in the US" by Freddie Mac realtors. Nashville has also made national headlines for its "homelessness crisis". Between 2,300 and 20,000 Nashvillians are homeless as of April 2018.
On March 6, 2018, due to felony charges filed against Mayor Barry relating to the misuse of public funds, she resigned before the end of her term, triggering the need for a special election. Following a ruling by the Tennessee Supreme Court, the Davidson County Election Commission set the special election for May 24, 2018, to meet the requirement of 75 to 80 days from the date of resignation.
Nashville lies on the Cumberland River in the northwestern portion of the Nashville Basin. Nashville's elevation ranges from its lowest point, 385 feet (117 m) above sea level at the Cumberland River, to its highest point, 1,163 feet (354 m) above sea level in the Radnor Lake State Natural Area.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 527.9 square miles (1,367 km2), of which 504.0 square miles (1,305 km2) of it is land and 23.9 square miles (62 km2) of it (4.53%) is water.
Nashville has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa), with hot, humid summers and generally cool to mild winters typical of the Upper South. Monthly averages range from 37.7 °F (3.2 °C) in January to 79.4 °F (26.3 °C) in July, with a diurnal temperature variation of 18.2 to 23.0 °F (10.1 to 12.8 °C).
Snowfall occurs during the winter months, but it is usually not heavy. Average annual snowfall is about 6.3 inches (16 cm), falling mostly in January and February and occasionally in March and December. The largest snow event since 2003 was on January 22, 2016, when Nashville received 8 inches (20 cm) of snow in a single storm; the largest overall was 17 inches (43 cm), received on March 17, 1892, during the St. Patrick's Day Snowstorm.
Rainfall is typically greater in November and December, and spring, while August to October are the driest months on average. Spring and fall are prone to severe thunderstorms, which occasionally bring tornadoes—with recent major events on April 16, 1998; April 7, 2006; February 5, 2008; April 10, 2009; and May 1–2, 2010. Relative humidity in Nashville averages 83% in the mornings and 60% in the afternoons, which is considered moderate for the Southeastern United States. In recent decades, due to urban development, Nashville has developed an urban heat island (UHI); especially on cool, clear nights, temperatures are up to 10 °F (5.6 °C) warmer in the heart of the city than in rural outlying areas. The Nashville region lies within USDA Plant Hardiness Zone 7a.
Nashville's long springs and autumns combined with a diverse array of trees and grasses can often make it uncomfortable for allergy sufferers; in 2008, Nashville was ranked as the 18th-worst spring allergy city in the U.S. by the Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America.
|Climate data for Nashville (Nashville Int'l), 1981–2010 normals,[b] extremes 1871−present[c]|
|Record high °F (°C)||78
|Mean maximum °F (°C)||68.0
|Average high °F (°C)||46.9
|Average low °F (°C)||28.4
|Mean minimum °F (°C)||8.8
|Record low °F (°C)||−17
|Average precipitation inches (mm)||3.75
|Average snowfall inches (cm)||2.6
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)||10.3||10.3||10.7||10.8||11.7||10.0||10.2||8.4||7.5||8.0||9.8||11.2||118.9|
|Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in)||2.1||2.3||0.7||0||0||0||0||0||0||0.1||0||1.0||6.2|
|Average relative humidity (%)||70.4||68.5||64.6||63.2||69.5||70.4||72.8||73.1||73.7||69.4||70.2||71.4||69.8|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||139.6||145.2||191.3||231.5||261.8||277.7||279.0||262.1||226.4||216.8||148.1||130.6||2,510.1|
|Percent possible sunshine||45||48||52||59||60||64||63||63||61||62||48||43||56|
|Source: NOAA (relative humidity and sun 1961−1990), Weather.com|
Nashville's downtown area features a diverse assortment of entertainment, dining, cultural and architectural attractions, the Broadway and 2nd Avenue areas feature entertainment venues, night clubs and an assortment of restaurants. North of Broadway lie Nashville's central business district, Legislative Plaza, Capitol Hill and the Tennessee Bicentennial Mall. Cultural and architectural attractions can be found throughout the city.
Three major interstate highways (I-40, I-65 and I-24) converge near the core area of downtown, and many regional cities are within a day's driving distance.
Nashville's first skyscraper, the Life & Casualty Tower, was completed in 1957 and launched the construction of other high rises in downtown Nashville. After the construction of the AT&T Building (commonly referred to by locals as the "Batman Building") in 1994, the downtown area saw little construction until the mid-2000s. The Pinnacle, a high rise office building, opened in 2010, the first Nashville skyscraper completed in more than 15 years. Ten more skyscrapers have since been constructed or are under construction.
Many civic and infrastructure projects are being planned, in progress, or recently completed. A new MTA bus hub was recently completed in downtown Nashville, as was the Music City Star pilot project. Several public parks have been constructed, such as the Public Square. Riverfront Park is scheduled to be extensively updated, the Music City Center opened in May 2013. It is a 1,200,000 square foot (110,000 m2) convention center with 370,000 square feet (34,000 m2) of exhibit space.
The data below is for all of Metropolitan Nashville-Davidson County, including other incorporated cities within the consolidated city-county (such as Belle Meade and Berry Hill). See Nashville-Davidson (balance) for demographic data on Nashville-Davidson County excluding separately incorporated cities.
According to the 2016 American Community Survey, there were 667,885 people residing in the city, the population density was 1,325 inhabitants per square mile (512/km2). There were 294,794 housing units at an average density of 584.9 per square mile (225.8/km2).
|Black or African American||28.1%||28.6%||24.3%||23.3%||19.6%|
|Hispanic or Latino (of any race)||10.1%||9.0%||0.9%||0.8%||0.6%|
|American Indian and Alaska Native||0.5%||0.8%||0.2%||0.1%||0.1%|
|Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander||0.1%||0.1%||N/A||N/A||N/A|
At the 2010 census, the racial makeup of the city was 65.5% White (58.6% non-Hispanic white), 28.6% African American, 0.8% American Indian and Alaska Native, 3.5% Asian, 0.1% Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, 1.4% from two or more races. 9.0% of the total population was of Hispanic or Latino origin (they may be of any race). The non-Hispanic White population was 79.5% in 1970.
There were 254,651 households and 141,469 families (55.6% of households). Of households with families, 37.2% had married couples living together, 14.1% had a female householder with no husband present, and 4.2% had a male householder with no wife present. 27.9% of all households had children under the age of 18, and 18.8% had at least one member 65 years of age or older. Of the 44.4% of households that are non-families, 36.2% were individuals and 8.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 3.16.
The age distribution was 22.2% under 18, 10.3% from 18 to 24, 32.8% from 25 to 44, 23.9% from 45 to 64, and 10.7% who were 65 or older. The median age was 34.2 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.7 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $46,141, and the median income for a family was $56,377. Males with a year-round, full-time job had a median income of $41,017 versus $36,292 for females, the per capita income for the city was $27,372. About 13.9% of families and 18.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 29.5% of those under age 18 and 9.9% of those age 65 or over. Of residents 25 or older, 33.4% have a bachelor's degree or higher.
Because of its relatively low cost of living and large job market, Nashville has become a popular city for immigrants. Nashville's foreign-born population more than tripled in size between 1990 and 2000, increasing from 12,662 to 39,596, the city's largest immigrant groups include Mexicans, Kurds, Vietnamese, Laotians, Arabs, and Somalis. There are also smaller communities of Pashtuns from Afghanistan and Pakistan concentrated primarily in Antioch. Nashville has the largest Kurdish community in the United States, numbering approximately 11,000; in 2009, about 60,000 Bhutanese refugees were being admitted to the U.S., and some were expected to resettle in Nashville. During the Iraqi election of 2005, Nashville was one of the few international locations where Iraqi expatriates could vote, the American Jewish community in Nashville dates back over 150 years, and numbered about 8,000 in 2015, plus 2,000 Jewish college students.
As of 2017[update], Nashville has the largest metropolitan area in the state of Tennessee, spanning 13 counties and an estimated population of 1,903,045. The Nashville metropolitan statistical area encompasses 13 of 41 Middle Tennessee counties: Cannon, Cheatham, Davidson, Dickson, Hickman, Macon, Robertson, Rutherford, Smith, Sumner, Trousdale, Williamson, and Wilson. The 2017 population of the Nashville-Davidson–Murfreesboro–Columbia combined statistical area was estimated at 2,027,489.
As the "home of country music", Nashville has become a major music recording and production center, the Big Four record labels, as well as numerous independent labels, have offices in Nashville, mostly in the Music Row area. Nashville has been the headquarters of guitar company Gibson since 1984, since the 1960s, Nashville has been the second-largest music production center (after New York) in the United States. As of 2006, Nashville's music industry is estimated to have a total economic impact of $6.4 billion per year and to contribute 19,000 jobs to the Nashville area.
In recent times Nashville has been described as a "southern boomtown" by numerous publications, with it having the third fastest growing economy in the United States as of 2017. It has been stated by the US Census bureau that Nashville "adds an average of 100 people a day to its net population increase", the Nashville region was also stated to be the "Number One" Metro Area for Professional and Business Service Jobs in America, as well as having the "hottest Housing market in America" as stated by Zillow.
Although Nashville is renowned as a music recording center and tourist destination, its largest industry is health care. Nashville is home to more than 300 health care companies, including Hospital Corporation of America (HCA), the world's largest private operator of hospitals. As of 2012[update], it is estimated the health care industry contributes US$30 billion per year and 200,000 jobs to the Nashville-area economy.
CoreCivic, formerly known as Corrections Corporation of America and one of the largest private corrections company in the United States, was founded in Nashville in 1983. Vanderbilt University was one of its investors prior to the company's initial public offering. The City of Nashville's pension fund includes "a $921,000 stake" in the company as of 2017, the Nashville Scene notes that, "A drop in CoreCivic stock value, however minor, would have a direct impact on the pension fund that represents nearly 25,000 current and former Metro employees."
The automotive industry is also becoming important for the Middle Tennessee region. Nissan North America moved its corporate headquarters in 2006 from Gardena, California (Los Angeles County) to Franklin, southwest of Nashville. Nissan also has its largest North American manufacturing plant in Smyrna, Tennessee. Largely as a result of the increased development of Nissan and other Japanese economic interests in the region, Japan moved its former New Orleans consulate-general to Nashville's Palmer Plaza.
Bridgestone has a strong presence with their North American headquarters located in Nashville, with manufacturing plants and a distribution center in nearby counties.
Other major industries in Nashville include insurance, finance, and publishing (especially religious publishing), the city hosts headquarters operations for several Protestant denominations, including the United Methodist Church, Southern Baptist Convention, National Baptist Convention USA, and the National Association of Free Will Baptists.
Fortune 500 companies with offices within Nashville include Bridgestone, Community Health Systems, Dell, Dollar General, Hospital Corporation of America, Nissan North America, Philips, Tractor Supply Company, and UBS. Of these, Community Health Systems, Dollar General, Hospital Corporation of America, and Tractor Supply Company are headquartered in the city.
In 2015, Business Facilities' 11th Annual Rankings report named Nashville the number one city for Economic Growth Potential.
Real estate is becoming a driver for the city's economy. Based on a survey of nearly 1,500 real estate industry professionals conducted by PricewaterhouseCoopers and the Urban Land Institute, Nashville ranked 7th nationally in terms of attractiveness to real estate investors for 2016. As of October 2015[update], according to city figures, there is more than $2 billion in real estate projects underway or projected to start in 2016. Due to high yields available to investors, Nashville has been attracting a lot of capital from out-of-state. A key factor that has been attributed to the increase in investment is the adjustment to the city's zoning code. Developers can easily include a combination of residential, office, retail and entertainment space into their projects. Additionally, the city has invested heavily into public parks. Centennial Park is undergoing extensive renovations, the change in the zoning code and the investment in public space is consistent with the millennial generation's preference for walkable urban neighborhoods.
According to the city's 2016 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the top employers in the city are:
|#||Employer||# of Employees|
|1||Vanderbilt University and Medical Center||24,719|
|2||Metropolitan Nashville-Davidson County government and public schools||18,820|
|3||State of Tennessee||17,219|
|4||U.S. federal government||12,225|
|5||Nissan North America||10,900|
|6||Saint Thomas Health||7,100|
|8||Community Health Systems||4,300|
Much of the city's cultural life has revolved around its large university community. Particularly significant in this respect were two groups of critics and writers who were associated with Vanderbilt University in the early 20th century: the Fugitives and the Agrarians.
Popular destinations include Fort Nashborough and Fort Negley, the former being a reconstruction of the original settlement, the latter being a semi-restored Civil War battle fort; the Tennessee State Museum; and The Parthenon, a full-scale replica of the original Parthenon in Athens. The Tennessee State Capitol is one of the oldest working state capitol buildings in the nation. The Hermitage, the former home of President Andrew Jackson, is one of the largest presidential homes open to the public, and is also one of the most visited.
Some of the more popular types of local cuisine include hot chicken, hot fish, barbecue, and meat and three. Thanks in part to Nashville's foodie culture, the city was ranked as the 13th "snobbiest" city in America according to Travel + Leisure magazine.
Entertainment and performing arts
Nashville has a vibrant music and entertainment scene spanning a variety of genres, the Tennessee Performing Arts Center is the major performing arts center of the city. It is the home of the Nashville Repertory Theatre, the Nashville Opera, the Music City Drum and Bugle Corps, and the Nashville Ballet. In September 2006, the Schermerhorn Symphony Center opened as the home of the Nashville Symphony.
As the city's name itself is a metonym for the country music industry, many popular tourist attractions involve country music, including the Country Music Hall of Fame and Museum, Belcourt Theatre, and Ryman Auditorium. The Ryman was home to the Grand Ole Opry until 1974 when the show moved to the Grand Ole Opry House, 9 miles (14 km) east of downtown. The Opry plays there several times a week, except for an annual winter run at the Ryman.
A multitude of music clubs and honky-tonk bars can be found in downtown Nashville, particularly the area encompassing Lower Broadway, Second Avenue, and Printer's Alley, which is often referred to as "the District".
Nashville was once home of television shows such as Hee Haw and Pop! Goes the Country, as well as The Nashville Network and later, RFD-TV. Country Music Television and Great American Country currently operate from Nashville. The city was also home to the Opryland USA theme park, which operated from 1972 to 1997 before being closed by its owners (Gaylord Entertainment Company) and soon after demolished to make room for the Opry Mills mega-shopping mall.
The Contemporary Christian music industry is based along Nashville's Music Row, with a great influence in neighboring Williamson County, the Christian record companies include EMI Christian Music Group, Provident Label Group and Word Records.
Music Row houses many gospel music and Contemporary Christian music companies centered around 16th and 17th Avenues South, on River Road, off Charlotte Pike in West Nashville, the CabaRay opened its doors on January 18, 2018. The performing venue of Ray Stevens it offers a Vegas style dinner and a show atmosphere. There is also a piano bar and a gift shop.
Although Nashville was never known as a major jazz town, it did have many great jazz bands, including The Nashville Jazz Machine led by Dave Converse and its current version, the Nashville Jazz Orchestra, led by Jim Williamson, as well as The Establishment, led by Billy Adair, the Francis Craig Orchestra entertained Nashvillians from 1929 to 1945 from the Oak Bar and Grille Room in the Hermitage Hotel. Craig's orchestra was also the first to broadcast over local radio station WSM-AM and enjoyed phenomenal success with a 12-year show on the NBC Radio Network; in the late 1930s, he introduced a newcomer, Dinah Shore, a local graduate of Hume Fogg High School and Vanderbilt University.
Radio station WMOT-FM in nearby Murfreesboro, which formerly programmed jazz almost exclusively and still does so on the weekends, aided significantly in the recent revival of the city's jazz scene, as has the non-profit Nashville Jazz Workshop, which holds concerts and classes in a renovated building in the north Nashville neighborhood of Germantown. Fisk University also maintains a jazz station, WFSK.
Nashville has an active theatre scene and is home to several professional and community theatre companies. Nashville Children's Theatre, Nashville Repertory Theatre, the Nashville Shakespeare Festival, the Dance Theatre of Tennessee and the Tennessee Women's Theater Project are among the most prominent professional companies. One community theatre, Circle Players, has been in operation for over 60 years.
Perhaps the biggest factor in drawing visitors to Nashville is its association with country music. Many visitors to Nashville attend live performances of the Grand Ole Opry, the world's longest-running live radio show, the Country Music Hall of Fame and Museum is another major attraction relating to the popularity of country music. The Gaylord Opryland Resort & Convention Center, the Opry Mills regional shopping mall and the General Jackson showboat, are all located in what is known as Music Valley.
Civil War history is important to the city's tourism industry. Sites pertaining to the Battle of Nashville and the nearby Battle of Franklin and Battle of Stones River can be seen, along with several well-preserved antebellum plantation houses such as Belle Meade Plantation, Carnton plantation in Franklin, and Belmont Mansion.
Nashville has many arts centers and museums, including the Frist Center for the Visual Arts, Cheekwood Botanical Garden and Museum of Art, the Tennessee State Museum, the Johnny Cash Museum, Fisk University's Van Vechten and Aaron Douglas Galleries, Vanderbilt University's Fine Art Gallery and Sarratt Gallery, and the full-scale replica of the Parthenon.
Major annual events
|Event||Month held and location|
|Nashville Film Festival||A weeklong festival in April that features hundreds of independent films. It is one of the largest film festivals in the Southern United States.|
|Nashville Fashion Week||A citywide event typically held in March or April, this is a celebration of Nashville's fashion and retail community featuring local, regional and national design talent in fashion events and shows.|
|Rock 'n' Roll Nashville Marathon||Marathon, half marathon, and 5k race held in April with runners from around the world. In 2012, participation surpassed 30,000 runners.|
|Iroquois Steeplechase||Annual steeplechase horse racing event held in May at Percy Warner Park.|
|CMA Music Festival||A four-day event in June featuring performances by country music stars, autograph signings, artist/fan interaction, and other activities for country music fans.|
|Nashville Pride||A festival held in June at Public Square Park that fosters awareness of and for the LGBT community and culture in Middle Tennessee. The 2015 festival drew an estimated 15,000–20,000 people, possibly making it the event's largest gathering since the festival began.|
|Let Freedom Sing!||Held every Fourth of July at Riverfront Park, featuring a street festival and live music, and culminating in one of the largest fireworks shows in the country. An estimated 280,000 people attended the 2014 celebration.|
|Tomato Art Festival||Held each August in East Nashville, this event celebrates the Tomato as a Unifier.|
|African Street Festival||Held in September on the campus of Tennessee State University. It is committed to connecting and celebrating the extensions of Africa to America.|
|Live on the Green Music Festival||A free concert series held in August and September at Public Square Park by local radio station Lightning 100.|
|Tennessee State Fair||The State Fair held in September at the State Fairgrounds, which lasts nine days and includes rides, exhibits, rodeos, tractor pulls, and numerous other shows and attractions.|
|Celebrate Nashville Cultural Festival||A free event held the first Saturday in October at Centennial Park, it is Middle Tennessee's largest multicultural festival and includes music and dance performances, ethnic food court, children's area, teen area, and marketplace.|
|Art Nashville International Art Fair||An annual Art Fair in downtown Nashville. Includes galleries and dealers from around the world. Open to the public.|
|Nashville Oktoberfest||A free event held in the historic Germantown neighborhood since 1980 celebrating the culture and customs of Germany. Oktoberfest is Nashville's oldest annual festival and is one of the largest in the South; in 2015, over 143,000 people attended the three-day event which raised $60,000 for Nashville non-profits.|
|Southern Festival of Books||A festival held in October, featuring readings, panels, and book signings.|
|Country Music Association Awards||Award ceremony normally held in November at the Bridgestone Arena and televised to a national audience.|
|Veterans Day Parade||A parade running down Broadway on 11/11 at 11:11.11 am since 1951. Features include 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault), Tennessee National Guard, veterans from wars past and present, military plane fly-overs, tanks, motorcycles, first responder vehicles, marching bands and thousands of spectators.|
Nashville is a colorful, well-known city in several different arenas, as such, it has earned various sobriquets, including:
- Music City, U.S.A.: WSM-AM announcer David Cobb first used this name during a 1950 broadcast and it stuck. It is now the official nickname used by the Nashville Convention and Visitors Bureau. Nashville is the home of the Grand Ole Opry, the Country Music Hall of Fame, and many major record labels, this name also dates back to 1873, where after receiving and hearing a performance by the Fisk Jubilee Singers, Queen Victoria of England is reported as saying that "These young people must surely come from a musical city."
- Athens of the South: Home to 24 post-secondary educational institutions, Nashville has long been compared to Athens, the ancient city of learning and site of Plato's Academy. Since 1897, a full-scale replica of the Athenian Parthenon has stood in Nashville, and many examples of classical and neoclassical architecture can be found in the city. The term was popularized by Philip Lindsley (1786–1855), President of the University of Nashville, though it is unclear whether he was the first person to use the phrase.
- The Protestant Vatican or The Buckle of the Bible Belt: Nashville has over 700 churches, several seminaries, a number of Christian music companies, and is the headquarters for the publishing arms of the Southern Baptist Convention (LifeWay Christian Resources), the United Methodist Church (United Methodist Publishing House) and the National Baptist Convention (Sunday School Publishing Board). It is also the seat of the National Baptist Convention, the National Association of Free Will Baptists, the Gideons International, the Gospel Music Association, and Thomas Nelson, the world's largest producer of Bibles.
- Cashville: Nashville native Young Buck released a successful rap album called Straight Outta Cashville that has popularized the nickname among a new generation.
- Little Kurdistan: Nashville has the United States' largest population of Kurdish people, estimated to be around 11,000.
- Nash Vegas or Nashvegas
Nashville has additionally earned the moniker "The Hot Chicken Capital", becoming known for the local specialty cuisine hot chicken. The Music City Hot Chicken Festival is hosted annually in Nashville and several restaurants make this spicy version of southern fried chicken.
Nashville is home to five professional sports franchises. Two play at the highest professional level of their respective sports: the Tennessee Titans of the National Football League and the Nashville Predators of the National Hockey League. A yet-to-be-named Major League Soccer franchise is scheduled to begin play in 2020, the city is also home to two minor league teams: the Nashville Sounds of Minor League Baseball's Pacific Coast League and Nashville SC of the United Soccer League.
|Tennessee Titans||American football||NFL||Nissan Stadium||1960/1997|
|Nashville Predators||Hockey||NHL||Bridgestone Arena||1997|
|Nashville Sounds||Baseball||PCL||First Tennessee Park||1978|
|Nashville SC||Soccer||USL||First Tennessee Park||2016|
|Nashville MLS team||Soccer||MLS||Nashville Fairgrounds Stadium||2019|
The Tennessee Titans moved to Nashville in 1998. Previously known as the Houston Oilers that began play in 1960 in Houston, Texas, the Oilers relocated to Tennessee in 1997, they played at the Liberty Bowl Memorial Stadium in Memphis for one season, then moved to Nashville in 1998 and played in Vanderbilt Stadium for one season. During those two years, the team was known as the Tennessee Oilers, but changed its name to Titans in 1999, the team now plays at Nissan Stadium in Nashville, which opened in 1999. Since moving to Nashville, the Titans have won three division championships (2000, 2002, and 2008) and one conference championship (1999), they competed in 1999's Super Bowl XXXIV, losing to the St. Louis Rams, 23–16. The city previously hosted the 1939 Nashville Rebels of the American Football League and two Arena Football League teams named the Nashville Kats (1997–2001 and 2005–2007).
The Nashville Predators joined the National Hockey League as an expansion team in the 1998–99 season, the team plays its home games at Bridgestone Arena. The Predators have won one division championship (2017–18) and one conference championship (2016–17).
The Nashville Sounds were established in 1978 as expansion franchise of the Double-A Southern League, the Sounds won the league championship in 1979 and 1982. In 1985, the Double-A Sounds were replaced by a Triple-A team of the American Association, after the American Association dissolved in 1997, the Sounds joined the Triple-A Pacific Coast League in 1998 and won the league championship in 2005. The Sounds left their original ballpark, Herschel Greer Stadium, in 2015 for First Tennessee Park, a new ballpark built on the former site of Sulphur Dell ballpark. In total, the Sounds have won ten division titles, two conference titles, and three league championships.
Nashville SC, which began play in 2018, is an expansion club of the United Soccer League. They play their home matches at First Tennessee Park. A yet-to-be-named Major League Soccer franchise is scheduled to begin play in 2020 at the planned Nashville Fairgrounds Stadium.
Nashville hosts the second-oldest continually operating race track in the United States, the Fairgrounds Speedway, it hosted NASCAR Winston Cup races from 1958 to 1984, NASCAR Busch Series and NASCAR Truck Series in the 1980s and 1990s, and later the NASCAR Whelen All-American Series and ARCA Racing Series.
The Nashville Invitational was a golf tournament on the PGA Tour from 1944 to 1946, the Sara Lee Classic was part of the LPGA Tour from 1988 to 2002. The Music City Championship at Gaylord Opryland of the Champions Tour was held from 1994 to 2003. The Nashville Golf Open is part of the Web.com Tour since 2016. The 1961 Women's Western Open and 1980 U.S. Women's Open Golf Championship were also held in Nashville.
College and amateur
The Nashville Rollergirls are Nashville's only women's flat track roller derby team. Established in 2006, Nashville Rollergirls compete on a regional and national level. They play their home games at the Nashville Fairgrounds Sports Arena. In 2014, they hosted the WFTDA Championships at Municipal Auditorium.
The Nashville Kangaroos are an Australian Rules Football team that compete in the United States Australian Football League. The Kangaroos play their home games at Elmington Park. The team is the reigning USAFL Central Region Champions.
Three Little League Baseball teams from Nashville (one in 1970; one in 2013; and, one in 2014) have qualified for the Little League World Series. A team from neighboring Goodlettsville qualified for the 2012 series, giving the metropolitan area teams in three consecutive years to so qualify.
Parks and gardens
Metro Board of Parks and Recreation owns and manages 10,200 acres (4,100 ha) of land and 99 parks and greenways (comprising more than 3% of the total area of the county).
Warner Parks, situated on 2,684 acres (1,086 ha) of land, consists of a 5,000-square-foot (460 m2) learning center, 20 miles (32 km) of scenic roads, 12 miles (19 km) of hiking trails, and 10 miles (16 km) of horse trails. It is also the home of the annual Iroquois Steeplechase.
The United States Army Corps of Engineers maintains parks on Old Hickory Lake and Percy Priest Lake. These parks are used for activities such as fishing, water skiing, sailing and boating, the Harbor Island Yacht Club makes its headquarters on Old Hickory Lake, and Percy Priest Lake is home to the Vanderbilt Sailing Club and Nashville Shores.
On August 27, 2013, Nashville mayor Karl Dean revealed plans for two new riverfront parks on the east and west banks of the Cumberland River downtown. Construction on the east bank park began in the fall of 2013, and the projected completion date for the west bank park is 2015, among many exciting benefits of this Cumberland River re-development project is the construction of a highly anticipated outdoor amphitheater. Located on the west bank, this music venue will be surrounded by a new 12-acre (4.9 ha) park and will replace the previous thermal plant site. It will include room for 6,500 spectators with 2,500 removable seats and additional seating on an overlooking grassy knoll; in addition, the 4.5-acre (1.8 ha) east bank park will include a river landing, providing people access to the river. In regard to the parks' benefits for Nashvillian civilians, Mayor Dean remarked that "if done right, the thermal site can be an iconic park that generations of Nashvillians will be proud of and which they can enjoy".
Law and government
The city of Nashville and Davidson County merged in 1963 as a way for Nashville to combat the problems of urban sprawl, the combined entity is officially known as "the Metropolitan Government of Nashville and Davidson County", and is popularly known as "Metro Nashville" or simply "Metro". It offers services such as police, fire, electricity, water and sewage treatment. When the Metro government was formed in 1963, the government was split into two service districts—the "urban services district" and the "general services district." The urban services district encompasses the 1963 boundaries of the former City of Nashville, approximately 72 square miles (190 km2), and the general services district includes the remainder of Davidson County. There are six smaller municipalities within the consolidated city-county: Belle Meade, Berry Hill, Forest Hills, Oak Hill, Goodlettsville (partially), and Ridgetop (partially). These municipalities use a two-tier system of government, with the smaller municipality typically providing police services and the Metro Nashville government providing most other services. Previously, the city of Lakewood also had a separate charter. However, Lakewood residents voted in 2010 and 2011 to dissolve its city charter and join the metropolitan government, with both votes passing.
Nashville is governed by a mayor, vice-mayor, and 40-member Metropolitan Council, it uses the strong-mayor form of the mayor–council system. The current mayor of Nashville is David Briley, the Metropolitan Council is the legislative body of government for Nashville and Davidson County. There are five council members who are elected at large and 35 council members that represent individual districts, the Metro Council has regular meetings that are presided over by the vice-mayor, who is currently Sheri Weiner. The Metro Council meets on the first and third Tuesday of each month at 6:00 pm, according to the Metropolitan Charter.
Nashville is home to the Tennessee Supreme Court's courthouse for Middle Tennessee and the Estes Kefauver Federal Building and United States Courthouse, home of the United States District Court for the Middle District of Tennessee.
Nashville has been a Democratic stronghold since at least the end of Reconstruction, and has remained staunchly Democratic even as the state as a whole has trended strongly Republican. Pockets of Republican influence exist in the wealthier portions of the city, but they are usually no match for the overwhelming Democratic trend in the rest of the city, the issue of school busing roiled politics for years but subsided after the 1990s. While local elections are officially nonpartisan, nearly all of the city's elected officials are publicly known as Democrats, the city is split between 10 state house districts, all but one of which are held by Democrats (Republican Speaker of the House Beth Harwell holds the only Republican house seat). Three state senate districts and part of a fourth are within the county; two are held by Democrats and two by Republicans.
In the state legislature, Nashville politicians serve as leaders of both the Senate and House Democratic Caucuses. Representative Mike Stewart serves as Chairman of the House Caucus. Senator Jeff Yarbro serves as Chairman of the Senate Caucus.
Democrats are no less dominant at the federal level. Democratic presidential candidates have only failed to carry Davidson County five times since reconstruction; in 1928, 1968, 1972, 1984 and 1988. In most years, Democrats have carried Nashville at the presidential level with relatively little difficulty, even in years when they lose Tennessee as a whole, this has been especially true in recent elections. In the 2000 presidential election, Tennessean Democrat Al Gore carried Nashville with over 59% of the vote even as he narrowly lost his home state; in the 2004 election, Democrat John Kerry carried Nashville with 55% of the vote even as George W. Bush won the state by 14 points. In 2008, Barack Obama carried Nashville with 60% of the vote even as Republican John McCain won Tennessee by 15 points.
Despite its large size, Nashville has been in a single congressional district for most of the time since Reconstruction; it is currently the 5th District, represented by Democrat Jim Cooper. A Republican has not represented a significant portion of Nashville since 1874. Republicans made a few spirited challenges in the mid-1960s and early 1970s, the Republicans almost won it in 1968; only a strong showing by a candidate from Wallace's American Independent Party kept the seat in Democratic hands. However, they have not made a serious bid for the district since 1972, when the Republican candidate gained only 38% of the vote even as Nixon carried the district in the presidential election by a large margin, the district's best-known congressman was probably Jo Byrns, who represented the district from 1909 to 1936 and was Speaker of the House for much of Franklin Roosevelt's first term as President. Another nationally prominent congressman from Nashville was Percy Priest, who represented the district from 1941 to 1956 and was House Majority Whip from 1949 to 1953. Former mayors Richard Fulton and Bill Boner also sat in the U.S. House before assuming the Metro mayoral office.
From 2003 to 2013, a sliver of southwestern Nashville was located in the 7th District, represented by Republican Marsha Blackburn, this area was roughly coextensive with the portion of Nashville she'd represented in the state senate from 1998 to 2002. However, the 5th regained all of Nashville after the 2010 census.
The city is served by Metropolitan Nashville Public Schools.
- Christ Presbyterian Academy
- Davidson Academy
- Donelson Christian Academy
- Ensworth School
- Father Ryan High School
- Franklin Road Academy
- Goodpasture Christian School
- Harding Academy
- Harpeth Hall School
- Lipscomb Academy
- Madison Academy
- Montgomery Bell Academy
- Nashville Christian School
- Pope John Paul II High School
- St. Cecilia Academy
- St. Paul Christian Academy
- University School of Nashville
Colleges and universities
Nashville is often labeled the "Athens of the South" due to the many colleges and universities in the city and the metropolitan area, the colleges and universities in Nashville include:
|American Baptist College|
|Aquinas College||Roman Catholic|
|Belmont University||Christian (Non-Denomination)||6,647|
|Fisk University||United Church of Christ (HBCU)||800|
|John A. Gupton College|
|Lipscomb University||Churches of Christ||4,278|
|Meharry Medical College||United Methodist Church (HBCU)||700|
|Nashville School of Law|
|Nashville Auto Diesel College (a NAFTC Training Center)|
|Nashville State Community College||9,853|
|Tennessee State University||HBCU||10,389|
|Trevecca Nazarene University||Nazarene||3,221|
|Watkins College of Art, Design & Film||400|
|Welch College||Free Will Baptists||338|
Within 30 miles (48 km) of Nashville in Murfreesboro is Middle Tennessee State University (MTSU), a full-sized public university with Tennessee's second largest undergraduate population. Enrollment in post-secondary education in Nashville is around 43,000. Within the Nashville Metropolitan Statistical Area—which includes MTSU, Cumberland University (Lebanon), Volunteer State Community College (Gallatin), Daymar College, and O'More College of Design (Franklin)—total enrollment exceeds 74,000. Within a 40 miles (64 km) radius are Austin Peay State University (Clarksville) and Columbia State Community College (Columbia), enrolling an additional 13,600.
The daily newspaper in Nashville is The Tennessean, which until 1998 competed with the Nashville Banner, another daily paper that was housed in the same building under a joint-operating agreement. The Tennessean is the city's most widely circulated newspaper. Online news service NashvillePost.com competes with the printed dailies to break local and state news. Several weekly papers are also published in Nashville, including The Nashville Pride, Nashville Business Journal, Nashville Scene and The Tennessee Tribune. Historically, The Tennessean was associated with a broadly liberal editorial policy, while The Banner carried staunchly conservative views in its editorial pages; The Banner's heritage had been carried on, to an extent, by The City Paper which folded in August 2013 after having been founded in October 2000. The Nashville Scene is the area's alternative weekly broadsheet. The Nashville Pride is aimed towards community development and serves Nashville's entrepreneurial population. Nashville Post is an online news source covering business, politics and sports.
Nashville is home to eleven broadcast television stations, although most households are served by direct cable network connections. Comcast Cable has a monopoly on terrestrial cable service in Davidson County (but not throughout the entire media market). Nashville is ranked as the 29th largest television market in the United States. Major stations include WKRN-TV 2 (ABC), WSMV-TV 4 (NBC), WTVF 5 (CBS), WNPT 8 (PBS), WZTV 17 (Fox), WNPX-TV 28 (ion), WPGD-TV 50 (TBN), WLLC-LP 42 (Univision), WUXP-TV 30 (MyNetworkTV), and WNAB 58 (CW).
Nashville is also home to cable networks Country Music Television (CMT), among others. CMT's master control facilities are located in New York City with the other Viacom properties, the Top 20 Countdown and CMT Insider are taped in their Nashville studios. Shop at Home Network was once based in Nashville, but the channel signed off in 2008.
Several dozen FM and AM radio stations broadcast in the Nashville area, including five college stations and one LPFM community radio station. Nashville is ranked as the 44th largest radio market in the United States. WSM-FM is owned by Cumulus Media and is 95.5 FM. WSM-AM, owned by Gaylord Entertainment Company, can be heard nationally on 650 AM or online at WSM Online from its studios located inside the Gaylord Opryland Resort & Convention Center. WSM is famous for carrying live broadcasts of the Grand Ole Opry, through which it helped spread the popularity of country music in America, and continues to broadcast country music throughout its broadcast day. WLAC, whose over-the-air signal is heard at 1510 AM, is a iHeartMedia-owned talk station which was originally sponsored by the Life and Casualty Insurance Company of Tennessee, and its competitor WWTN is owned by Cumulus.
Several major motion pictures have been filmed in Nashville, including The Green Mile, The Last Castle, Gummo, The Thing Called Love, Two Weeks, Coal Miner's Daughter, Nashville, and Country Strong, as well as the ABC television series Nashville.
According to the 2016 American Community Survey, 78.1% of working Nashville residents commuted by driving alone, 9.8% carpooled, 2% used public transportation, and 2.2% walked. About 1.1% used all other forms of transportation, including taxicab, motorcycle, and bicycle. About 6.7% of working Nashville residents worked at home. In 2015, 7.9% of city of Nashville households were without a car; this figure decreased to 5.9% in 2016. The national average was 8.7 percent in 2016. Nashville averaged 1.72 cars per household in 2016, compared to a national average of 1.8 per household.
Nashville is centrally located at the crossroads of three Interstate Highways: I-40, I-24, and I-65. Interstate 440 is a bypass route connecting I-40, I-65, and I-24 south of downtown Nashville. Briley Parkway connects the north side of the city and its interstates. Interstate 840 provides a southern Bypass for the city, and a Bypass for I-40 for the city and its suburbs. A number of arterial surface roads called "pikes" radiate from the city center; many carry the names of nearby towns to which they lead. Among these are Clarksville Pike, Gallatin Pike, Lebanon Pike, Murfreesboro Pike, Nolensville Pike, and Franklin Pike.
The Metropolitan Transit Authority provides bus transit within the city. Routes utilize a hub and spoke method, centered around the Music City Central transit station in downtown. A rejected expansion plan included use of bus rapid transit and light rail service at some point in the future.
The city is served by Nashville International Airport (BNA), and is a focus city for Southwest Airlines and was a hub for American Airlines between 1986 and 1995. During 2016, Nashville International was the 33rd busiest passenger airport in the U.S. with a total of 6,338,517 passenger boardings. In late 2014, BNA became the first major U.S. airport to authorize ridesharing services with dedicated pick-up and drop-off areas.
Although a major freight hub for CSX Transportation, Nashville is not currently served by Amtrak, the second-largest metropolitan area in the U.S. to have this distinction. Amtrak's Floridian (Chicago to Miami and St. Petersburg, Florida via Louisville and Nashville) served Nashville until its cancellation on October 9, 1979 due to poor track conditions resulting in late trains and low ridership.
While there have been no proposals to restore Amtrak service to Nashville, there have been repeated calls from residents. However, Tennessee state officials have advised it will not be happening anytime soon due to scarce federal funding. "It would be wonderful to say I can be in Memphis and jump on a train to Nashville, but the volume of people who would do that isn't anywhere close to what the cost would be to provide the service", said Ed Cole, chief of environment and planning with the Tennessee Department of Transportation. Ross Capon, executive director of the National Association of Railroad Passengers, said rail trips would catch on if routes were expanded, but conceded that it would be nearly impossible to resume Amtrak service to Nashville without a substantial investment from the state because federal money has dried up.
Nashville launched a passenger commuter rail system called the Music City Star on September 18, 2006, the only currently operational leg of the system connects the city of Lebanon to downtown Nashville at the Nashville Riverfront station. Legs to Clarksville, Murfreesboro and Gallatin are currently in the feasibility study stage, the system plan includes seven legs connecting Nashville to surrounding suburbs.
Bridges within the city include:
|Official name||Other names||Length||Date opened|
|Korean War Veterans Memorial Bridge||Gateway Bridge||1,660 feet (510 m)||May 19, 2004|
|Kelly Miller Smith Bridge||Jefferson Street Bridge||March 2, 1994|
|Old Hickory Bridge||1929|
|Martin Luther King Jr. Bridge||Bordeaux Bridge||September 18, 1980|
|John Seigenthaler Pedestrian Bridge||Shelby Street Bridge||3,150 feet (960 m)||July 5, 1909|
|Silliman Evans Bridge||2,362 feet (720 m)||1963|
|Victory Memorial Bridge||July 2, 1956|
|William Goodwin Bridge||Hobson Pike Bridge||2,215 feet (675 m)|
|Woodland Street Bridge||639 feet (195 m)|
- Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)
- Caen (France)
- Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)
- Kamakura (Japan)
- Magdeburg (Germany)
- Mendoza (Argentina)
- Taiyuan, Shanxi (China)
- Tamworth, New South Wales (Australia)
- Gwangjin-gu (South Korea)
- International Friendship City
- Crouy (France)
- Municipality United in Friendship
- El Port de la Selva (Spain)
- List of people from Nashville, Tennessee
- The Children, 1999 book about the Nashville Student Movement
- National Register of Historic Places listings in Davidson County, Tennessee
- Consolidated refers to the population of Davidson County; Balance refers to the population of Nashville excluding other incorporated cities within the Nashville-Davidson boundary.
- Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the expected highest and lowest temperature readings at any point during the year or given month) calculated based on data at said location from 1981 to 2010.
- Official records for Nashville were kept at downtown from May 1871 to December 1939, and at Nashville Int'l since January 1940. For more information, see Threadex
- Garrison, Joey (March 6, 2018). "Meet David Briley, the man who will now become mayor after Megan Barry's resignation". The Tennessean. Retrieved March 6, 2018.
- "Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2010 – County – County Subdivision and Place: 2010 Census Summary File 1". U.S. Census Bureau. 2010. Retrieved February 28, 2015.
- "State & County QuickFacts – Davidson County, Tennessee". U.S. Census Bureau. July 1, 2017. Retrieved April 26, 2018.
- "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2017". U.S. Census Bureau. March 2018. Retrieved April 26, 2018.
- "State & County QuickFacts – Nashville-Davidson (balance)". U.S. Census Bureau. July 1, 2016. Retrieved May 25, 2017.
- "American pronunciation of Nashville". MacMillan Dictionary. Retrieved March 30, 2018.
- "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
- Harper, Garrett; Cotton, Chris (2013). Nashville Music Industry: Impact, Contribution, and Cluster Analysis (PDF) (Report). Nashville Chamber of Commerce.
- Elliott, Stephen (September 14, 2017). "Cities Are Divesting From Private Prisons, but Not Nashville". Nashville Scene. Retrieved October 31, 2017.
A lot of the money "that flows into the private-prison business" flows directly to Nashville, where private-prison leader CoreCivic has its headquarters. [...] Nashville’s pension fund holds a $921,000 stake in the company formerly known as Corrections Corporation of America, according to the most recent investment report.
- "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2017 – United States – Combined Statistical Area; and for Puerto Rico". U.S. Census Bureau. March 2018. Retrieved April 27, 2018.
- Cumfer, Cynthia (2007). Separate peoples, one land: The minds of Cherokees, Blacks, and Whites on the Tennessee frontier. Chapel Hill, North Carolina: University of North Carolina Press. p. 132. ISBN 978-0-8078-3151-9.
- Zepp, George (April 30, 2003). "Slave market included auction blocks, brokers offices in downtown Nashville". The Tennessean. p. 16. Retrieved April 7, 2018 – via Newspapers.com. (Registration required (. ))
- "John W. Morton Passes Away in Shelby". The Tennessean. November 21, 1914. pp. 1–2. Retrieved September 25, 2016 – via Newspapers.com. (Registration required (. ))
To Captain Morton came the peculiar distinction of having organized that branch of the Ku Klux Klan which operated in Nashville and the adjacent territory, but a more signal honor was his when he performed the ceremonies which initiated Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest into the mysterious ranks of the Ku Klux Klan.
- "Nashville: History". City-data.com. Retrieved September 28, 2016.
- "The Mob Had Its Way. Ephraim Grizzard Taken from Jail at Nashville and Lynched". The Richmond Item. Richmond, Virginia. May 2, 1892. p. 2. Retrieved April 27, 2018 – via Newspapers.com. (Registration required (. ))
- Wells, Ida Bell (1892). United States Atrocities: Lynch Law. "Lux" Newpaper and Publishing. p. 7. JSTOR 60222131.
- Lynching in America/Summary by County (3rd edition), p. 9, Equal Justice Initiative, 2017, Montgomery, Alabama
- Simpson, John A. (2003). Edith D. Pope and Her Nashville Friends: Guardians of the Lost Cause in the Confederate Veteran. Knoxville, Tennessee: University of Tennessee Press. pp. 29–31. ISBN 9781572332119. OCLC 428118511.
- Deville, Nancy (June 24, 2004). "Footpath became heart of city's black middle class. From '40s to '60s, Jefferson Street among best known music districts in the nation". The Tennessean. pp. 1; 11. Retrieved May 6, 2018 – via Newspapers.com. (Registration required (. ))
- Wynn, Linda T. (December 25, 2009). "Zephaniah Alexander Looby". The Tennessee Encyclopedia of History & Culture. Tennessee Historical Society; The University of Tennessee Press. Retrieved September 8, 2017.
- Bucy, Carole (2015). "A Short History of the Creation of Metropolitan Government for Nashville-Davidson County" (PDF). Metropolitan Government of Nashville and Davidson County.
- "Blast Wrecks Home Of Nashville Negro Lawyer". The Oshkosh Northwestern. Oshkosh, Wisconsin. April 19, 1960. p. 1. Retrieved September 8, 2017 – via Newspapers.com. (Registration required (. ))
- "Nashville's Mayor for Integration". The News Palladium. Benton Harbor, Michigan. April 20, 1960. p. 8. Retrieved September 8, 2017 – via Newspapers.com. (Registration required (. ))
- Frizzell, Scott (Spring 2011). "Not Just a Matter of Black and White: The Nashville Riot of 1967". Tennessee Historical Quarterly. 70 (1): 26–51. JSTOR 42628733.
- Ebert, Joel (August 18, 2017). "Nathan Bedford Forrest bust at the Tennessee Capitol: What you need to know". The Tennessean. Retrieved September 5, 2017.
- Morales, Lymari; Daly, Joe (March 29, 2012). "Oklahoma City Leads Large Cities in Job Creation". Gallup. Retrieved February 9, 2017.
- Jankowski, Paul (January 23, 2013). "Nashville Is Nowville...And Has Been For A While". Forbes.
- "Nowville: The GQ Guide to Nashville, Tennessee". GQ. July 2, 2012.
- Severson, Kim (January 8, 2013). "Nashville's Latest Big Hit Could Be the City Itself". The New York Times.
- Garrison, Joey (September 22, 2015). "Barry picks 'We make Nashville' as inauguration theme". The Tennessean. Retrieved May 31, 2017.
- "Mayoral candidate Megan Barry performs 1st wedding for same-sex couple in Nashville". WJHL.com. June 26, 2015.
- "Fastest Growing Large Metro Economies Of 2016 Are Grand Rapids, Orlando, Nashville; Slowest Are Oklahoma, Houston, New Orleans". Headlight Data. July 5, 2017.
- De Lombaerde, Geert (December 1, 2016). "Freddie Mac says Nashville still hottest housing market in U.S." Nashville Post.
- Hale, Steven (April 16, 2018). "Nashville's Homelessness Crisis in the National Spotlight". Nashville Scene. Retrieved June 3, 2018.
- Garrison, Joey (April 11, 2018). "Nashville mayoral election now set for May 24". The Tennessean. Retrieved May 14, 2018.
- "Elevations of the 50 Largest Cities (by population, 1980 Census)". Elevations and Distances in the United States. U.S. Geological Survey. 2001. Archived from the original on July 23, 2011.
- "Davidson County High Point, Tennessee". PeakBagger.com. Retrieved April 18, 2017.
- "Radnor Lake State Natural Area". Important Bird Areas. Tennessee Ornithological Society. February 19, 2006. Retrieved April 18, 2017.
- Petersen, James F.; Sack, Dorothy I.; Gabler, Robert E. (2016). Physical Geography (11th ed.). Cengage Learning. p. 205. ISBN 978-1-305-65264-4.
- "Humid subtropical climate". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. March 14, 2016. Retrieved December 26, 2016.
- Pidwirny, Michael (2006). "Climate Classification and Climatic Regions of the World". Fundamentals of Physical Geography (2nd ed.).
- Harris, Amy (2011). "Climate of Nashville, Tennessee". USA Today. Travel Tips. Retrieved December 26, 2016.
- "NowData – NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2016-11-03.
- "Snowstorms Producing at Least 6" at Nashville". NOAA.gov. November 17, 2009. Retrieved December 30, 2009.
- "Nashville Relative Humidity". Cityrating.com. Retrieved August 4, 2008.
- Gale Research (2006). Cities of the United States. 1 (5th ed.). Detroit: Thomson-Gale. p. 511. ISBN 0-7876-7369-2.
- "USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map". United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved September 5, 2013.
- Buchanan, Joy (March 21, 2007). "Nashville's an allergy leader, but it's not alone". The Tennessean. Retrieved March 21, 2007.[dead link]
- "Spring Allergy Capitals 2008" (PDF). AAFA.org. Retrieved April 29, 2008.
- "Calendar of Significant Weather Events in Middle Tennessee". NOAA.gov. August 3, 2009. Retrieved September 22, 2009.
- "Station Name: TN NASHVILLE INTL AP". National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2014-03-27.
- "WMO Climate Normals for NASHVILLE/METRO ARPT TN 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2014-03-10.
- "Monthly Averages for Nashville, TN". Weather.com. Retrieved September 26, 2010.
- "Gallery: Grand opening for Pinnacle tower". Nashville Business Journal. February 11, 2010. Retrieved February 17, 2010.
- "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Incorporated Places: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2015". U.S. Census Bureau. 2016. Archived from the original on October 19, 2016. Retrieved May 31, 2016.
- Gibson, Campbell (June 1998). "Population of the 100 Largest Cities and Other Urban Places In The U.S.: 1790 to 1990". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on March 14, 2007. Retrieved August 3, 2011.
- "Ranking Tables for Incorporated Places of 100,000 or More: 1990 and 2000". U.S. Census Bureau. April 2, 2001. Archived from the original on June 18, 2009.
- The significant increase between 1960 and 1970 is due to the merging of Nashville and Davidson County in 1963.
- "ACS Demographic and Housing Estimates: 2012–2016 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". U.S. Census Bureau. 2017. Retrieved April 27, 2018.
- "Population estimates, July 1, 2017 (V2017)". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved April 27, 2018.
- "ACS Demographic and Housing Estimates: 2006–2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved April 27, 2018.
- "Table 43. Tennessee – Race and Hispanic Origin for Selected Large Cities and Other Places: Earliest Census to 1990" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. July 13, 2005. Retrieved April 27, 2018.
- From 15% sample
- "Davidson County, Tennessee: Selected Social Characteristics in the United States: 2007–2009". U.S. Census Bureau. 2009. Retrieved April 27, 2018.
- "Davidson County, Tennessee: Population and Housing Narrative Profile: 2007–2009". U.S. Census Bureau. 2009. Retrieved August 3, 2011.
- "Nashville-Davidson County metropolitan government: Selected Economic Characteristics: 2007–2011". U.S. Census Bureau. 2011. Retrieved November 13, 2013.
- Swarns, Rachel L (July 20, 2003). "U.S. a Place of Miracles for Somali Refugees". The New York Times. Retrieved August 3, 2011.
- "Nashville Refugee Population Grows". WSMV.com. February 7, 2009.[dead link]
- Cornfield, Daniel B.; Arzubiaga, Angela; BeLue, Rhonda; Brooks, Susan L.; Brown, Tony N.; et al. (August 15, 2003). "Final Report of the Immigrant Community Assessment" (PDF). Nashville.gov. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 31, 2010.
- Copeland, Larry (June 15, 2006). "Who's the biggest fish in the South?". USA Today. Retrieved August 3, 2011.
- Echegaray, Chris (January 1, 2009). "Newest refugees hail from Bhutan". The Tennessean.
- Alligood, Leon (January 11, 2005). "Local Iraqis ready to vote but worried about process". The Tennessean. Archived from the original on January 11, 2005.
- Boxer, Matthew; Aronson, Janet Krasner; Brookner, Matthew A.; Perry, Ashley (2016). "2015 Nashville and Middle Tennessee Jewish Community Study" (PDF). Maurice and Marilyn Cohen Center for Modern Jewish Studies, Brandeis University. Retrieved September 6, 2016.
- "Metropolitan Statistical Areas and Components, November 2004, With Codes". U.S. Census Bureau. March 2005. Retrieved August 3, 2011.
- "Country Music Labels". ClubNashville.com. Archived from the original on August 8, 2007.
- "Hoedown on a Harpsichord". Time. November 14, 1960. Retrieved August 3, 2011.
- "Nashville's Music Industry Worth $6.38 Billion". MI2N.com. January 11, 2006. Retrieved August 3, 2011.
- Gordon, Claire (May 7, 2013). "Nashville Is America's New Boomtown". Business Insider.
- Kotkin, Joel (July 6, 2011). "The Next Big Boom Towns In The U.S." Forbes.
- Strauss, Karsten (August 9, 2017). "The 10 Big U.S. Cities With the Fastest-Growing Economies". Forbes.
- Garrison, Joey (March 28, 2017). "New data: Nashville region still growing by 100 people a day". The Tennessean.
- Kotkin, Joel (June 26, 2017). "The Cities Creating The Most High-Wage Jobs". Forbes.
- Allison, Melissa (January 6, 2017). "Nashville Tops the List of Hottest Housing Markets for 2017". Zillow Porchlight.
- Hill, Melanie (September 12, 2011). "Nashville's Health-Care Industry has Great Prognosis". Businessclimate.com. Archived from the original on March 8, 2013.
- Genova, Jane (December 17, 2010). "Hospital Corporation of America (HCA) has 4,000 Job Openings". AOL Jobs. Archived from the original on March 9, 2011.
- Williams, Tiffany L. (April 12, 2012). "Nashville's Premier Medical Services Keep Health-Care Industry Booming". Businessclimate.com. Archived from the original on March 8, 2013.
- Quade, Vicki (November 1983). "Jail Business: Private firm breaks in". American Bar Association Journal. 69 (11): 1611–1612. JSTOR 20756517.
- Davis, Bethany. "Corrections Corporation of America Rebrands as CoreCivic". Corrections Corporation of America. Retrieved September 4, 2017.
- Selman, Donna; Leighton, Paul (2010). Punishment for Sale: Private Prisons, Big Business, and the Incarceration Binge. New York City: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. pp. 81–82. ISBN 978-1-4422-0174-3.
Pre-IPO shareholders included Vanderbilt University, where Thomas Beasley received a law degree (and which has done some research favorable to private prisons).
- Goo Goo Cluster – A Real Milk Chocolate Original Southern Treat! Archived May 4, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. Googoo.com (August 13, 2013). Retrieved on September 5, 2013.
- "Dell to Expand Nashville Operations; Increase Area Workforce By Up to 1,000 Employees" (Press release). Dell.com. June 2, 2006. Archived from the original on January 16, 2009. Retrieved December 16, 2008.
- Sichko, Adam (August 24, 2017). "Fortune 500 company bringing jobs to Middle Tennessee". Nashville Business Journal. Retrieved August 26, 2017.
- Badenhausen, Kurt (August 7, 2013). "Best Places For Business and Careers". Forbes. Archived from the original on August 8, 2013.
- Kotkin, Joel. "The Cities Creating The Most White-Collar Jobs". Forbes.
- "11th Annual Rankings Report: Metro and Global Rankings". Business Facilities (BF) Magazine.
- Lewitinn, Lawrence (October 14, 2015). "Never mind New York – Dallas and Nashville are hotter for real estate: PwC". Yahoo! Finance. Retrieved October 22, 2015.
- Schneider, Keith (October 13, 2015). "Nashville's Skyline Being Reshaped by Building Boom". The New York Times. Retrieved October 22, 2015.
- "Principal Employers: Current Year and Nine Years Ago". Comprehensive Annual Financial Report For the Year Ended June 30, 2016 (PDF). Metropolitan Government of Nashville and Davidson County. June 30, 2016. p. H-33. Retrieved January 29, 2018.
- "The Hermitage". National Park Service. Retrieved December 23, 2017.
- "Andrew Jackson's Hermitage: Home of the People's President". TNVacation.com. State of Tennessee, Department of Tourist Development. Retrieved December 23, 2017.
- Brown Hunt, Katrina (July 2012). "America's Snobbiest Cities". Travel + Leisure. Retrieved June 29, 2013.
- Romine, Linda (2006). Frommer's Nashville & Memphis (7th ed.). Hoboken: Wiley. pp. 117–120. ISBN 0-471-77614-9.
- Guier, Cindy Stooksbury; Finch, Jackie Sheckler (2007). Insiders' Guide to Nashville (6th ed.). Guilford: Globe Pequot. pp. 118–129. ISBN 0-7627-4186-4.
- Davidson, Carla (November–December 2005). "Singing City". American Heritage. 56 (6). Archived from the original on October 12, 2008.
- "Nashville Fashion Week". nashvillefasionweek.com. Retrieved June 13, 2013.
- Staff (June 27, 2015). "Nashville Pride 2015 Draws Jubilant Crowds". Out & About Nashville. Retrieved July 5, 2015.
- Lori Grisham (June 9, 2015). "Nashville vies with New York for largest U.S. fireworks show". USA Today. Retrieved July 5, 2015.
- Staff (June 30, 2015). "Nashville's Fourth of July 'Let Freedom Sing!' celebration". WKRN News 2. Retrieved July 5, 2015.
- "Home". Tomato Art Festival. Retrieved May 29, 2016.
- "African American Cultural Alliance". www.aacanashville.org. Retrieved May 29, 2016.
- Eck, Matthew (March 3, 2018). "Welcome". Art Nashville. Retrieved March 3, 2018.
- "Oktoberfest German Beer Festival · Nashville's Top October Event". Nashville Oktoberfest. Retrieved July 15, 2017.
- Pleasant, Joseph (October 10, 2015). "Nashville's Oktoberfest continues in Germantown". WKRN. Retrieved October 29, 2015.
- "Oktoberfest Raises More than $50K For Local Organizations". WTVF. October 12, 2015. Archived from the original on January 1, 2016. Retrieved October 22, 2015.
- "Southern Festival of Books". Nashville Visitor's & Convention Corp. Retrieved July 30, 2017.
- "Nashville's Veterans Day Parade – HOME". Nashvillesveteransdayparade.com. Archived from the original on November 8, 2014. Retrieved October 23, 2011.
- "Music City, U.S.A." BMI.com. Archived from the original on July 7, 2001.
- "Fisk Jubilee Singers Celebrate 135 Year Tradition with "Walk of Fame" Honors" (PDF). Fisk. 2 (1): 14. March 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 10, 2007.
- Kreyling, Christine M; Paine, Wesley; Warterfield, Charles W; Wiltshire, Susan Ford (1996). Classical Nashville: Athens of the South. Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press. ISBN 0-585-13200-3.
- Guier, Cindy Stooksbury; Finch, Jackie Sheckler (2007). Insiders' Guide to Nashville (6th ed.). Guilford, Connecticut: Globe Pequot. pp. 13, 35, 396. ISBN 0-7627-4186-4.
- Fausset, Richard (September 19, 2016). "Following Its Country Music, Nashville May Loosen Up on Marijuana". The New York Times.
- "Nashville Area Churches". NashCity.com. Retrieved April 30, 2008.
- Miller, Rachel L (April 14, 2008). "Nashville: Sophisticated Southern City with a Country Edge". RoadandTravel.com. Retrieved April 30, 2008.
- Silverman, Jack (September 22, 2005). "Cashville Underground". Nashville Scene. 24 (34). Retrieved December 16, 2010.
- Demsky, Ian; Avila, Oscar (December 30, 2004). "Iraqis to cast votes in Nashville". The Tennessean and Chicago Tribune.
- Asimov, Eric (July 6, 1997). "True Grits in Nashville". The New York Times. Retrieved January 22, 2010.
- Cornett, Alan (July 3, 2013). "Chicken That Lights You Up: Bolton's Spicy Chicken & Fish of Nashville". Pinstripe Pulpit. Archived from the original on November 12, 2013. Retrieved November 12, 2013.
- Talbott, Chris (March 27, 2013). "Burning desire: Hot chicken takes over Nashville". news.yahoo.com. Retrieved November 12, 2013.
- Olmsted, Larry (November 3, 2011). "Scorching Hot Fried Chicken in Nashville". ABC News. Retrieved November 12, 2013.
- "Music City Hot Chicken Festival". Archived from the original on November 13, 2013. Retrieved November 12, 2013.
- "History" (PDF). 2017 Tennessee Titans Media Guide. National Football League. 2017. pp. 319–464. Retrieved April 14, 2018.
- "Franchise Timeline". Nashville Predators. National Hockey League. Retrieved April 14, 2018.
- "Team History". Nashville Sounds. Minor League Baseball. Retrieved April 14, 2018.
- "Exclusive: Nashville Soccer Club to play inaugural season at First Tennessee Park". The Tennessean. August 22, 2017. Retrieved April 14, 2018.
- Rosano, Nicholas (December 20, 2017). "Nashville awarded MLS expansion club". MLSSoccer.com. Retrieved December 20, 2017.
- Pogue, Greg (April 4, 2013). "Fairgrounds Speedway primed for 55th season". Fox Sports. Retrieved November 18, 2016.
- "History". Fairgrounds Speedway Nashville. Retrieved April 14, 2018.
- Bundgaard, Chris (August 27, 2013). "Amphitheater, more parks planned for Nashville riverfront". WKRN.com. Retrieved October 29, 2017.
- Maldonado, Charles (November 21, 2010). "Metro's two-tiered revenue system raises taxing questions". The City Paper. Retrieved February 5, 2015.
- Humbles, Andy (April 15, 2011). "Residents Vote To Surrender Lakewood's Charter". NewsChannel5.com. Archived from the original on March 20, 2011. Retrieved August 3, 2011.
- "Rein of Council redefines mayoral relationship". The City Paper. April 9, 2004. Retrieved August 3, 2011.
- Pride, Richard A.; Woodward, J. David (1985). The Burden of Busing: The Politics of Desegregation in Nashville, Tennessee. The University of Tennessee Press. ISBN 0-87049-474-0.
- Bruce, John M.; Clark, John A.; Gant, Michael M.; Daugherty, Linda M. (2003). "Tennessee: A Maturing Two-Party System". American Review of Politics. 24: 165–182. doi:10.15763/issn.2374-7781.2003.24.0.165-182.
- David Leip's Presidential Atlas (Maps for Indiana by election) Results prior to 1960 available through subscription only
- "Quick Facts". Trevecca Nazarene University. Retrieved October 29, 2017.
- "American Baptist College Designated as HBCU". The Tennessee Tribune. April 18, 2013. Archived from the original on July 15, 2014. Retrieved January 4, 2014.
- "Market Profiles". TVB.org. Archived from the original on August 7, 2011. Retrieved August 3, 2011.
- "Stations for Nashville, Tennessee". www.rabbitears.info.
- Romine, Linda (2006). Frommer's Nashville & Memphis (7th ed.). Hoboken: Wiley. p. 32. ISBN 0-471-77614-9.
- "Means of Transportation to Work by Age: American Community Survey 1-year estimates". U.S. Census Bureau. 2016. Retrieved May 19, 2018.
- "Car Ownership in U.S. Cities Data and Map". Governing. Retrieved May 19, 2018.
- "Getting around". The Tennessean. October 8, 2014. Retrieved May 7, 2018.
- Garrison, Joey (May 2, 2018). "Nashville voters overwhelmingly reject transit referendum". The Tennessean. Retrieved May 2, 2018.
- "Piedmont Atlantic Megaregion (PAM)". GATech.edu. 2009. Archived from the original on September 27, 2010. Retrieved September 27, 2010.
- "Commercial Service Airports (Rank Order) based on Calendar Year 2016 Enplanements" (PDF). Federal Aviation Administration. October 5, 2017. Retrieved March 21, 2018.
- McGee, Jamie (September 25, 2014). "Nashville airport first in U.S. to allow Uber, Lyft". The Tennessean. Retrieved December 16, 2016.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on December 27, 2013. Retrieved December 27, 2013.
- Howard, Kate (July 2, 2007). "Fans of rail want Amtrak here; Nashville not ready to support train service, state says". The Tennessean. Retrieved October 30, 2012.
- "Sister Cities". Sister Cities of Nashville. Retrieved January 10, 2017.
- "National Commission for Decentralised cooperation". Délégation pour l'Action Extérieure des Collectivités Territoriales (Ministère des Affaires étrangères) (in French). Archived from the original on November 27, 2013. Retrieved December 26, 2013.
- Zachert, Uwe; Kunz, Annica. "Twin cities". Magdeburg.de. Archived from the original on September 1, 2012. Retrieved August 8, 2013.
- "Candidate Cities". Sister Cities of Nashville. Retrieved January 10, 2017.
- "Friendship Cities". Sister Cities of Nashville. Retrieved January 10, 2017.
- Barnes, Melville Marshall (1974) [1st pub. Foster & Webb, 1902]. Biographical Sketches and Pictures of Company B, Confederate Veterans of Nashville, Tenn. Illustrated by Giers' Art Gallery. Brentwood, Tennessee: Beverly Pearson Barnes.
- Carey, Bill (2000). Fortunes, Fiddles, & Fried Chicken: A Nashville Business History. Franklin, Tennessee: Hillsboro Press. ISBN 1-57736-178-4.
- Duke, Jan (2005). Historic Photos of Nashville. Nashville, Tennessee: Turner. ISBN 978-1-59652-184-1.
- Durham, Walter T (2008). Nashville: The Occupied City, 1862–1863. Knoxville, Tennessee: University of Tennessee Press. ISBN 1-57233-633-1.
- Durham, Walter T (2008). Reluctant Partners: Nashville and the Union, 1863–1865. Knoxville, Tennessee: University of Tennessee Press. ISBN 1-57233-634-X.
- Egerton, John; et al., eds. (1979). Nashville: The Faces of Two Centuries, 1780–1980. Nashville, Tennessee: PlusMedia. LCCN 79089173. OCLC 5875892.
- Egerton, John; et al., eds. (2001). Nashville: An American Self-Portrait. Nashville, Tennessee: Beaten Biscuit. ISBN 0-9706702-1-4.
- Haugen, Ashley D (2009). Historic Photos of Nashville in the 50s, 60s and 70s. Nashville, Tennessee: Turner. ISBN 978-1-59652-539-9.
- Houston, Benjamin (2012). The Nashville Way: Racial Etiquette and the Struggle for Social Justice in a Southern City. Athens: University of Georgia Press. ISBN 978-0820343273.
- Lovett, Bobby L (1999). African-American History of Nashville, Tennessee, 1780–1930: Elites and Dilemmas. University of Arkansas Press. ISBN 1-55728-555-1.
- McGuire, Jim (2007). Historic Photos of the Opry: Ryman Auditorium, 1974. Nashville, Tennessee: Turner. ISBN 978-1-59652-373-9.
- Potter, Susanna H (2008). Nashville & Memphis. Moon Handbooks. Berkeley, California: Avalon Travel. ISBN 978-1-59880-102-6.
- Romine, Linda (2006). Nashville & Memphis. Frommer Guides (7th ed.). Hoboken, New Jersey: Frommer's. ISBN 0-471-77614-9.
- Winders, Jamie (2013). Nashville in the New Millennium: Immigrant Settlement, Urban Transformation, and Social Belonging. New York: Russell Sage Foundation. ISBN 978-1-61044-802-4.
- Wooldridge, John; et al., eds. (1890). History of Nashville, Tennessee. Nashville, Tennessee: Methodist Episcopal Church, South. LCCN 76027605. OCLC 316211313.
- Zepp, George R (2009). Hidden History of Nashville. Charleston, South Carolina: History Press. ISBN 978-1-59629-792-0.
- Nashville Convention & Visitors Bureau
- Nashville Area Chamber of Commerce
- Metropolitan Archives of Nashville and Davidson County
- Nashville/Davidson County timeline from the Nashville Public Library