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Nashville, Tennessee

Nashville is the capital and most populous city of the U. S. state of Tennessee. The city is located on the Cumberland River; the city's population ranks 24th in the U. S. Named for Francis Nash, a general of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, the city was founded in 1779; the city grew due to its strategic location as a port on the Cumberland River and, in the 19th century, a railroad center. Nashville seceded with Tennessee during the American Civil War. After the war, the city developed a manufacturing base. Since 1963, Nashville has had a consolidated city-county government, which includes six smaller municipalities in a two-tier system; the city is governed by a mayor, a vice-mayor, a 40-member metropolitan council. Reflecting the city's position in state government, Nashville is home to the Tennessee Supreme Court's courthouse for Middle Tennessee, one of the three divisions. A major center for the music industry country music, Nashville is known as "Music City." It is home to numerous colleges and universities, including Tennessee State University, Vanderbilt University, Belmont University, Fisk University, Trevecca Nazarene University, Lipscomb University, is sometimes referred to as "Athens of the South" due to the large number of educational institutions.

Nashville is a major center for the healthcare, private prison, banking and transportation industries. Entities with headquarters in the city include Asurion, Bridgestone Americas, Captain D's, CoreCivic, Dollar General, Hospital Corporation of America, LifeWay Christian Resources, Logan's Roadhouse, Ryman Hospitality Properties; the town of Nashville was founded by James Robertson, John Donelson, a party of Overmountain Men in 1779, near the original Cumberland settlement of Fort Nashborough. It was named for the American Revolutionary War hero. Nashville grew because of its strategic location as a port on the Cumberland River, a tributary of the Ohio River. By 1800, the city had 345 residents, including 136 enslaved African Americans and 14 free African Americans. In 1806, Nashville was incorporated as a city and became the county seat of Davidson County, Tennessee. In 1843, the city was named as the permanent capital of the state of Tennessee; the city government of Nashville owned 24 slaves by 1831, 60 prior to the Civil War.

They were "put to work to build the first successful water system and maintain the streets." Auction blocks and brokers' offices were part of the slave market at the heart of the city. It was the center of plantations cultivating tobacco and hemp as commodity crops, in addition to the breeding and training of thoroughbred horses, other livestock; the cholera epidemic that struck Nashville in 1849–1850 took the life of former U. S. President James K. resulted in high fatalities. There were 311 deaths from cholera in 1849 and an estimated 316 to about 500 in 1850. Before the Civil War, about 700 free blacks lived in small enclaves in northern Nashville while there were over 3,200 black slaves in the city. By 1860, when the first rumblings of secession began to be heard across the South, antebellum Nashville was a prosperous city; the city's significance as a shipping port and rail center made it a desirable prize for competing military forces that wanted to control the region's important river and railroad transportation routes.

In February 1862, Nashville became the first Confederate state capital to fall to Union troops, the state was occupied by Union troops for the duration of the war. African-Americans from Middle Tennessee fled to contraband camps around military installations in Nashville's eastern and southern borders; the Battle of Nashville was a significant Union victory and the most decisive tactical victory gained by either side in the war. Afterward, the Confederates conducted a war of attrition, making guerrilla raids and engaging in small skirmishes, with the Confederate forces in the Deep South constantly in retreat. In 1868, a few years after the Civil War, the Nashville chapter of the Ku Klux Klan was founded by Confederate veteran John W. Morton, he was reported to have initiated General Nathan Bedford Forrest into the vigilante organization. Chapters of this secret insurgent group formed throughout the South. Whites directed violence against freedmen and their descendants both during and after the Reconstruction era.

Two freedmen, David Jones and Jo Reed, were lynched in Nashville by white mobs in 1872 and 1875, respectively. Reed was hanged from a bridge over the river, but survived after the rope broke and he subsequently fell into the water, fled the city soon thereafter. In 1873 Nashville suffered another cholera epidemic, along with towns throughout Sumner County along railroad routes and the Cumberland River; this was part of a larger epidemic. The epidemic is estimated to have killed around 1,000 people in Nashville. Meanwhile, the city had reclaimed its important shipping and trading position and developed a solid manufacturing base; the post–Civil War years of the late 19th century brought new prosperity to Nashville and D

Gianni Berengo Gardin bibliography

The Italian photographer Gianni Berengo Gardin has been the sole contributor or a major contributor to a remarkable number of photobooks from 1960 to the present. Berengo Gardin's photobooks have included those for Touring Club Italiano about regions within and outside Italy. A large book published in Gianni Berengo Gardin. Il libro dei libri, introduces books with contributions by Berengo Gardin, presenting their covers and sample page spreads, providing brief bibliographical information. In the citation for Berengo Gardin's honorary doctorate, the University of Milan singled out the books Morire di classe. India dei villaggi won the Scanno prize. Asked to pick the one book of his that he would like to be known two hundred years into the future, Berengo Gardin was unable to decide among Italiani. Biagio Rossetti, architetto ferrarese. Il primo architetto moderno europeo. Collana storia di architettura. 4. Turin: Einaudi. 1960. OCLC 1106670. On the Ferrarese architect Biagio Rossetti. Le case-fondaco sul Canal Grande.

Contributo allo studio dell'architettura civile veneziana dal IX al XII secolo. 1. Venice: Scattolin. 1961. OCLC 313785134. On the houses on the Grand Canal in Venice. Agenda. Venezia 1962. Ente Turismo Venezia. A diary with photography by Berengo Gardin. CIA. Manifatture del Seveso. 1963. Photography by Berengo Gardin. Venezia: Venezia e la sua laguna. Attraverso l'Italia. 11. Milan: Touring Club Italiano. 1963. OCLC 888807584. Photographers include Berengo Gardin, who contributes 1 colour and 18 B/W photographs. About Venice and its lagoon. Venezia. Collana italiana. 1. Milan: Tamburini. 1964. OCLC 22224113. Text by Guido Perocco. Veneto. Attraverso l'Italia. 13. Milan: Touring Club Italiano. 1964. OCLC 491536839. Photographers include Berengo Gardin. About the Veneto. Venise des saisons = Venedig: Stadt auf 118 Inseln Venise des saisons. La Guilde du Livre. 478. Lausanne: La Guilde du Livre. 1965. OCLC 714942359. Texts by Giorgio Bassani and Mario Soldati. Ten thousand + 30 copies printed. Berengo Gardin describes Una storia d'amore: Venezia Gli anni di Venezia and Venezia as new editions of this book.

Venise des saisons. Lausanne: Editions Clairefontaine. 1965. OCLC 716024503. 194 pages. Venedig: Stadt auf 118 Inseln. Starnberg: Keller. 1965. OCLC 73754294. Translated from the Italian by Marianne and Josef Keller. Toscana Toscana: parte prima. Milan: Touring Club Italiano. 1966. 159 B/W and 9 colour photographs by Berengo Gardin. About Tuscany. Toscana: parte seconda. Milan: Touring Club Italiano. 1966. 159 B/W and 9 colour photographs by Berengo Gardin. About the region of Tuscany. Pierluca. Venice: Alfieri. 1966. OCLC 279551. In English and Italian. About Pierluca. Monachesi. Venice: Bruno Alfieri. 1966. OCLC 809607537. About Sante Monachesi. Un edificio per la RAI. Roma, Viale Mazzini. Monografie di architettura. 3. Venice: Bruno Alfieri. 1967. OCLC 3317530. About a building in Rome for the RAI. Photographs by Berengo Gardin, texts in Italian and English by Giuseppe Mazzariol, Francesco Berarducci and Marziano Bernardi. Puglia: 336 fotografie, 15 quadricromie fuori testo, 1 carta geografica. Attraverso l'Italia. 17. Milan: Officine Grafiche Vallardi.

1967. OCLC 888807425. Introduction by Giuseppe Cassieri. Edited by Giuliano Manzutto and Alessandro Cruciani. About the region of Apulia. Viaggio in Toscana. Florence: Marchi e Bertolli. 1967. OCLC 909693. Texts by Giorgio Soavi and Giuliano Manzutto. About Tuscany. Toscane. La Guilde du livre. 763. Lausanne: La Guilde du livre. 1968. OCLC 713884819. 10000+30 copies. French translation by Colette Gardaz. Not sold to the public. Toscane. Lausanne: Editions Clairefontaine. 1968. OCLC 77455454. Trade edition. Fabrizio Bruno. Architetture 1960–1967. Venice: Alfieri Edizioni d'Arte. 1967. OCLC 257950284. Text by Giuseppe Mazzariol. Lazio: 285 fotografie, 12

Harry M. Wurzbach

Harry McLeary Wurzbach was an attorney and politician. He was the first Republican elected from Texas since Reconstruction to be elected for more than two terms and was re-elected to the Sixty-eighth, Sixty-ninth, Seventieth congresses, representing Texas's 14th congressional district for several terms, from 1921 to 1929, he was died in office. The first Republican elected from Texas, born in the state, he was the only Republican from Texas serving in Congress during this period. Wurzbach was born in San Antonio, Texas to Charles Louis Wurzbach and the former Kate Fink, who were ethnic Germans, descendants of immigrants, he attended public schools. He went to Virginia for college, graduating in 1896 from Washington and Lee University School of Law in Lexington; that same year, he was established his practice in San Antonio. After starting his law practice, Wurzbach married Frances Darden Wagner of Columbus, Texas, in the Episcopal Church there. During the Spanish–American War, Wurzbach volunteered as a private in Company F, First Regiment, Texas Volunteer Infantry.

The unit served three months in the army of occupation in Cuba. After the war, in 1900 Wurzbach and his wife relocated to Seguin in Guadalupe County, where he continued his law practice. Guadalupe County had a high proportion of people of ethnic German ancestry, many of whom were immigrants or their descendants from after the revolutions of 1848 in the German states. Many, most, of the German immigrants who settled in Central Texas before the American Civil War had opposed slavery and favored the Union. After the Civil War, during the Reconstruction era and well into the mid-20th century, many German-American Texans supported the Republican Party; the party was supported by African-American voters, but most were disfranchised after 1901, when the legislature imposed a poll tax. With its German-American heritage, Guadalupe County was the third-most reliably Republican county in the state through 1964. In the late 19th century, the Populist Party attracted many white voters, including in the agrarian South.

In 1896, Republican Robert B. Hawley of Galveston, Texas was elected as a Representative from Texas' 10th congressional district of the Greater Houston area, he won both elections by a plurality, when many white voters split between supporting the Democratic and Populist parties. The Democratic-dominated legislature worked to prevent losing power again through split tickets or coalitions, as well as to disfranchise blacks, the goal of all southern legislatures, it adopted a poll tax in 1901, which resulted in the intended effect of eliminating voting by blacks, as well as many Latinos and poor whites. In addition, the state adopted white primaries; the blacks had been loyal Republicans since emancipation and passage of amendments granting citizenship and suffrage. The Democrat-dominated Texas state legislature was following those of other states of the former Confederacy in working to disfranchise blacks; the Democrats established a one-party state. Becoming active in local politics after moving to Seguin, Wurzbach was elected as the Guadalupe County prosecuting attorney from 1900 to 1902.

Running as a Democrat in 1902, he lost a race for County Judge. But after "seeing the error of my ways," he ran as a Republican and was elected as County Judge from 1904 to 1910; the campaign in 1910 was bitter, he resigned a few days after the election, returning to his law practice. By 1916 Harry Wurzbach had returned to campaigning, he ran on the Republican ticket for United States Congressman from Texas's 15th congressional district, against the popular incumbent, John Nance Garner, who had held the seat since 1902 when the district was created. Wurzbach lost 3 to 1 across the district. Garner was elected for a total of 14 consecutive terms from this district; when the U. S. entered the war against the German Empire in 1917, the local German Americans suffered a wave of hatred, were accused of being traitorous sympathizers to the Kaiser's side. To defuse tensions, Wurzbach helped to organize a show of loyalty by his fellow German Americans, who became active in the Red Cross and the "First Aid Legion", publicized their purchase of many war bonds.

Wurzbach took Alvin J. Wirtz as a law partner, his wife was the daughter of a well-connected doctor in Seguin. Wirtz was from Texas as was Wurzbach's wife, they opened their offices in the First National Bank Building in 1917. They worked in the Guadalupe County Abstract Company, Wurzbach as Manager and Wirtz as Secretary. Wurzbach became a lifelong mentor to his partner, 14 years younger. Wurzbach had a place on the Republican ticket in 1918, as a state-wide candidate for judge of the Court of Criminal Appeals, he was crushed, losing by 7 to 1 to the Democratic candidate. In 1920, redistricting moved Guadalupe County out of Garner's 15th district, into the 14th congressional district. Wurzbach ran for Congress in the general election, unseated the freshman Democratic Representative Carlos Bee of San Antonio, 17,265 to 13,777. Reflecting the high rate of immigration and migration to Texas for decades, Wurzbach was the first native Texan to win election as a Republican to Congress. In 1922, 1924, 1926, Wurzbach won by margins of 54.8, 62.4, 57.2 percent the first Republican sin