Hyderabad State known as Hyderabad Deccan, was an Indian princely state located in the south-central region of India with its capital at the city of Hyderabad. It is now divided into Telangana state, Hyderabad-Karnataka region of Karnataka and Marathwada region of Maharashtra; the state was ruled from 1724 to 1857 by the Nizam, a viceroy of the Great Mogul in the Deccan. Hyderabad became the first princely state to come under British paramountcy signing a subsidiary alliance agreement. Under the leadership of Asaf Jah V it changed its traditional heraldic flag; the dynasty declared itself an independent monarchy during the final years of the British Raj. After the Partition of India, Hyderabad signed a standstill agreement with the new dominion of India, continuing all previous arrangements except for the stationing of Indian troops in the state. Hyderabad's location in the middle of the Indian union, as well as its diverse cultural heritage, was a driving force behind India's invasion and annexation of the state in 1948.
Subsequently, Mir Osman Ali Khan, the 7th Nizam, signed an instrument of accession. Hyderabad State was founded by Mir Qamar-ud-din Khan, the governor of Deccan under the Mughals from 1713 to 1721. In 1724, he resumed rule under the title of Asaf Jah, his other title, Nizam ul-Mulk, became the title of his position "Nizam of Hyderabad". By the end of his rule, the Nizam had become independent from the Mughals, had founded the Asaf Jahi dynasty. Following the decline of the Mughal power, the region of Deccan saw the rise of Maratha Empire; the Nizam himself saw many invasions by the Marathas in the 1720s, which resulted in the Nizam paying a regular tax to the Marathas. The major battles fought between the Marathas and the Nizam include Palkhed and Kharda. Following the conquest of Deccan by Bajirao I and the imposition of chauth by him, Nizam remained a tributary of the Marathas for all intent and purposes. From 1778, a British resident and soldiers were installed in his dominions. In 1795, the Nizam lost some of his own territories to the Marathas.
The territorial gains of the Nizam from Mysore as an ally of the British were ceded to the British to meet the cost of maintaining the British soldiers. Hyderabad was a 212,000 km2 region in the Deccan, ruled by the head of the Asaf Jahi dynasty, who had the title of Nizam and on whom was bestowed the style of "His Exalted Highness" by the British; the last Nizam, Osman Ali Khan, was one of the world's richest men in the 1930s. In 1798, Nizam ʿĀlī Khan was forced to enter into an agreement that put Hyderabad under British protection, he was the first Indian prince to sign such an agreement. The Crown retained the right to intervene in case of misrule. Hyderabad under Asaf Jah II was a British ally in the second and third Maratha Wars, Anglo-Mysore wars, would remain loyal to the British during the Indian Rebellion of 1857, his son, Asaf Jah III Mir Akbar Ali Khan ruled from 1768 to 1829. During his rule, a British cantonment was built in Hyderabad and the area was named in his honor, Secunderabad.
The British Residency at Koti was built during his reign by the British Resident James Achilles Kirkpatrick. Sikander Jah was succeeded by Asaf Jah IV, who ruled from 1829 to 1857, was succeeded by his son Asaf Jah V. Asaf Jah V's reign from 1857 to 1869 was marked by reforms by his Prime Minister Salar Jung I. Before this time, there was no regular or systematic form of administration, the duties were in the hand of the Diwan, corruption was thus widespread. In 1867, the State was divided into five divisions and seventeen districts, subedars were appointed for the five Divisions and talukdars and tehsildars for the districts; the judicial, public works, educational and police departments were re-organised. In 1868, sadr-i-mahams were appointed for the Judicial, Revenue and Miscellaneous Departments. Asaf Jah VI Mir Mahbub Ali Khan became the Nizam at the age of three years, his regents were Salar Jung I and Shams-ul-Umra III. He assumed full rule at the age of 17, ruled until his death in 1911.
The Nizam's Guaranteed State Railway was established during his reign to connect Hyderabad State to the rest of British India. It was headquartered at Secunderabad Railway Station; the railway marked the beginning of industry in Hyderabad, factories were built in Hyderabad city. During his rule, the Great Musi Flood of 1908 struck the city of Hyderabad, which killed an estimated 50,000 people; the Nizam opened all his palaces for public asylum. He abolished Sati where women used to jump into their husband's burning pyre, by issuing a royal Firman; the last Nizam of Hyderabad Mir Osman Ali Khan ruled the state from 1911 until 1948. He was given the title "Faithful Ally of the British Empire". Hyderabad was considered peaceful, during this time; the Nizam's rule saw growth of culturally. The Osmania University and several schools and colleges were founded throughout the state. Many writers, poets and other eminent people migrated from all parts of India to Hyderabad during the reign of Asaf Jah VII, his father and predecessor Asaf Jah VI.
The Nizam established Hyderabad State Bank. Hyderabad was the only state in British India which had the Hyderabadi rupee; the Begumpet Airp
Nawab spelt Nawaab, Navab, Nabob or Nobab, was an honorific title ratified and bestowed by the reigning Mughal emperor to semi-autonomous Muslim rulers of princely states in the Indian subcontinent. "Nawab" refers to males and means Viceroy. The primary duty of a Nawab was to uphold the sovereignty of the Mughal emperor along with the administration of a certain province; the title of "nawabi" was awarded as a personal distinction by the paramount power, similar to a British peerage, to persons and families who ruled a princely state for various services to the government of British India. In some cases, the titles were accompanied by jagir grants, either in cash revenues and allowances or land-holdings. During the British Raj, some of the chiefs, or sardars, of large or important tribes were given the title, in addition to traditional titles held by virtue of chieftainship; the term "zamindari " was used for the subahdar or viceroy of a subah or region of the Mughal empire. Nawab is a Hindustani term, used in Urdu, Hindi and many other North-Indian languages, borrowed via Persian from the Arabic honorific plural of naib, or "deputy."
In some areas Bengal, the term is pronounced nobab. This variation has entered English and other foreign languages as nabob; the term "Nawaab" is used to refer to any Muslim ruler in north or south India while the term "nizam" is preferred for a senior official—it means "governor of region". The Nizam of Hyderabad had several nawabs under him: Nawabs of Cuddapah, Rajahmundry, Chicacole, et al. "Nizam" was his personal title, awarded by the Mughal Government and based on the term "Nazim" as meaning "senior officer". "Nazim" is still used for a district collector in many parts of India. The term "nawab" is still technically imprecise, as the title was awarded to Hindus and Sikhs, as well, large zamindars and not to all Muslim rulers. With the decline of that empire, the title, the powers that went with it, became hereditary in the ruling families in the various provinces. Under British rule, nawabs continued to rule various princely states of Awadh, Bahawalpur, Baoni, Bhopal, Jaora, Kurnool, Mamdot, Palanpur, Radhanpur, Malerkotla, Sachin and Tonk.
Other former rulers bearing the title, such as the nawabs of Bengal and Oudh, had been dispossessed by the British or others by the time the Mughal dynasty ended in 1857. Some princes became Nawab by promotion, e.g. the ruler of Palanpur was "diwan" until 1910 "nawab sahib". Other nawabs were promoted are restyled to another princely style, or to and back, e.g. in Rajgarh a single rawat went by nawab. The style for a nawab's queen is begum. Most of the nawab dynasties were male primogenitures, although several ruling Begums of Bhopal were a notable exception. Before the incorporation of the Subcontinent into the British Empire, nawabs ruled the kingdoms of Awadh, Bengal and Bhopal; the title nawab was awarded as a personal distinction by the paramount power to a British peerage, to persons and families who never ruled a princely state. For the Muslim elite various Mughal-type titles were introduced, including nawab. Among the noted British creations of this type were Nawab Hashim Ali Khan, Nawab Khwaja Abdul Ghani, Nawab Abdul Latif, Nawab Faizunnesa Choudhurani, Nawab Ali Chowdhury, Nawaab Syed Shamsul Huda, Nawab Sirajul Islam, Nawab Alam yar jung Bahadur, M.
A, Madras, B. A. B. C. L. Barr-At-Law. There were the Nawabs of Dhanbari, Nawabs of Ratanpur, Nawabs of Baroda and such others. Nawaab was the rank title—again not an office—of a much lower class of Muslim nobles—in fact retainers—at the court of the Nizam of Hyderabad and Berar State, ranking only above Khan Bahadur and Khan, but under Jang, Mulk and Jah; this style, adding the Persian suffix -zada which means son, etymologically fits a nawbab's sons, but in actual practice various dynasties established other customs. For example, in Bahawalpur only the nawbab's heir apparent used nawabzada before his personal name Khan Abassi Wali Ahad Bahadur, while the other sons of the ruling nawab used the style sahibzada before the personal name and only Khan Abassi behind. "Nawabzadi" implies daughters of the reigning nawbab. Elsewhere, rulers who were not styled nawbab yet awarded a title nawabzada; the word naib has been used to refer to any local leader in some parts of the Ottoman Empire, successive early modern Iranian kingdoms, in the eastern Caucasus.
Today, the word is used to refer to directly elected legislators in lower houses of parliament in many Arabic-speaking areas to contrast them against officers of upper houses. The term Majlis al-Nuwwab has been adopted as the name of several legislative lower houses and unicameral legislatures. In colloquial usage in English, adopted in other Western languages, the transliteration "nabob" refers to commoners: a merchant-leader of high social status and wealth. "Nabob" de
Siege of Arcot
The Siege of Arcot took place at Arcot, India between forces of the British East India Company led by Robert Clive and forces of Nawab of the Carnatic, Chanda Sahib, assisted by a small number of troops from the French East India Company. It was part of the Second Carnatic War. In the early part of 18th century, the Mughal Empire of India was in its last throes; the princely states of India, a few hundred in number, became more and more autonomous and independent with the reduced oversight of the vast Mughal empire. The British and French East India companies, which were present in Mughal India due to the hospitality of the Mughal emperors, were doing vibrant trade across the oceans between Mughal India and Europe; the British East India Company represented British trading interests with factories, ports at Calcutta and Bombay on the three coasts of India. The French East India Company operated out of Pondicherry, just down the coast from Madras. Both European powers entered into agreements with local Nawabs and princely states for trade contacts but hoping to gain influence over the territories that provided trade goods and tax revenue.
As England and France were rivals in Europe, they carried on their rivalry to the new Eastern trade frontier by way of extending their support to rival Nawabs in India. The Indian princes were ambivalent toward the Europeans and as much as they appreciated the income from trade, they desired the military might the Europeans could supply to tip the local balance of power in their favour. In the Deccan proper, the Asaf Jah I had founded a hereditary dynasty, with Hyderabad for its capital, which claimed to exercise authority over the entire South; the Carnatic – that is, the lowland tract between the central plateau and the Bay of Bengal – was ruled by the Nizam's deputy, the Nawab of Arcot. Farther to the south, a Hindu king reigned at Trichinopoly. Inland, Mysore was developing into a third Hindu state; when the Nizam of the Deccan, Asaf Jah I died in 1748, the British and French supported rival claimants to the throne and the French candidate won out. In another disputed succession of the Carnatic, ruled by the Nizam's deputy, the Nawab of Arcot.
The French supported Chanda Sahib in military campaigns to become Nawab of Arcot. The net result of the above two important events was the British factory and port situated at Madras was surrounded by hostile territory. Chanda Sahib, after consolidating his control of Arcot, wanted to eliminate his last major British-supported rival, Muhammed Ali Khan Wallajah, at Trichinopoly. Chanda Sahib led a large force to besiege Trichinopoly. Ali was supported by about 600 British troops; as the British commander did not have a reputation for inspiring confidence, British authorities in other parts of India were on the verge of writing off Trichinopoly and the entire south to the French. Robert Clive, a one-time East India Company clerk who had served in the company's forces during the First Carnatic War, was outraged at the weak British response to French expansion, he proposed a plan to the governor at Thomas Saunders. Rather than challenge the strong Franco-Indian forces at Trichinopoly, he would strike at Arcot, Chanda Sahib's capital city, with the goal of forcing Chanda Sahib to lift the siege at Trichinopoly.
Saunders could only part with 200 of the 350 British soldiers under his command. Those 200 soldiers and a further 300 sepoys along with 3 small guns and eight European officers marched towards Arcot from Madras on 26 August 1751. On the morning of the 29 August they reached Conjeeveram, at a distance of 42 miles from Madras. Clives's intelligence informed him that the enemy garrison at Arcot was twice the size of his marching forces. From Conjeeveram to Arcot is 27 miles and the troops of Clive, in spite of a delay caused by a tremendous storm of thunder and lightning, reached Arcot in two days of forced marching; the garrison left by Chanda Sahib to defend Arcot, struck with panic at the sudden coming of the foe, at once abandoned the fort, despite their larger numbers. Clive and his forces took over the fort without firing a single shot; when apprised of the loss of Arcot, Chanda Sahib dispatched 4,000 of his best troops with 150 of the French, under the command of his son, Raza Sahib, to recapture it.
On the 23 September Raza Sahib entered the town and invested the fort with an army of 2,000 native regular troops, 5,000 irregulars, 120 Europeans, 300 cavalry. Arcot, a city of 100,000 at the time came under Clive's control, since he ordered that there be no looting and he returned property Chanda Sahib had confiscated to its rightful owners, he began gathering supplies and fresh water, reinforcing the city's defenses. There were an ample supply of water; the Arcot fort was with a low, unsubstantial parapet. The moat was in several places fordable, in other places dry. Clive's force was reduced by disease and casualties to a mere 120 Europeans and 200 sepoys. Chanda Sahib's garrison was encamped a few miles away, blocking the arrival of any resupply or reinforcements. Two sallies against them failed, so Clive decided on a night attack on 14 Sep
Major-General Robert Clive, 1st Baron Clive known as Clive of India, Commander-in-Chief of British India, was a British officer and privateer who established the military and political supremacy of the East India Company in Bengal. He is credited with securing a large swath of South Asia and the wealth that followed, for the British East India Company. In the process, he turned himself into a multi-millionaire. Together with Warren Hastings he was one of the key early figures setting in motion what would become British India. Blocking impending French mastery of India, eventual British expulsion from the continent, Clive improvised a military expedition that enabled the East India Company to adopt the French strategy of indirect rule via puppet government. Hired by the company to return a second time to India, Clive conspired to secure the Company's trade interests by overthrowing the locally unpopular heir to the throne of Bengal, the richest state in India, richer than Britain, at the time.
Back in England, he used his success to secure an Irish barony, from the Whig PM, Thomas Pelham-Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle, again a seat for himself in Parliament, via Henry Herbert, 1st Earl of Powis, representing the Whigs in Shrewsbury, Shropshire, as he had in Mitchell, Cornwall. Clive was one of the most controversial figures in all British military history, his achievements included establishing control over much of India, laying the foundation of the entire British Raj. For his methods and his self-aggrandisement he was vilified by his contemporaries in Britain, put on trial before Parliament. Of special concern was that he amassed a personal fortune in India. Modern historians have criticised him for atrocities, for high taxes, for the forced cultivation of crops which exacerbated famines. Robert Clive was born at Styche, the Clive family estate, near Market Drayton in Shropshire, on 29 September 1725 to Richard Clive and Rebecca Clive; the family had held the small estate since the time of Henry VII.
The family had a lengthy history of public service: members of the family included an Irish chancellor of the exchequer under Henry VIII, a member of the Long Parliament. Robert's father, who supplemented the estate's modest income as a lawyer served in Parliament for many years, representing Montgomeryshire. Robert was their eldest son of thirteen children. Clive's father was known to have a temper, which the boy inherited. For reasons that are unknown, Clive was sent to live with his mother's sister in Manchester while still a toddler. Biographer Robert Harvey suggests that this move was made because Clive's father was busy in London trying to provide for the family. Daniel Bayley, the sister's husband, reported that the boy was "out of measure addicted to fighting", he was a regular troublemaker in the schools. When he was older he and a gang of teenagers established a protection racket that vandalised the shops of uncooperative merchants in Market Drayton. Clive exhibited fearlessness at an early age.
He is reputed to have climbed the tower of St Mary's Parish Church in Market Drayton and perched on a gargoyle, frightening those down below. When Clive was nine his aunt died, after a brief stint in his father's cramped London quarters, he returned to Shropshire. There he attended the Market Drayton Grammar School, where his unruly behaviour prompted his father to send him to Merchant Taylors' School in London, his bad behaviour continued, he was sent to a trade school in Hertfordshire to complete a basic education. Despite his early lack of scholarship, in his years he devoted himself to improving his education, he developed a distinctive writing style, a speech in the House of Commons was described by William Pitt as the most eloquent he had heard. In 1744 Clive's father acquired for him a position as a "factor" or company agent in the service of the East India Company, Clive set sail for Bombay. After running aground on the coast of Brazil, his ship was detained for nine months while repairs were completed.
This enabled him to learn some Portuguese, one of the several languages in use in south India because of the Portuguese center at Goa. At this time the East India Company had a small settlement at Fort St. George near the village of Madraspatnam Madras, now the Indian metropolis of Chennai, in addition to others at Calcutta and Cuddalore. Clive arrived at Fort St. George in June 1744, spent the next two years working as little more than a glorified assistant shopkeeper, tallying books and arguing with suppliers of the East India Company over the quality and quantity of their wares, he was given access to the governor's library. The land Clive arrived in was divided into a number of successor states to the Mughal Empire. Over the forty years, since the death of the Emperor Aurangzeb in 1707, the power of the emperor had fallen into the hands of his provincial viceroys or Subahdars; the dominant rulers on the Coromandel Coast were the Nizam of Hyderabad, Asaf Jah I, the Nawab of the Carnatic, Anwaruddin Muhammed Khan.
The nawab nominally owed fealty to the nizam, but in many respects acted independently. Fort St. George and the French trading post at Pondicherry were both located in the nawab's territory; the relationship between the Europeans in the region was influenced by a series of wars and treaties in Europe, by commerc
History of kadapa( Kadapa is a city in the Rayalseema region of the south-central part of Andhra Pradesh, India. It is the district headquarters of Kadapa district; as of 2011 Census of India, the city had a population of 344,078. It is located 8 kilometres south of the Penna River; the city is surrounded on three sides by the Nallamala and Palkonda Hills lying on the tectonic landscape between the Eastern and Western ghats. Black and Red ferrous soils occupy the region; the city is nicknamed "Gadapa" since it is the gateway from the west to the sacred hills of Tirumala. Kadapa has been under different rulers in its history, including the Nizams and Cholas, the Vijayanagara Empire and Kingdom of Mysore; the city's name originated from the Telugu word "Gadapa" meaning gate. It acquired this name with its relation to the Tirumala Hills. In old Telugu the word Kadapa meant a threshold which in modern standard Telugu is evolved to Gadapa while the city's name retained the old flavour, it was spelled "Cuddapah" but was changed to "Kadapa" on 19 August 2005 to reflect the local pronunciation of the name.
Some of the inscriptions found have mentioned about this place as Hiranyanagaram. The history of Kadapa dates back to the 2nd century BC; the evidences of Archaeological Survey of India suggest that it started with Mourya and Satavahana dynasty. And since it has been under the rule of numerous dynasties including Chalukya and Pallava. Among all of these dynasties, first one to rule over Kadapa was Pallava dynasty. Pallava kings ruled over the city during the 5th century after penetrating into North of Kadapa. After that Cholas ruled till the 8th century after defeating Pallavas. Banas ruled over Kadapa. History As the Muslim rulers rullled the South India, it was brought under the control of the Nawab of Cuddapah. With the advent of British, it was ceded to them by the Nawab. Under the rule of British, Siddavatam served as the headquarters of the district briefly; the city of Cuddapah serves as the headquarters and Siddavatam was reduced to a Mandal in the district.ruled by late king Yaseen khan BA.
BL..and khamruddin and Gayasuddin are stared the work of tobacco leaf now they leave in kadapa. Ameen peer dargah the masjid is believed to be constructed in 1683, it was a grave place for the two Sufi saints Perullah Hussaini and Arufulla Hussaini II. The Nawab of Sidhout Taluk, Nawab Nek nam Khan changed the name of this place to Neknamabaad on the advice of Perullah Hussaini. Neknamabaad became Kadapa. After Banas, Rashtrakutas ruled Kadapa region Among the popular rulers of Kadapa was King Indra III, who served during the period of 915 AD. In his period, Kadapa gained a lot of influence, which declined with his death later. Telugu Cholas, were the next one to rule Kadapa. Ambadeva ruled Kadapa in the latter half of the 13th century when he established the capital at Vallur, located at a distance of about 15 km from Kadapa. After the death of Ambadeva, the Kakatiya king Prataparudra II ruled until early 14th century. Prataparudra was defeated by Muslims in the reign of Khalji emperor Alla Uddin.
In the mid-14th century, Hindus of Vijayanagar dynasty drove the Muslims out of Warangal and subsequently Kadapa and ruled for around two centuries till they were defeated by the Nawab of Golkonda. The most illustrious ruler during this time was Pemmasani Thimma Nayudu who developed the region and constructed many tanks and temples here. Muslims of Golkonda conquered the region in 1594 when Mir Jumla II raided Gandikota fort and defeated Chinna Thimma Nayudu by treachery. Marathas took over the city in 1740 after defeating the Nawab of Cuddapah. Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan ruled the city before it fell in the hands of Nizam by the Treaty of Seringapatam in 1792; the British took control of Kadapa District in 1800 CE. Although the town is an ancient one, it was extended by Neknam Khan, the Qutb Shahi commander, who called the extension as "Neknamabad"; the name "Neknamabad" was used for the town for some time but fell into disuse and the records of the 18th century refer to the rulers not as Nawabs of Kadapa.
Except for some years in the beginning, Kadapa District was the seat of the Mayana Nawabs in the 18th century. With the British occupation of the tract in 1800 CE, it became the headquarters of one of the four subordinate collectorates under the principal collector Sir Thomas Munro. In 2004, Kadapa was recognised as a municipal corporation. Kadapa is located at 14.47°N 78.82°E / 14.47. The city is situated in the Bugga vanka or Ralla Vanka rivers bordered by the Palakondas to the south and to the east by a patch of hills casting north for the Lankamalas on Penna's other side, it has an average elevation of 138 metres. The hills of western and eastern ghats stand on either sides, shielding it from the extreme winds of summer and winter Kadapa has a tropical wet and dry climate characterised by year round high temperatures, it has a record of reaching more than 50 degree Celsius. Summers are uncomfortable with hot and humid climate. During this time temperatures range from a minimum of 34 °C and can rise up to a maximum of 40 °C.
Temperatures are range in the mid thirties during the day. Humidity is around 75% during the summer months. Monsoon season brings substantial rain to the area. Kadapa gets rainfall from both the South west monsoon as well as the North East Monsoon. June to October is the monsoon. Winters are comparatively milder and the temperatures are lower after the onset
A mausoleum is an external free-standing building constructed as a monument enclosing the interment space or burial chamber of a deceased person or people. A monument without the interment is a cenotaph. A mausoleum may be considered a type of tomb, or the tomb may be considered to be within the mausoleum; the word derives from the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus, the grave of King Mausolus, the Persian satrap of Caria, whose large tomb was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Mausolea were, still may be, large and impressive constructions for a deceased leader or other person of importance. However, smaller mausolea soon became popular with the nobility in many countries. In the Roman Empire, these were ranged in necropoles or along roadsides: the via Appia Antica retains the ruins of many private mausolea for miles outside Rome. However, when Christianity became dominant, mausoleums were out of use. Mausolea became popular in Europe and its colonies during the early modern and modern periods.
A single mausoleum may be permanently sealed. A mausoleum encloses a burial chamber either wholly above ground or within a burial vault below the superstructure; this contains the body or bodies within sarcophagi or interment niches. Modern mausolea may act as columbaria with additional cinerary urn niches. Mausolea may be located on private land. In the United States, the term may be used for a burial vault below a larger facility, such as a church; the Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels in Los Angeles, for example, has 6,000 sepulchral and cinerary urn spaces for interments in the lower level of the building. It is known as the "crypt mausoleum". In Europe, these underground vaults are sometimes called catacombs. Mausoleum of Mohammed V Bourguiba mausoleum El Alia Cemetery, Mausoleum of the Late President, Algeria; the Dr. John Garang De Mabior mausoleum in South Sudan. Mastabas dating from ancient Egypt. Agostinho Neto's Mausoleum in Angola. Mausolée du Président Mathieu Kerekou, Benin. Omar Bongo's Mausoleum in Gabon.
Léon M'ba's Memorial Mausoleum in Gabon. Kwame Nkrumah Mausoleum Mausoleum of Late President Levy Mwanawasa, Frederick Chiluba and Michael Sata at Embassy Park in Lusaka, Zambia. Domoni Mosque Mausoleum Indoor inside first president of Comoros, Ahmed Abdallah's Mausoleum. Marien Ngouabi's mausoleum and Pierre Savorgnan de Brazza's mausoleum in Brazzaville, The Republic of Congo. Mausoleum of the late president Felix Houphouet-Boigny in Yamoussoukro, Côte d'Ivoire. Laurent Kabila's mausoleum in Kinshasa, The Democratic Republic of Congo; the pyramids of ancient Egypt and Nubian pyramids are types of mausolea. Gamal Abdel Nasser Mosque, is the Mausoleum of Gamal Abdel Nasser, in Egypt. Unknown Soldier Memorial Royal Mausoleum of Mauretania Al Hussein Mosque, Cairo – Holy Shrine and mausoleum, purported grave of the Islamic prophet Muhammad's grandson. Qalawun Mausoleum is the Mausoleum of Qalawun, Located in Cairo, Egypt, it was regarded by scholars as the second most beautiful medieval mausoleum to be built.
Jedars - thirteen ancient monumental Berber mausoleums located south of Tiaret. Palm Grove Cemetery, Liberia. National Hall, Mausoleum of the Late President William Tubman in Monrovia, Liberia. Late President Eyadema's Family Mausoleum in Togo. Kamuzu Banda Mausoleum, in Lilongwe, Malawi. Dr. Bingu wa Mutharika, President of Malawi built a mausoleum in which his late first wife and Bingu himself are buried. Meles Zenawi's grave in Holy Trinity Cathedral, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. King Sobhuza II Memorial Park, Swaziland. Julius Nyerere's mausoleum in Tanzania. Amilcar Cabral's mausoleum in Guinea-Bissau. Mausoleum of the Late President of Kenya Mzee Jomo Kenyatta in Nairobi, Kenya. Camayanne Mausoleum and contains the tombs of Guinea national hero Samori Ture, Sekou Toure and Alfa Yaya. Nnamdi Azikiwe's Burial Site In Onitsha, Nigeria. Abubakar Tafawa Balewa's tomb, Nigeria. Mausoleum of Obafemi Awolowo, Ogun State, Nigeria. Mausoleum of Sani Abacha, Nigeria. National Heroes Acre in Harare, Zimbabwe. Taj Mahal at Agra, India Qutb Shahi Tombs at Hyderabad, India Gol Gumbaz at Bijapur, India Humayun's Tomb at Delhi, India Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor biggest underground mausoleum The pyramids of ancient China are types of mausolea.
Qianling Mausoleum in China, houses the remains of Emperor Gaozong of Tang and the ruling Empress Wu Zetian, along with 17 others in auxiliary tombs. Mausoleum of Genghis Khan in Ordos City, Inner Mongolia. Thirteen Imperial Mausoleums of Ming Dynasty Emperors, Beijing Ming Xiaoling Mausoleum, Nanjing Fuling Tomb, Shenyang Zhao Mausoleum Eastern Qing Tombs Western Qing Tombs Tomb of Jahangir at Shahdara, near Lahore, Pakistan. Mazar-e-Quaid at Karachi, Pakistan Data Durbar at Lahore, Pakistan Mausoleum of Father of the Nation Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman in Gopalganj, Bangladesh. Bandaranaike family Estate in Horagolla Bandaranaike Samadhi, Sri Lanka Ho Chi Minh Mausoleum, Hanoi Kumsusan Palace of the Sun or Kim Il-sung Mausoleum, Democratic People's Republic of Korea Mausoleum of Mao Zedong, Beijing. Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum, Nanjing. National Dr. Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hall, Taipei. National Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall, Taipei. Mausoleum of Late President Lord Chiang Kai-shek, Taoyuan. Mausoleum of Late President Chiang Ching-kuo, Taoyuan.
Astana Giribangun Suharto family complex in traditional Javanese architectural style in Matesih, Karanganyar Regency, Central Java Imogiri co
The Mughal Empire or Mogul Empire was an empire in the Indian subcontinent, founded in 1526. It was established and ruled by the Timurid dynasty, with Turco-Mongol Chagatai roots from Central Asia, claiming direct descent from both Genghis Khan and Timur, with significant Indian Rajput and Persian ancestry through marriage alliances; the dynasty was Indo-Persian in culture, combining Persianate culture with local Indian cultural influences visible in its court culture and administrative customs. The beginning of the empire is conventionally dated to the victory by its founder Babur over Ibrahim Lodi, the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, in the First Battle of Panipat. During the reign of Humayun, the successor of Babur, the empire was interrupted by the Sur Empire established by Sher Shah Suri; the "classic period" of the Mughal Empire began with the ascension of Akbar to the throne. Some Rajput kingdoms continued to pose a significant threat to the Mughal dominance of northwestern India, but most of them were subdued by Akbar.
All Mughal emperors were Muslims. The Mughal Empire did not try to intervene in native societies during most of its existence, rather co-opting and pacifying them through concilliatory administrative practices and a syncretic, inclusive ruling elite, leading to more systematic and uniform rule. Traditional and newly coherent social groups in northern and western India, such as the Marathas, the Rajputs, the Pashtuns, the Hindu Jats and the Sikhs, gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule which, through collaboration or adversity, gave them both recognition and military experience. Internal dissatisfaction arose due to the weakness of the empire's administrative and economic systems, leading to its break-up and declarations of independence of its former provinces by the Nawab of Bengal, the Nawab of Awadh, the Nizam of Hyderabad and other small states. In 1739, the Mughals were crushingly defeated in the Battle of Karnal by the forces of Nader Shah, the founder of the Afsharid dynasty in Persia, Delhi was sacked and looted, drastically accelerating their decline.
By the mid-18th century, the Marathas had routed Mughal armies and won over several Mughal provinces from the Punjab to Bengal. During the following century Mughal power had become limited, the last emperor, Bahadur Shah II, had authority over only the city of Shahjahanabad. Bahadur issued a firman supporting the Indian Rebellion of 1857. Consequent to the rebellion's defeat he was tried by the British East India Company for treason and exiled to Rangoon; the last remnants of the empire were formally taken over by the British, the British Parliament passed the Government of India Act 1858 to enable the Crown formally to displace the rights of the East India Company and assume direct control of India in the form of the new British Raj. At its height, the Mughal Empire stretched from Kabul, Afghanistan in the west to Arakan, Myanmar in the east, from Kashmir in the north to the Deccan Plateau in the south, extending over nearly all of the Indian subcontinent, it was the third largest empire in the Indian subcontinent, spanning four million square kilometers at its zenith, 122% of the size of the modern Republic of India.
The maximum expansion was reached during the reign of Aurangzeb, who ruled over more than 150 million subjects, nearly 25% of the world's population at the time. The Mughal Empire ushered in a period of proto-industrialization, around the 17th century, Mughal India became the world's largest economic and manufacturing power, responsible for 25% of global industrial output until the 18th century; the Mughal Empire is considered "India's last golden age" and one of the three Islamic Gunpowder Empires. The reign of Shah Jahan represented the height of Mughal architecture, with famous monuments such as the Taj Mahal, Moti Masjid, Red Fort, Jama Masjid and Lahore Fort being constructed during his reign. Contemporaries referred to the empire founded by Babur as the Timurid empire, which reflected the heritage of his dynasty, this was the term preferred by the Mughals themselves; the Mughal designation for their own dynasty was Gurkani. The use of Mughal derived from the Arabic and Persian corruption of Mongol, it emphasised the Mongol origins of the Timurid dynasty.
The term remains disputed by Indologists. Similar terms had been used to refer to the empire, including "Mogul" and "Moghul". Babur's ancestors were distinguished from the classical Mongols insofar as they were oriented towards Persian rather than Turco-Mongol culture. Another name for the empire was Hindustan, documented in the Ain-i-Akbari, and, described as the closest to an official name for the empire. In the west, the term "Mughal" was used for the emperor, by extension, the empire as a whole; the Mughal Empire was founded by Babur, a Central Asian ruler, descended from the Turco-Mongol conqueror Timur on his father's side and from Chagatai, the second son of the Mongol ruler Genghis Khan, on his mother's side. Ousted from his ancestral domains in C