Haakon VII of Norway
Haakon VII, known as Prince Carl of Denmark until 1905, was a Danish prince who became the first king of Norway after the 1905 dissolution of the union with Sweden. He reigned from November 1905 until his death in September 1957; as one of the few elected monarchs, Haakon won the respect and affection of his people. He played a pivotal role in uniting the Norwegian nation in its resistance to the German invasion and subsequent five-year-long occupation of his country during World War II. Regarded as one of the greatest Norwegians of the twentieth century, he is revered for his courage during the German invasion—he threatened abdication if the government cooperated with the invading Germans—and for his leadership and preservation of Norwegian unity during the occupation, he became King of Norway before older brother became kings of Denmark. During his reign, he saw his father, his brother and his nephew, Frederick IX, ascend the throne of Denmark in 1906, 1912 and 1947, he died at the age of 85 on 21 September 1957, after having reigned for nearly 52 years.
He was succeeded by his only son, Olav V. Born Christian Frederik Carl Georg Valdemar Axel on 3 August 1872 at Charlottenlund Palace near Copenhagen, Prince Carl of Denmark was the second son of King Frederik VIII of Denmark and his wife Louise, he was a younger brother of Christian X, a paternal grandson of King Christian IX of Denmark, a maternal grandson of King Charles XV of Sweden. Prince Carl belonged to the Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg branch of the House of Oldenburg; the House of Oldenburg had been the Danish royal family since 1448. The house was from northern Germany, where the Glucksburg branch held their small fief; the family had permanent links with Norway beginning from the late Middle Ages. Several of his paternal ancestors had been kings of independent Norway. Christian Frederick, King of Norway in 1814, the first king of the Norwegian 1814 constitution and struggle for independence, was his great-granduncle. Prince Carl was raised in the royal household in Copenhagen and educated at the Royal Danish Naval Academy from 1889 to 1893, graduating as a second lieutenant in the Royal Danish Navy.
In 1894 he was promoted to the rank of first lieutenant and remained in service with the Royal Danish Navy until 1905. At Buckingham Palace on 22 July 1896, Prince Carl married his first cousin Princess Maud of Wales, youngest daughter of the future King Edward VII of the United Kingdom and his wife, Princess Alexandra of Denmark, eldest daughter of King Christian IX of Denmark and Princess Louise of Hesse-Kassel, their son, Prince Alexander, the future Crown Prince Olav, was born on 2 July 1903. After the Union between Sweden and Norway was dissolved in 1905, a committee of the Norwegian government identified several princes of European royal houses as candidates to become Norway's first king of its own since 1387. Prince Carl became the leading candidate because he was descended from independent Norwegian kings, he had a son, providing an heir-apparent to the throne, the fact that his wife, Princess Maud, was a member of the British Royal Family was viewed by many as an advantage to the newly independent Norwegian nation.
The democratically-minded Carl, aware that Norway was still debating whether to remain a kingdom or to switch instead to a republican system of government, was flattered by the Norwegian government's overtures, but he made his acceptance of the offer conditional on the holding of a referendum to show whether monarchy was the choice of the Norwegian people. After the referendum overwhelmingly confirmed by a 79 percent majority that Norwegians desired to retain a monarchy, Prince Carl was formally offered the throne of Norway by the Storting and was elected on 18 November 1905; when Carl accepted the offer that same evening, he endeared himself to his adopted country by taking the Old Norse name of Haakon, a name which had not been used by kings of Norway for over 500 years. In so doing, he succeeded his maternal great-uncle, Oscar II of Sweden, who had abdicated the Norwegian throne in October following the agreement between Sweden and Norway on the terms of the separation of the union; the new royal family of Norway left Denmark on the Danish royal yacht Dannebrog and sailed into Oslofjord.
At Oscarsborg Fortress, they boarded the Norwegian naval ship Heimdal. After a three-day journey, they arrived in Kristiania early on the morning of 25 November 1905. Two days Haakon took the oath as Norway's first independent king in 518 years; the coronation of Haakon and Maud took place in Nidaros Cathedral in Trondheim on 22 June 1906. King Haakon gained much sympathy from the Norwegian people, he traveled extensively through Norway. Although the Constitution of Norway vests the King with considerable executive powers, in practice nearly all major governmental decisions were made by the Government in his name. Haakon confined himself to non-partisan roles without interfering in politics, a
Norwegian Constitution Day
Norwegian Constitution Day is the national day of Norway and is an official public holiday observed on May 17 each year. Among Norwegians, the day is referred to as syttende mai, Nasjonaldagen or Grunnlovsdagen, although the latter is less frequent; the Constitution of Norway was signed at Eidsvoll on May 17 in the year 1814. The constitution declared Norway to be an independent kingdom in an attempt to avoid being ceded to Sweden after Denmark–Norway's devastating defeat in the Napoleonic Wars; the celebration of this day began spontaneously among others from early on. However, Norway was at that time in a union with Sweden and for some years the King of Sweden and Norway were reluctant to allow the celebrations. For a few years during the 1820s, King Karl Johan banned it, believing that celebrations like this were in fact a kind of protest and disregard — revolt — against the union; the king's attitude changed after the Battle of the Square in 1829, an incident which resulted in such a commotion that the king had to allow commemorations on the day.
It was, not until 1833 that public addresses were held, official celebration was initiated near the monument of former government minister Christian Krohg, who had spent much of his political life curbing the personal power of the monarch. The address was held by Henrik Wergeland witnessed and accounted for by an informant dispatched by the king himself. After 1864 the day became more established when the first children's parade was launched in Christiania, at first consisting only of boys; this initiative was taken by Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson, although Wergeland made the first known children's parade at Eidsvoll around 1820. It was only in 1899. In 1905, the union with Sweden was dissolved and Prince Carl of Denmark was chosen to be King of an independent Norway, under the name Haakon VII; this ended any Swedish concern for the activities of the National Day. By historical coincidence, the Second World War ended in Norway nine days before that year's Constitution Day, on May 8, 1945, when the occupying German forces surrendered.
If The Liberation Day is an official flag day in Norway, the day is not an official holiday and is not celebrated. Instead, a new and broader meaning has been added to the celebration of Norwegian Constitution Day on May 17. A noteworthy aspect of the Norwegian Constitution Day is its non-military nature. All over Norway, children's parades with an abundance of flags form the central elements of the celebration; each elementary school district arranges its own parade with marching bands between schools. The parade takes the children through the community making stops at homes of senior citizens, war memorials, etc; the longest parade is in Oslo, where some 100,000 people travel to the city centre to participate in the main festivities. This is broadcast on TV every year, with comments on costumes, etc. together with local reports from celebrations around the country. The massive Oslo parade includes some 100 schools, marching bands, passes the royal palace where the royal family greet the people from the main balcony.
A school's children parade will consist of some senior school children carrying the school's official banner, followed by a handful of other older children carrying full size Norwegian flags, the school's marching band. After the band, the rest of the school children follow with hand-sized flags with the junior forms first, behind self-made banners for each form or individual class. Nearby kindergartens may have been invited to join in; as the parade passes, bystanders join in behind the official parade, follow the parade back to the school. Depending on the community, the parade may make stops at particular sites along the route, such as a nursing home or war memorial. In Oslo the parade stops at the Royal Palace while Skaugum, the home of the crown prince, has been a traditional waypoint for parades in Asker. During the parade a marching band will play and the children will sing lyrics about the celebration of the National Day; the parade concludes with the stationary singing of the national anthem "Ja, vi elsker dette landet", the royal anthem "Kongesangen".
In addition to flags, people wear red and blue ribbons. Although a long-standing tradition, it has become more popular for men and children to wear traditional outfits, called bunad; the children make a lot of noise shouting "Hurra!", blowing whistles and shaking rattles. All over Norway are memorials to the fallen at wars and to other notable national people honored with speeches and wreaths early in the morning. At many places at noon, salute is fired. In addition to children's parades, there are parades for the public, where every citizen is welcome to join in; these are led by marching bands and local boy scouts and girl guides, local choirs, NGOs etc. This takes place in the early morning or in the afternoon, after the school's parade. All parades end with speeches. Both grown-ups and older children are invited to speak. After the parades, there are games for the children, a lot of ice cream, pop and hot-dogs are consumed; the graduating class from videregående the Norwegian equivalent of high school, known as russ, has its own celebration on May 17, staying up all night and making the rounds through the community.
The russ have their own parades in the day around 4 or 5 PM. In this parade, russ will parad
Olaf II of Norway
Olaf II Haraldsson known as St. Olaf, was King of Norway from 1015 to 1028, he was posthumously given the title Rex Perpetuus Norvegiae and canonised at Nidaros by Bishop Grimkell, one year after his death in the Battle of Stiklestad on 29 July 1030. His remains were enshrined in Nidaros Cathedral, built over his burial site, his sainthood encouraged the widespread adoption of the Christian religion among the Vikings / Norsemen in Scandinavia. Olaf's local canonisation was in 1164 confirmed by Pope Alexander III, making him a universally recognised saint of the Roman Catholic Church, following the reformation he was a commemorated historical figure among some members of the Lutheran and Anglican Communions, he is a canonised saint of the Eastern Orthodox Church and one of the last famous Western saints before the Great Schism. The saga of Olav Haraldsson and the legend of Olaf the Saint became central to a national identity. During the period of Romantic Nationalism, Olaf was a symbol of Norwegian independence and pride.
Saint Olaf is symbolised by the axe in Norway's coat of arms and Olsok is still his day of celebration. Many Christian institutions with Scandinavian links as well as Norway's Order of St. Olav are named after him. St. Olaf II's Old Norse name is Ólafr Haraldsson. During his lifetime he was known as Olaf'the fat' or'the stout' or as Olaf'the big'. In Norway today, he is referred to as Olav den hellige or Heilage-Olav in honour of his sainthood. Olaf Haraldsson had the given name Óláfr in Old Norse. Olav is the modern equivalent in Norwegian often spelt Olaf, his name in Icelandic is Ólafur, in Faroese Ólavur, in Swedish Olof. Olave was the traditional spelling in England, preserved in the name of medieval churches dedicated to him. Other names, such as Oláfr hinn helgi, Olavus rex, Olaf are used interchangeably, he is sometimes referred to as Rex Perpetuus Norvegiae, a designation which goes back to the 13th century. St. Olaf was born in Ringerike, his mother was Åsta Gudbrandsdatter, his father was Harald Grenske, great-great-grandchild of Harald Fairhair, the first king of Norway.
Harald Grenske died. She married Sigurd Syr, with whom she had other children including Harald Hardrada, who would reign as a future king of Norway. There are many texts giving information concerning Olaf Haraldsson; the oldest source that we have is the Glælognskviða or "Sea-Calm Poem", composed by Þórarinn loftunga, an Icelander. It mentions some of the famous miracles attributed to him. Olaf is mentioned in the Norwegian synoptic histories; these include the Ágrip af Nóregskonungasögum, the Historia Norwegiae and a Latin text, Historia de Antiquitate Regum Norwagiensium by Theodoric the Monk. Icelanders wrote extensively about Olaf and we have several Icelandic sagas about him; these include: Morkinskinna. The famous Heimskringla, written by Snorri Sturluson bases its account of Olaf on the earlier Fagrskinna. We have the important Oldest Saga of St. Olaf, important to scholars for its constant use of skaldic verses, many of which are attributed to Olaf himself. There are many hagiographic sources describing St. Olaf, but these focus on miracles attributed to him and cannot be used to recreate his life.
A notable one is the Miracles of the Blessed Olafr. A used account of Olaf's life is found in Heimskringla from c. 1225. Although its facts are dubious, the saga recounts Olaf's deeds. About 1008, Olaf landed on the Estonian island of Saaremaa; the Osilians, taken by surprise, had at first agreed to pay the demands made by Olaf, but gathered an army during the negotiations and attacked the Norwegians. Olaf won the battle, it is said that Olaf had participated alongside fellow Viking Thorkell the Tall in the Siege of Canterbury in 1011. Olaf sailed to the southern coast of Finland sometime in 1008; the journey resulted in the Battle at Herdaler where Olaf and his men were ambushed in the woods. Olaf made it back to his boats, he ordered his ships to take off though a storm was rising. Finns started a pursuit and made the same progress on land as Olaf and his men made with ships. Despite these events they survived; the exact location of the battle is uncertain and the Finnish equivalent for the place Herdaler is not known.
It is suggested. As a teenager he went to the Baltic to Denmark and to England. Skaldic poetry suggests he led a successful seaborne attack which pulled down London Bridge, though this is not confirmed by Anglo-Saxon sources; this may have been in 1014, restoring London and the English throne to Æthelred the Unready and removing Cnut. Olaf saw it as his call to unite Norway into one kingdom, as his ancestor Harald Fairhair had succeeded in doing. On the way home he wintered with Duke Richard II of Normandy; this region had been conquered by Norsemen in the year 881. Duke Richard was himself an ardent Christian, the Normans had previously converted to Christianity. Before leaving, Olaf was baptised in Rouen in the pre-romanesque Notre-Dame Cathedral by the Norman duke's brother Robert the Dane, archbishop of Normand
The National Socialist German Workers' Party referred to in English as the Nazi Party, was a far-right political party in Germany, active between 1920 and 1945, that created and supported the ideology of National Socialism. Its precursor, the German Workers' Party, existed from 1919 to 1920; the Nazi Party emerged from the German nationalist and populist Freikorps paramilitary culture, which fought against the communist uprisings in post-World War I Germany. The party was created to draw workers away into völkisch nationalism. Nazi political strategy focused on anti-big business, anti-bourgeois, anti-capitalist rhetoric, although this was downplayed to gain the support of business leaders, in the 1930s the party's main focus shifted to anti-Semitic and anti-Marxist themes. Pseudo-scientific racist theories were central to Nazism, expressed in the idea of a "people's community"; the party aimed to unite "racially desirable" Germans as national comrades, while excluding those deemed either to be political dissidents, physically or intellectually inferior, or of a foreign race.
The Nazis sought to strengthen the Germanic people, the "Aryan master race", through racial purity and eugenics, broad social welfare programs, a collective subordination of individual rights, which could be sacrificed for the good of the state on behalf of the people. To protect the supposed purity and strength of the Aryan race, the Nazis sought to exterminate Jews, Romani and most other Slavs, along with the physically and mentally handicapped, they disenfranchised and segregated homosexuals, Jehovah's Witnesses and political opponents. The persecution reached its climax when the party-controlled German state set in motion the Final Solution–an industrial system of genocide which achieved the murder of an estimated 5.5 to 6 million Jews and millions of other targeted victims, in what has become known as the Holocaust. Adolf Hitler, the party's leader since 1921, was appointed Chancellor of Germany by President Paul von Hindenburg on 30 January 1933. Hitler established a totalitarian regime known as the Third Reich.
Following the defeat of the Third Reich at the conclusion of World War II in Europe, the party was "declared to be illegal" by the Allied powers, who carried out denazification in the years after the war. Nazi, the informal and derogatory term for a party member, abbreviates the party's name, was coined in analogy with Sozi, an abbreviation of Sozialdemokrat. Members of the party referred to themselves as Nationalsozialisten as Nazis; the term Parteigenosse was used among Nazis, with its corresponding feminine form Parteigenossin. The term was in use before the rise of the party as a colloquial and derogatory word for a backward peasant, an awkward and clumsy person, it derived from Ignaz, a shortened version of Ignatius, a common name in the Nazis' home region of Bavaria. Opponents seized on this, the long-existing Sozi, to attach a dismissive nickname to the National Socialists. In 1933, when Adolf Hitler assumed power in the German government, the usage of "Nazi" diminished in Germany, although Austrian anti-Nazis continued to use the term, the use of "Nazi Germany" and "Nazi regime" was popularised by anti-Nazis and German exiles abroad.
Thereafter, the term spread into other languages and was brought back to Germany after World War II. In English, the term is not considered slang, has such derivatives as Nazism and denazification; the party grew out of smaller political groups with a nationalist orientation that formed in the last years of World War I. In 1918, a league called the Freier Arbeiterausschuss für einen guten Frieden was created in Bremen, Germany. On 7 March 1918, Anton Drexler, an avid German nationalist, formed a branch of this league in Munich. Drexler was a local locksmith, a member of the militarist Fatherland Party during World War I and was bitterly opposed to the armistice of November 1918 and the revolutionary upheavals that followed. Drexler followed the views of militant nationalists of the day, such as opposing the Treaty of Versailles, having antisemitic, anti-monarchist and anti-Marxist views, as well as believing in the superiority of Germans whom they claimed to be part of the Aryan "master race".
However, he accused international capitalism of being a Jewish-dominated movement and denounced capitalists for war profiteering in World War I. Drexler saw the political violence and instability in Germany as the result of the Weimar Republic being out-of-touch with the masses the lower classes. Drexler emphasised the need for a synthesis of völkisch nationalism with a form of economic socialism, in order to create a popular nationalist-oriented workers' movement that could challenge the rise of Communism and internationalist politics; these were all well-known themes popular with various Weimar paramilitary groups such as the Freikorps. Drexler's movement received support from some influential figures. Supporter Dietrich Eckart, a well-to-do journalist, brought military figure Felix Graf von Bothmer, a prominent supporter of the concept of "national socialism", to address the movement. In 1918, Karl Harrer convinced Drexler and several others to form the Politischer Arbeiterzirkel; the members met perio
Runes are the letters in a set of related alphabets known as runic alphabets, which were used to write various Germanic languages before the adoption of the Latin alphabet and for specialised purposes thereafter. The Scandinavian variants are known as futhark or fuþark. Runology is the study of the runic alphabets, runic inscriptions and their history. Runology forms a specialised branch of Germanic linguistics; the earliest runic inscriptions date from around 150 AD. The characters were replaced by the Latin alphabet as the cultures that had used runes underwent Christianisation, by 700 AD in central Europe and 1100 AD in northern Europe. However, the use of runes persisted for specialized purposes in northern Europe; until the early 20th century, runes were used in rural Sweden for decorative purposes in Dalarna and on Runic calendars. The three best-known runic alphabets are the Elder Futhark, the Anglo-Saxon Futhorc, the Younger Futhark; the Younger Futhark is divided further into the long-branch runes.
The Younger Futhark developed further into the Medieval runes, the Dalecarlian runes. The runic alphabet is a derivation of the Old Italic scripts of antiquity, with the addition of some innovations. Which variant of the Old Italic family in particular gave rise to the runes is uncertain. Suggestions include Raetic, Etruscan, or Old Latin as candidates. At the time, all of these scripts had the same angular letter shapes suited for epigraphy, which would become characteristic of the runes; the process of transmission of the script is unknown. The oldest inscriptions are found in northern Germany. A "West Germanic hypothesis" suggests transmission via Elbe Germanic groups, while a "Gothic hypothesis" presumes transmission via East Germanic expansion; the runes were in use among the Germanic peoples from the 1st or 2nd century AD. This period corresponds to the late Common Germanic stage linguistically, with a continuum of dialects not yet separated into the three branches of centuries: North Germanic, West Germanic, East Germanic.
No distinction is made in surviving runic inscriptions between long and short vowels, although such a distinction was present phonologically in the spoken languages of the time. There are no signs for labiovelars in the Elder Futhark The term runes is used to distinguish these symbols from Latin and Greek letters, it is attested on a 6th-century Alamannic runestaff as runa and as runo on the 4th-century Einang stone. The name comes from the Germanic root run-, meaning "secret" or "whisper". In Old Irish Gaelic, the word rún means "mystery", "secret", "intention" or "affectionate love." In Welsh and Old English, the word rhin and rūn means "mystery", "secret", "secret writing", or sometimes in the extreme sense of the word, "miracle". Ogham is a Celtic script carved in the Norse manner; the root run- can be found in the Baltic languages, meaning "speech". In Lithuanian, runoti means both "to cut" and "to speak". According to another theory, the Germanic root comes from the Indo-European root *reuə- "dig".
The Finnish term for rune, means "scratched letter". The Finnish word runo means "poem" and comes from the same source as the English word "rune"; the runes developed centuries after the Old Italic alphabets from which they are historically derived. The debate on the development of the runic script concerns the question regarding which of the Italic alphabets should be taken as their point of origin and which, if any, signs should be considered original innovations added to the letters found in the Italic scripts; the historical context of the script's origin is the cultural contact between Germanic people, who served as mercenaries in the Roman army, the Italian peninsula during the Roman imperial period. The formation of the Elder Futhark was complete by the early 5th century, with the Kylver Stone being the first evidence of the futhark ordering as well as of the p rune; the Raetic alphabet of Bolzano is advanced as a candidate for the origin of the runes, with only five Elder Futhark runes having no counterpart in the Bolzano alphabet.
Scandinavian scholars tend to favor derivation from the Latin alphabet itself over Raetic candidates. A "North Etruscan" thesis is supported by the inscription on the Negau helmet dating to the 2nd century BC; this features a Germanic name, Harigast. Giuliano and Larissa Bonfante suggest that runes derived from some North Italic alphabet Venetic: but since Romans conquered Veneto after 200 BC, the Latin alphabet became prominent and Venetic culture diminished in importance, Germanic people could have adopted the Venetic alphabet within 3rd century BC or earlier; the angular shapes of the runes are shared with most contemporary alphabets of the period that were used for carving in wood or stone. There are no horizontal strokes: when
The Norwegian Campaign was the attempted Allied liberation of the Scandinavian nation of Norway from Nazi Germany during the early stages of World War II and directly following the German invasion and occupation of the Norwegian mainland and government. It took place from April 9, 1940, until June 10, 1940; the Allied campaign did not succeed, it resulted in the fleeing of King Haakon VII along with the remainder of the royal family to Great Britain. In April, the United Kingdom and France came to Norway's aid with an expeditionary force. Despite moderate success in the northern parts of Norway, the Allies were compelled to withdraw by Germany's invasion of France in May, the Norwegian government sought exile in London; the campaign ended with the occupation of Norway by Germany, the continued fighting by exiled Norwegian forces from abroad. The 62 days of fighting made Norway the nation that withstood a German land invasion for the second longest period of time, after the Soviet Union. Britain and France had signed military assistance treaties with Poland and two days after the German Invasion of Poland, both declared war against Nazi Germany.
However, neither country mounted significant offensive operations and for several months no major engagements occurred in what became known as the Phoney War or "Twilight War". Winston Churchill in particular wished to move the war into a more active phase, in contrast to Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain. During this time both sides wished to open secondary fronts. For the Allies, in particular the French, this was based on a desire to avoid repeating the trench warfare of the First World War, which had occurred along the Franco-German border. Following the outbreak of the Second World War, the Norwegian government had mobilized parts of the Norwegian Army and all but two of the Royal Norwegian Navy's warships; the Norwegian Army Air Service and the Royal Norwegian Navy Air Service were called up to protect Norwegian neutrality from violations by the warring countries. The first such violations were the sinkings in Norwegian territorial waters of several British ships by German U-boats. In the following months aircraft from all the belligerents violated Norwegian neutrality.
After the outbreak of war, the British began pressuring the Norwegian government to provide the United Kingdom with the services of the Norwegian merchant navy, themselves being in dire need of shipping in order to oppose the Nazi regime. Following protracted negotiations between 25 September and 20 November 1939, the Norwegians agreed to charter 150 tankers, as well as other ships with a tonnage of 450,000 gross tons; the Norwegian government's concern for the country's supply lines played an important role in persuading them to accept the agreement. Norway, although neutral, was considered strategically important for both sides of the war for several reasons. First was the importance of the iron ore that came through the port of Narvik, from which large quantities of iron ore from Sweden, were exported. Narvik became of greater significance to the British when it became apparent that Operation Catherine, a plan to gain control of the Baltic Sea, would not be realized. Großadmiral Erich Raeder had pointed out several times in 1939 the potential danger to Germany of Britain seizing the initiative and launching its own invasion in Scandinavia – if the powerful Royal Navy had bases at Bergen and Trondheim, the North Sea would be closed to Germany, the Kriegsmarine would be at risk in the Baltic.
Controlling Norway would be a strategic asset in the Battle of the Atlantic. The capture of ports would provide holes in the blockade of Germany, allowing the latter access to the Atlantic Ocean. With these ports, it would allow Germany to use its sea power against the Allies. Access to Norwegian air bases would allow German reconnaissance aircraft to operate far over the North Atlantic, while German U-boats and surface ships operating out of Norwegian naval bases were able to break the British blockade line across the North Sea and attack convoys heading to Great Britain; when the Soviet Union started its attack against Finland on 30 November 1939, the Allies found themselves aligned with Norway and Sweden in support of Finland against the much larger aggressor. After the outbreak of war between Finland and the Soviet Union, Norway mobilized larger land forces than what had been considered necessary. By early 1940 their 6th Division in Finnmark and Troms fielded 9,500 troops to defend against Soviet attack, positioned in the eastern regions of Finnmark.
Parts of the 6th Division's forces remained in Finnmark after the German invasion, guarding against a possible Soviet attack. During the Winter War the Norwegian authorities secretly broke the country's own neutrality by sending the Finns a shipment of 12 Ehrhardt 7.5 cm Model 1901 artillery pieces and 12,000 shells, as well as allowing the British to use Norwegian territory to transfer aircraft and other weaponry to Finland. This presented an opportunity to the Allies who, while indifferent to Finland saw an opportunity to use the pretence of sending troop support to additionally occupy ore fields in Sweden and ports in Norway; the plan, promoted by the British General Edmund Ironside, included two divisions landing at Narvik, five battalions somewhere in Mid-Norway, another two divisions at Trondheim. The French government pushed for action to be taken to confront the Germans away from France; this movement caused the Germans concern. The Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact had placed Finland within the Soviet sphere of interest, the Germans therefore claim
The Nobel Prize is a set of annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances. The will of the Swedish scientist Alfred Nobel established the five Nobel prizes in 1895; the prizes in Chemistry, Peace and Physiology or Medicine were first awarded in 1901. The prizes are regarded as the most prestigious awards available in the fields of chemistry, peace activism and physiology or medicine. In 1968, Sweden's central bank, Sveriges Riksbank, established the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel, although not a Nobel Prize, has become informally known as the "Nobel Prize in Economics"; the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences awards the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, the Nobel Prize in Physics, the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel. Between 1901 and 2018, the Nobel Prizes were awarded 590 times to 935 organizations. With some receiving the Nobel Prize more than once, this makes a total of 27 organizations and 908 individuals.
The prize ceremonies take place annually in Sweden. Each recipient receives a gold medal, a diploma, a sum of money, decided by the Nobel Foundation. Medals made before 1980 were struck in 23-carat gold, in 18-carat green gold plated with a 24-carat gold coating; the prize is not awarded posthumously. A prize may not be shared among more than three individuals, although the Nobel Peace Prize can be awarded to organizations of more than three people. Alfred Nobel was born on 21 October 1833 in Stockholm, into a family of engineers, he was a chemist and inventor. In 1894, Nobel purchased the Bofors iron and steel mill, which he made into a major armaments manufacturer. Nobel invented ballistite; this invention was a precursor to many smokeless military explosives the British smokeless powder cordite. As a consequence of his patent claims, Nobel was involved in a patent infringement lawsuit over cordite. Nobel amassed a fortune during his lifetime, with most of his wealth coming from his 355 inventions, of which dynamite is the most famous.
In 1888, Nobel was astonished to read his own obituary, titled The merchant of death is dead, in a French newspaper. As it was Alfred's brother Ludvig who had died, the obituary was eight years premature; the article made him apprehensive about how he would be remembered. This inspired him to change his will. On 10 December 1896, Alfred Nobel died in his villa in San Remo, from a cerebral haemorrhage, he was 63 years old. Nobel wrote several wills during his lifetime, he composed the last over a year before he died, signing it at the Swedish–Norwegian Club in Paris on 27 November 1895. To widespread astonishment, Nobel's last will specified that his fortune be used to create a series of prizes for those who confer the "greatest benefit on mankind" in physics, physiology or medicine and peace. Nobel bequeathed 94 % of 31 million SEK, to establish the five Nobel Prizes; because of skepticism surrounding the will, it was not until 26 April 1897 that it was approved by the Storting in Norway. The executors of Nobel's will, Ragnar Sohlman and Rudolf Lilljequist, formed the Nobel Foundation to take care of Nobel's fortune and organised the award of prizes.
Nobel's instructions named a Norwegian Nobel Committee to award the Peace Prize, the members of whom were appointed shortly after the will was approved in April 1897. Soon thereafter, the other prize-awarding organizations were designated; these were Karolinska Institute on 7 June, the Swedish Academy on 9 June, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences on 11 June. The Nobel Foundation reached an agreement on guidelines for. In 1905, the personal union between Sweden and Norway was dissolved. According to his will and testament read in Stockholm on 30 December 1896, a foundation established by Alfred Nobel would reward those who serve humanity; the Nobel Prize was funded by Alfred Nobel's personal fortune. According to the official sources, Alfred Nobel bequeathed from the shares 94% of his fortune to the Nobel Foundation that now forms the economic base of the Nobel Prize; the Nobel Foundation was founded as a private organization on 29 June 1900. Its function is to manage the finances and administration of the Nobel Prizes.
In accordance with Nobel's will, the primary task of the Foundation is to manage the fortune Nobel left. Robert and Ludvig Nobel were involved in the oil business in Azerbaijan, according to Swedish historian E. Bargengren, who accessed the Nobel family archives, it was this "decision to allow withdrawal of Alfred's money from Baku that became the decisive factor that enabled the Nobel Prizes to be established". Another important task of the Nobel Foundation is to market the prizes internationally and to oversee informal ad