Tehran is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province. It is ranked 29th in the world by the population of its metropolitan area, in the Classical era, part of the present-day city of Tehran was occupied by a Median city that in the Avesta occurs as Rhaga. It was destroyed by the Mongols in the early 13th century, the capital has been moved several times throughout the history, and Tehran is the 32nd national capital of Iran. The city was the seat of the Qajars and Pahlavis, the two last imperial dynasties of Iran. It is home to historical collections, such as the royal complexes of Golestan, Sadabad. Large scale demolition and rebuilding began in the 1920s, and Tehran has been a destination for the migrations from all over Iran since the 20th century. Tabiat Bridge, which was completed in 2014, is considered the third symbol of the city. There have been plans to relocate Irans capital from Tehran to another area, due mainly to air pollution, to date, no definitive plans have been approved. A2016 survey of 230 cities by consultant Mercer ranked Tehran 203rd for quality of living, according to the Global Destinations Cities Index in 2016, Tehran is among the top ten fastest growing destinations. The origin of the name Tehran is uncertain, the settlement of Tehran dates back over 7,000 years. The present-day city of Tehran was a suburb of an important Median city that was known as Rhaga in Old Persian, in the Avestas Videvdat, Rhaga is mentioned as the twelfth sacred place created by the Ohrmazd. In Old Persian inscriptions, Rhaga appears as a province and it was a major area for the Iranian tribes of Medes and Achaemenids. From Rhaga, Darius the Great sent reinforcements to his father Hystaspes, in some Middle Persian texts, Rhaga is given as the birthplace of Zoroaster, although modern historians generally place the birth of Zoroaster in Khorasan. Derived into Modern Persian as Rey, it now as a city located towards the southern end of the modern-day city of Tehran. Mount Damavand, the highest peak of Iran, which is located near Tehran, is an important location in Ferdowsis Shahname, the long Iranian epic poem that is based on the ancient epics of Iran. It appears in the epics as the birthplace of Manuchehr, the residence of Keyumars, the place where Freydun binds the dragon fiend Aži Dahāka, during the Sassanid era, in 641, Yazdgerd III issued his last appeal to the nation from Rey, before fleeing to Khorasan. Rey was dominated by the Parthian Mihran family, and Siyavakhsh—the son of Mihran the son of Bahram Chobin—who resisted the Muslim Invasion, because of this resistance, when the Arabs captured Rey, they ordered the town to be destroyed and ordered Farrukhzad to rebuild the town anew. In the 9th century, Tehran was a well known village, but less known than the city of Rey, the medieval writer Najm od Din Razi declared the population of Rey about 500,000 before the Mongol Invasion
Iran, also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a sovereign state in Western Asia. Comprising a land area of 1,648,195 km2, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East, with 82.8 million inhabitants, Iran is the worlds 17th-most-populous country. It is the country with both a Caspian Sea and an Indian Ocean coastline. The countrys central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, Tehran is the countrys capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is the site of to one of the worlds oldest civilizations, the area was first unified by the Iranian Medes in 625 BC, who became the dominant cultural and political power in the region. The empire collapsed in 330 BC following the conquests of Alexander the Great, under the Sassanid Dynasty, Iran again became one of the leading powers in the world for the next four centuries. Beginning in 633 AD, Arabs conquered Iran and largely displaced the indigenous faiths of Manichaeism and Zoroastrianism by Islam, Iran became a major contributor to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential scientists, scholars, artists, and thinkers. During the 18th century, Iran reached its greatest territorial extent since the Sassanid Empire, through the late 18th and 19th centuries, a series of conflicts with Russia led to significant territorial losses and the erosion of sovereignty. Popular unrest culminated in the Persian Constitutional Revolution of 1906, which established a monarchy and the countrys first legislative body. Following a coup instigated by the U. K. Growing dissent against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution, Irans rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 21 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and 11th-largest in the world. Iran is a member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC. Its political system is based on the 1979 Constitution which combines elements of a democracy with a theocracy governed by Islamic jurists under the concept of a Supreme Leadership. A multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, most inhabitants are Shia Muslims, the largest ethnic groups in Iran are the Persians, Azeris, Kurds and Lurs. Historically, Iran has been referred to as Persia by the West, due mainly to the writings of Greek historians who called Iran Persis, meaning land of the Persians. As the most extensive interactions the Ancient Greeks had with any outsider was with the Persians, however, Persis was originally referred to a region settled by Persians in the west shore of Lake Urmia, in the 9th century BC. The settlement was then shifted to the end of the Zagros Mountains. In 1935, Reza Shah requested the international community to refer to the country by its native name, opposition to the name change led to the reversal of the decision, and Professor Ehsan Yarshater, editor of Encyclopædia Iranica, propagated a move to use Persia and Iran interchangeably
Goalkeeper (association football)
Goalkeeper, often shortened to keeper or goalie, is one of the major positions of association football. It is the most specialised position in the sport, the goalkeepers primary role is to prevent the opposing team from successfully moving the ball over the defended goal-line. This is accomplished by the moving into the path of the ball. Within the penalty area goalkeepers are able to use their hands, goalkeepers usually perform goal kicks, and also give commands to their defence during corner kicks, direct and indirect free kicks, and marking. Goalkeepers play an important role in directing on field strategy as they have a view of the entire pitch. If an attacker on the opposing team obstructs the keeper from catching or saving the ball, for example, in a corner, it will normally be a free kick. If a goalkeeper is injured or sent off, a goalkeeper has to take their place. In order to replace a goalkeeper who is sent off, a team usually substitutes an outfield player for the backup keeper and they then play the remainder of the match with nine outfield players. Goalkeepers often have longer playing careers than players, many not retiring until their late thirties or early forties. This can be explained by noting that goalkeepers play a physically demanding position that requires significantly less running. For example, Peter Shilton played for 31 years between 1966 and 1997 before retiring at the age of 47. Because only one player can play in goal and the position is so specialised many professional teams on average especially at the highest level have one player as first-choice for many years, for example Gianlugi Buffon has played as first choice keeper for Juventus for more than 15 years. Petr Cech prior to his move to Aresnal was first choice keeper for Chelsea between 2004 and 2015, the squad number for a first choice goalkeeper is generally number 1. Although this is common, some goalkeepers now wear other numbers when in goal, association football, like many sports, has experienced many changes in tactics resulting in the generation and elimination of different positions. Goalkeeper is the position that is certain to have existed since the codification of the sport. The earliest account of football teams with player positions comes from Richard Mulcaster in 1581, the earliest specific reference to keeping goal comes from Cornish Hurling in 1602. One of these is appointed by lots, to the one side, there is assigned for their guard, a couple of their best stopping Hurlers. Other references to scoring goals begin in English literature in the early 16th century, for example, in John Days play The Blind Beggar of Bethnal Green, Ill play a gole at camp-ball
Esteghlal Tehran Football Club until 1979 known as Taj Tehran Football Club is an Iranian professional football club based in Tehran that plays in the Persian Gulf Pro League. Esteghlal F. C. is the club of the multisport Esteghlal Athletic. Founded in 1945 initially as Docharkhe Savaran meaning The Cyclists in Persian and later in 1949, the name of the club was finally modified into Esteghlal that is the current name of the club, meaning Independence, subsequent to the Islamic Revolution in 1979. In 1970, under the management of Zdravko Rajkov, Esteghlal Tehran became the first Iranian football club to win the Asian Club Championship and they have won several official titles on the national and international stage since 1970, including eight Iranian League titles and a record 6 Hazfi Cups. There are two stars above the teams official badge to represent winning two titles in Asian Club Championship. On September 20,1945 three Iranian military officers—Mirzani, Jananpour and Navab—started a sports club on Ferdowsi Street, Tehran, since the founders of the club were mostly interested in cycling, the clubs original name was Docharkhe Savaran, meaning The Cyclists in Persian. Esteghlal football club played its first official match in 1946, from the beginning Taj or Docharkeh Savaran competed in the Tehran Local League, which at the time was the highest ranked league in Iran. On March 6,1950, Taj played its first official game in front of over 20,000 spectators in Amjadieh Stadium against Shahin, later in that year, the clubs name was officially changed to Taj which means crown in Persian. In 1970, Taj defeated Hapoel Tel Aviv of Israel 2–1 in the final to win its first ever Asian Club Championship, after the revolution, any sign of the previous monarchist regime was not tolerated. During the 1980s, Esteghlal won the Tehran Football League twice, the 1989–90 season was a memorable one for Esteghlal. The club finished 1st in Group B of the Qods League, Esteghlal defeated Malavan 4–0 on aggregate to advance to the final against the hated rival, Persepolis. Esteghlal defeated Persepolis 2–1 through a 74th-minute goal by Samad Marfavi to win the Qods League, in the following season, Esteghlal made it to the final of the Hazfi Cup only to lose to Malavan on penalties. 1991 proved to be one of Esteghlals most memorable years as they won the Asian Club Championship for the 2nd time defeating Chinese club Liaoning 2–1, Esteghlal once again reached the final of the Asian Club Championship in 1999, this time losing to Japanese club Júbilo Iwata 1–2. 2001 marked the first year of the newly founded Iran Pro League, going into the final day, Esteghlal was on top of the leagues table, however, with an Esteghlal loss and a Persepolis win, Persepolis was crowned as the leagues inaugural champion. However, the 2001–02 Hazfi Cup provided some consolation for Esteghlal as they beat Fajr Sepasi 4–3 on aggregate to win the cup. The 2002–03 season was one of the worst years in club history, in July 2003, Amir Ghalenoi was appointed manager of Esteghlal. In his first year, Esteghlal finished runner-up in the league, Ghalenoi also made it to the final of the Hazfi Cup losing 2–5 on aggregate to Sepahan. His second season proved to be successful as Esteghlal finished 3rd
Shahin Tehran F.C.
Shahin Tehran Football Club is an Iranian football club based in Tehran, Iran. Shahin A. C. is located at East of Tehran in the Narmak neighborhood, Shahin was the most popular clubs in Iran before the 1960s and it had a rivalry with Taj Tehran. Their match was the most important derby of Iran at the time, Shahin F. C. was dissolved in 1966 for political reasons. Shahin was revived again after the Iranian Revolution in 1979, due to the Iran-Iraq War, The national league was not held during the 1980s, however, Shahin was one of the strongest teams in the provincial league of Tehran. They currently compete in the Tehran provincial league, the club also produced many famous Iranian players such as Masoud Boroumand, Homayoun Behzadi and Mehrab Shahrokhi. Shahin FC, without any doubt was the most popular club in the history of Iranian football. Shahin produced many talented players like Parviz Dehdari, Masoud Boroumand, Homayoun Behzadi, Jafar Kashani, Hossein Kalani, Hamid Shirzadegan and these talents made Shahin popular in the 1960s but its very popularity was viewed as a threat by the Iran Football Federation and the Keihan Varzeshi newspaper. The conflict between them became worse and on July 9,1967, two days after Shahins 3–0 win against Tehranjavan F. C. the Iran Sports Organization declared Shahin F. C. as dissolved. League attendance dropped and other clubs including Pas Tehran, Rah Ahan, in 1973 Shahin F. C. decided to come back but returned with the name of its former third team Shahbaz F. C. and participated in Takht Jamshid Cup professional soccer League. Shahbaz F. C. was leading the league in the 1978–1979 season which was unfinished due to Iranian Revolution in 1979. After the revolution, the club reverted to its name, Shahin. In 2009/10 Shahin was competing in the third ranked 2nd Division successfully until the last stage, in 2010/11 Shahin kept its place in the 3rd Division. In 2011/12 Shahin finished last in its group and therefore is relegated to the league for 2012/13. Shahin F. C. had several attached teams and branches under the name and license of Shahin F. C. in different cities of Iran, including Shahin Bushehr F. C. Shahin Ahvaz F. C. and Shahin Isfahan F. C. In 1967 due to the problems that arose in the Shahin F. C. organization. Some had to deactivate for a period of time, while other teams renamed and continued under different names, Persepolis F. C. started the 1968 season with Parviz Dehdari as manager. Persepolis F. C. using four Shahin players, had a match with Jam Abadan. After the match the remainder of the Shahin players joined Persepolis, although Shahin Tehran established in a new team under the name of Shahbaz, it was failed to get back its popularity again
Mohammedan Sporting Club (Dhaka)
Mohammedan Sporting Club Ltd. not to be confused with Mohammedan S. C. is a top sporting club in Bangladesh. MSC Ltd. is headquartered in Dhaka, with branches throughout the country. Their record attendance for a game is 45,000. They won the edition of the Bangladesh national top-flight league. Dhaka Mohammedan Sporting Club was formed in 1933, though others put it at 1938, although apparently, Dhaka Mohammedan was a branch of the Calcutta Mohammedan, the former was a club created through reorganisation of the Muslim Sporting Club formed at Hazaribag, Dhaka in 1927. After the Partition of Bengal in 1947, a vacuum was created in the arena of Dhaka. At that time, Mohammad Shahjahan, a football player of Calcutta Mohammedan came to Dhaka. He reorganised it and also developed its team as a very strong one. The achievements of the team, however, were not significant until 1955, dhakas football was dominated at the time by Dhaka Wanderers Club. Some star players and an official of the Wanderers had joined Dhaka Mohammedan in 1956, later, the players themselves took initiatives of organising the team for increasingly better performance. In 1961, Dhaka Mohammedan played in the match of the first division football league and in the next year. The club also won the ship of Independence Day Football Tournament of that same year. Later, Dhaka Mohammedan Club extended their participations in a number of games and sports including hockey, swimming, athletics, volleyball, table tennis. Abahani is considered to be the rival of Mohammedan. The club clinched the league championship title 15 times between 1957 and 1999 and during the same period, it was runners up 12 times. It was champion in the Dhaka Metropolitan Football League and in the Independence Cup Football Tournament, the club is five times champion in the Federation Cup Football. It became champion in the Ashis-Jabbar Shield Tournament held in Durgapur of West Bengal in 1982, in the international football tournaments, Aga Khan Gold Cup held in Dhaka, it was record champions in 1959,1964 and 1968 and runner up in 1966,1967 and 1976. They were once coached by Iranian superstar Nasser Hejazi, the clubs performance in cricket is marked by its becoming champion several times in the Dhaka Premier League and three times in Damal Summer Cricket League
Iran national football team
The National football team of Iran, also known as Team Melli, represents Iran in international football competitions and is governed by the Iran Football Federation. The national football team of Iran, known as Team Melli, ranks 1st in Asia, Iran is one of the most successful national teams in Asia with three Asian Cup championships. Iran has qualified for the World Cup four times but has never advanced past the group stage, Irans only win in the World Cup has been a 2–1 victory against the United States in 1998. The Iranian Football Federation was founded in 1920, in 1926 Tehran XI traveled across the border to Baku, USSR, this was the first away football match for an Iranian team. This Tehran Select team is the predecessor of Irans national football team. The first match that Team Melli played was on 23 August 1941, away at Kabul in a 1–0 win against British India, while Irans first FIFA international match was on 25 August 1941, away at Afghanistan. Iran won the Asian Cup three consecutive times, to which the team has not been able to add since, Iran lost two of three group stage matches against the Netherlands and Peru. After the 1979 Revolution, football was somewhat neglected and cast aside, during the 1980s, the Iranian national team did not feature in World Cup competitions due to the Iran–Iraq War and domestic football suffered the inevitable effects of conflict. The national team withdrew from the Asian qualifiers for the 1982 World Cup, the war and political upheavals left Iran without major club competitions until 1989 when the Qods League was established. A year later, the Qods League was renamed the Azadegan League, both games finished undecided, but Iran managed to qualify due to the away goals rule. Iran held Australia to a 1–1 draw at home, and a 2–2 draw in Melbourne, however, since Iran had scored more away goals, they were able to qualify for the Cup. At their first game of the Group F at the 1998 FIFA World Cup, Iran played well against Yugoslavia, losing narrowly 1–0, only to a free kick goal by Siniša Mihajlović. Iran recorded their first World Cup victory in the game, beating the United States 2–1, with Hamid Estili. The Iran vs USA World Cup match was preheated with much excitement because of each countrys political stance after the Iranian revolution and the Iran hostage crisis. However, in an act of defiance against all forms of hatred or politics in sports, following defeat against Iran, the United States was eliminated from the World Cup. Iran played against Germany in the third game, the goals were scored by Oliver Bierhoff and Jürgen Klinsmann. The one win and two losses meant Iran came third in the group standing and failed to make it to the next round. Iran finished first in the stage of the tournament
Kerman is the capital city of Kerman Province, Iran. At the 2011 census, its population was 821,374, in 221,389 households and it is the largest and most developed city in Kerman Province and the most important city in the southeast of Iran. It is also one of the largest cities of Iran in terms of area, Kerman is famous for its long history and strong cultural heritage. The city is home to many mosques and Zoroastrian fire temples. Kerman is also on the recent list of the worlds 1000 cleanest cities, Kerman became capital city of Iranian dynasties several times during its history. It is located on a large, flat plain,1,036 km south of Tehran, Kerman was founded as a defensive outpost, with the name Veh-Ardashir, by Ardeshir I, founder of the Sassanid Empire, in the 3rd century AD. After the Battle of Nahāvand in 642, the city came under Muslim rule, at first the citys relative isolation allowed Kharijites and Zoroastrians to thrive there, but the Kharijites were wiped out in 698, and the population was mostly Muslim by 725. Already in the century the city was famous for its manufacture of cashmere wool shawls. The name Kerman was adopted at some point in the tenth century, under the rule of the Seljuk Turks in the 11th and 12th centuries, Kerman remained virtually independent, conquering Oman and Fars. When Marco Polo visited Kerman in 1271, it had become a major trade emporium linking the Persian Gulf with Khorasan, subsequently, however, the city was sacked many times by various invaders. Kerman expanded rapidly during the Safavid Dynasty, carpets and rugs were exported to England and Germany during this period. In 1793 Lotf Ali Khan defeated the Qajars, and in 1794 he captured Kerman, but soon after he was besieged in Kerman for six months by Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar. Many women and children were sold into slavery, and in ninety days the city turned into ruins, however, the Zoroastrians of Kerman who had been strong supporters of Lotf Ali Khan suffered the wrath of the founder of Qajar dynasty the most during this period. The present city of Kerman was rebuilt in the 19th century to the northwest of the old city, Kerman is located on a high margin of Kavir-e Lut in the south-central part of Iran. The city is surrounded by mountains, Kerman is also located along the Saheb Al Zman mountain. The city is 1,755 m above sea level, making it third in elevation among provincial capitals in Iran, winter brings very cold nights to Kerman. Mountains in the south and southeast Jftan Joopar and Plvar and Kerman have snow all year round, Kerman is located at latitude 30.29 and longitude 57.06. The citys many districts are surrounded by mountains that bring variety to Kermans year-round weather pattern, the northern part of the city is located in an arid desert area, while the highland of the southern part of the city enjoys a more moderate climate
Bangladesh national football team
The Bangladesh national football team is the national team of Bangladesh controlled by the Bangladesh Football Federation. It is a member of the Asian Football Confederation, and became a member of FIFA in 1974 even though the Bangladesh Football Federation was first founded in 1972, Bangladesh was elected as member in the AFC Executive Committee 1982–86 and 1998–02. The current Executive Committee was elected democratically, under an AFC approved constitution and direct supervision of FIFA & AFC, bangladeshs national team debuted in 1973 and has yet to qualify for the World Cup finals. They were dismissed in the first round of their only Asian Cup appearance to date in 1980, but the nations best results came at South Asian level where it won the SAFF Championship once and were gold medalists in South Asian Games twice. As is the case elsewhere on the subcontinent, top-level football in Bangladesh is played somewhere in the shadow of the national cricket team. It was one of Southern Asias leading team in the 2000s, the first instance of a Bangladesh national football team was the emergence of the Shadhin Bangla football team during the 1971 liberation war. They toured throughout India to raise awareness and economic support for the liberation war. Following her independence from Pakistan achieved at the end of 1971, the Bangladesh football team played its first official game on July 26,1973, a 2–2 draw against Thailand. During the period between July 26 and August 14,1973, the team played 13 friendly matches against Asian teams, all hosted in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. One year later, the team played 2 more friendlies, this time in Bangkok. The next official matches came in 1978,2 friendly games against Malaysia and India, also in Bangkok, a heavy 4–0 defeat against Qatar followed, but a 4–1 win over the Afghans, the teams first ever victory, saw them qualify for the tournament. In preparation for the Asian Cup, Bangladesh played four friendly matches. The 1980 AFC Asian Cup was held in September 1980 in Kuwait and this was the only time that Bangladesh have qualified for a major tournament. In 1982, after a year and a half without any matches, the team played four games in Karachi, Pakistan, again suffering,3 defeats and a draw, with a heavy 9–0 loss, this time to Iran. The next five friendlies yielded 2 victories and 3 defeats, and by the 1984, the qualifiers for the 1984 AFC Asian Cup took place in August of that year, with Bangladesh matched with Iran and Syria from the 1980 tournament alongside Thailand, Indonesia and the Philippines. Bangladesh lost all but one of their games, a 3–2 defeat of the Philippines to salvage a little pride after yet another mauling by Iran. A month later, the team played friendlies against Maldives and Nepal, but Nepal answered the day after, defeating Bangladesh 4–2. In 1985 the team made its first attempt to qualify for the World Cup and was grouped with India, Indonesia, two wins from six saw Bangladesh finish bottom of their group
Bank Tejarat F.C.
Bank Tejarat Football Club was an Iranian football club based in Tehran, Iran. It was owned by Bank Tejarat, a state owned bank in Iran, in 1989, Parviz Abutaleb owner of Butan F. C. sold the rights and license of the club to Bank Tejarat. They are famous for launching the career of Iranian footballing legend Ali Daei and his coach was Amir hajrezaei who was head coach of the Iranian national under 17s team in 1990. From 1991-1994 godarz habibi was his assistant, in 1996 Tejarat started in the Tehran league division 1 again and in May of 2001 sold the rights and license of the club. Nasser Hejazi Hassan Rowshan Jalal Cherghpour
Foolad Mobarakeh Sepahan Football Club commonly known as Sepahan, is an Iranian football club based in Esfahan. They compete in Irans top-level league known as Persian Gulf Pro League and with 5 championships, in 2011 Sepahan won the first Asian treble. In 2002–03 season, they became the first non-Tehran based team to win the Iranian League title, Sepahan are the current champions of IPL in 2014–15 season. They are also the first and the only Iranian football club who won three titles in Iranian Football League history. Sepahan have been the most successful club in Iran since the establishment of Iran Pro League in 2001, with five IPL championships. They are also the first Iranian club who reached the AFC Champions League final in 2007, the Club is the football division of Foolad Mobarakeh Sepahan Sport Club and is owned by Mobarakeh Steel Co. In 1953, with the help of Iran national football team player Mahmoud Hariri the Shahin Isfahan football club was created and this club was one of the teams attached to the more popular and successful Shahin F. C. of Tehran. In 1963 Shahin as the representative of Isfahan Province became champions of Iran after a 1–1 draw against Tehran XI, in 1967 due to the problems that arose in the Shahin F. C. organization in Tehran, the Isfahan branch was forced to cease operations. The club changed its name to Sepahan, the club participated in the Takht Jamshid Cup league from 1974 to 1978. In the clubs first season in the Takht Jamshid Cup they finished in 10th place ahead of city rivals Zob Ahan, after the Revolution, they played in the local Isfahan leagues for many years until 1993. That year the club was purchased by the Siman-e-Sepahan factory of Isfahan and it participated in the Azadegan League until the year 2000, when Foolad Mobarekeh bought the team from the Siman factory. The team now plays under the name of Foolad Mobarakeh Sepahan, and enjoys good support by the club board. The club was able to demonstrate its worth when it captured the title in the 2002–03 season of the IPL. It also won the Hazfi Cup in 2004 and was able to qualify for another season of the ACL competition, with Luka Bonačić, Sepahan was able to once again win the Hazfi Cup on 22 September 2006. With this win, they gained Irans final and second spot in the AFC Champions League 2007, although they lost the final to Urawa Red Diamonds on aggregate, by reaching the final, Sepahan became the first Iranian club to qualify for the FIFA Club World Cup. Urawa Reds managed to defeat Sepahan for the time in just one month. By winning the Hazfi Cup once again in 2007, Sepahan also qualified for the AFC Champions League 2008, Sepahan has qualified for the AFC Champions League for the third consecutive time in 2009, coming as the Runners-up in Persian Gulf Cup 2007-08. Sepahan lost the title by one point to Persepolis F. C. who beat them 2–1 in the last match of the season with a winner six minutes into second half injury time
Machine Sazi F.C.
Machine Sazi Tabriz Football Club more commonly known as Machine Sazi is an Iranian football club based in Tabriz, East Azerbaijan, Iran who currently play in the Persian Gulf Pro League. The team is owned by Tabriz Municipality following a takeover in 2014, Machine Sazi were promoted to the Persian Gulf Pro League in 2016 after a 19-year absence from the top flight of Iranian football. The club competes in the Tabriz derby with rivals Tractor Sazi, Machine Sazi also has friendly rivalries with teams Gostaresh Foolad, Shahrdari Tabriz and have a friendship with Torpedo Moscow. In 1969, Machine Sazi Tabriz Industrial Group decided to create a new team by the name of Machine Sazi. Machine Sazi Tabriz football club played its first official match in 1970, the club became one of the most heavily supported teams in Tabriz after a couple of years. In 1973, the Takht Jamshid Cup was established, the Takht Jamshid Cup, was Irans first ever nationwide football league and Machine Sazi entered the league in its first year of establishment in 1973. The club participated in Takht Jamshid Cup between 1973 and 1977, like most sporting clubs in Iran, the Revolution and the Iran-Iraq War severely limited the teams activities. From 1979 to 1980 the club participated in almost no meaningful competitions, in 1980 the Tabriz Football League and Tabriz Hazfi Cup was established. Machine Sazi participated in the Tabriz Football League and Tabriz Hazfi Cup between 1980 and 1988, Machine Sazi was the most successful Tabriz Football League club, winning seven championship titles and finishing two times as runners-up. The club also won the Tabriz Hazfi Cup six times, after the war the local and provincial leagues were scrapped in favor of nationwide leagues. After the war, the Azadegan League was established as Irans national league, Machine Sazi was promoted to the Azadegan League in 1994. They stayed in the Azadegan League for two season and the club finished 8th the following year, but, in 1997 the club was relegated to the 2nd Division. Machine Sazi played in the 2nd Division between 1997 and 2001 until the Iran Pro League was formed, with the launch of Iran Pro League in 2001, Machine Sazi were placed into the Azadegan League. After a 3rd-place finish in the new Azadegan Leagues inaugural season, the club had a mixed start to the 2008–09 season in the Azadegan League. 2008 heralded major changes for Machine Sazi, as the state of the clubs finances was revealed. After a drop in form, recording 10 losses in 12 matches, in March 2008 Javad Shahlaei resigned as chairman and Farhad Sedaghat was elected chairman by the club council. Seyed Javad Mousavi was brought in as the new club manager, Machine Sazi finished 13th in the 2008–09 Azadegan League season. Thus, being relegated to 2nd Division, on 25 April 2009 the club was bought by businessman Shahram Dabiri who invested heavily in the club
Zob Ahan Esfahan F.C.
Zob Ahan Isfahan Football Club is an Iranian football club based in Isfahan, Iran. They compete in the Persian Gulf Pro League, the team is sponsored by the Isfahan Steel Company, which also goes by the name Zob Ahan. The clubs main rival is fellow Isfahani team Sepahan, which is sponsored by the rival steel mill. Zob Ahan club also has a team, sponsored by the same Isfahan Steel Company. In the 2010 AFC Champions League, Zob Ahan finished as runners-up losing 3–1 to South Korean club Seongnam Ilhwa Chunma in the final. Zob Ahan has won the Hazfi Cup on four occasions and have finished as one time. The club has finished as League runners-up three times and has won the Iranian Super Cup once. After the arrival of Yahya Golmohammadi in 2014 the club known for playing beautiful. Mohammad Ali Taghizadeh Farahmand established the club in 1969 and they entered the Takht Jamshid Cup in 1973 and end season in the 10th place. They promoted to the quarterfinals of the Hazfi Cup in 1976 and their best results in Takht Jamshid Cup was earned in 1977–78 in the 8th place. Zob Ahan prepared its team by buying 14 players from their local rivals Sepahan, the team has participated in the highest division of the Iranian league system since 1973, except for the 1995 season when they played in the 2nd division. After Iranian Revolution in 1979, Takht Jamshid Cup was suspended due to Iran-Iraq War, after the end of the war, league began again in the title of Azadegan League. They were once again promoted to the 1st division the year after, Zob Ahan currently play in the IPL starting from 2001. The clubs first honor, remains the winning of the Hazfi Cup in 2003 and this feat was repeated in the 2008–09 Hazfi Cup, when the club beat Rah Ahan to re-claim the title after 6 years. The club made its first appearance in the AFC Champions League in 2004, as the winners of the 2003 Hazfi Cup, however, at the end, they had to settle for second place once again after finishing six points behind their city rivals Sepahan. They also lost their grip on the Hazfi Cup after a shock 0–2 loss to a second-division side Gostaresh Foulad in the semi-finals, in the 2010 AFC Champions League Zob Ahan finished first on the group stage that included FC Bunyodkor, Al-Wahda and Al-Ittihad. By finishing first they qualified for the first time for the Knockout stages, on the Round of 16 they draw country neighbours Mes Kerman winning 1–0. The club then qualified to the Quarter-finals and were drawn with title holders Pohang Steelers, Zob Ahan won 2–1 at home and draw 1–1 on Korea, on November 13, in the final Zob Ahan lost 1–3 to Seongnam Ilhwa Chunma
Esteghlal Ahvaz F.C.
Esteghlal Ahvaz Football Club, commonly known as Esteghlal Ahvaz, is an Iranian football club based in Ahvaz, Khuzestan, that competes in the Azadegan League. The club was founded in 1948 as Taj Ahvaz Football Club, the football team plays their home games at the Takhti Ahvaz which has a seating capacity of 15,000. The club is owned and supported by Mohammad Maleki, Esteghlal Ahvaz is the oldest existing football club in Ahvaz alongside Shahin Ahvaz and has a large history in Khuzestan football. The club was founded as Taj Ahvaz Football Club by Hakim Shoushtari in 1948, the club was one of Taj Tehran branches at the time. From the beginning Taj Ahvaz was able to some of the best players of Khuzestan. Before the 1970s, Iran did not have a national football league. Most clubs participated in championships of their city or province, in addition to that Taj Ahvaz played in the Khuzestan Premier League until 1970. In 1970, the Local League was created, the league included teams from all Iran in different qualifying tournaments. Taj Ahvaz finished first in Group A of their qualifying tournament, after losing the semifinal, Taj Ahvaz defeated Javanan Isfahan 2–0 in the third-place match. The club also participated in the 1971–72 Local League season, Taj Ahvaz missed again qualification for the final stage after defeating 0–2 by Sepahan in the semifinal of their qualifying tournament. Once again, they achieved third place after a 2–1 win over Tractor Sazi, in 1972, the Takht Jamshid Cup was founded as the national league and included teams from all over the country. Although Taj Ahvaz was promoted to the Takht Jamshid Cup in 1973, reason therefore was rule by the Iran Football Federation. They allowed only one team of the name to participate in the league at that time. Taj Tehran played in the league already, after the Islamic Revolution in Iran, Taj Ahvaz changed its name into Esteghlal Ahvaz Football Club. After the revolution, any sign of the previous monarchist regime was not tolerated, due to the revolution and the Iran–Iraq War, the Takht Jamshid Cup was dissolved and also the lower leagues were unorganized. The war hit Ahvaz and Khuzestan hard, consequently the people paid very little attention to the club and football in general at that time. In 1989 the Qods League was created as the football league. In 1991 the Azadegan League was formed as the top flight of Iranian football, Esteghlal Ahvaz played eight years in the league with average results
F.C. Nassaji Mazandaran
Football Club Nassaji Mazandaran is an Iranian football club based in Qaem Shahr, Mazandaran, Iran. They currently compete in the Azadegan League, despite playing in the Iranian second tier, Nassaji has one of the highest average attendances in Iran. Nassaji Mazandaran Company established the club in 1959, Nassaji entered the Qods Cup in 1988 and soon after they entered the top division Azadegan League in 1991 and stayed there until 1995. Nassaji stayed in 2nd division until 2001 and when Iranian Football Federation decided to start a professional league, in 2004 Nassaji was relegated to 2nd Division but they were promoted back to the Azadegan League at the end of the 2005–06 season. On 3 August 2006 Nasser Hejazi signed as head-coach of Nassaji on a deal for the 2006–07 season. The following season Nassaji again finished third and was two out of a promotion play off spot. As of January 20,2014 Note, Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules, players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. The table below chronicles the achievements of Nassaji Mazandaran since 1989
AFC Asian Cup
The AFC Asian Cup is an international association football tournament run by the Asian Football Confederation. It is the second oldest continental football championship in the world after Copa América, the winning team becomes the champion of Asia and automatically qualifies for the FIFA Confederations Cup. The Asian Cup was held every four years from the 1956 edition in Hong Kong until the 2004 tournament in China. After 2004, the tournament was held in 2007 when it was co-hosted by four nations, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand. Thereafter, it has held every four years. The Asian Cup has generally dominated by a small number of top teams. Initially successful teams included South Korea and Iran, since 1984, Japan and Saudi Arabia have been the most successful teams, together winning 7 of the last 9 finals. The other teams which have achieved success are Iraq and Kuwait, Australia joined the Asian confederation in 2007 and hosted the Asian Cup finals in 2015. The 2019 tournament will be expanded from 16 teams to 24 teams, the tournament will be hosted by the United Arab Emirates. The qualifying process involved the hosts plus the winners of the various zones and it was only a four-team tournament, a format that also existed for 1960 and 1964. Each sub-confederation already hosts their own championship, each with varying degrees of interest. Dominance has swung between the East and West so far, Japan hold the record for the most victories in the tournaments history with title triumphs in 1992,2000,2004 and 2011. The 2015 AFC Asian Cup tournament was hosted by Australia, the host country and South Korea reached the final and Australia won the title after defeating South Korea 2–1 in extra time. United Arab Emirates also finished in place after defeating 2007 champions Iraq in the third/fourth-place play-off. The final tournament is being played in two stages, the stage and the knockout stage. In the group each team plays three games in a group of four, with the winners and runners-up from each group advancing to the knockout stage. In the knockout stage the eight teams advance to compete in a tournament, beginning with the quarter-finals. A third-place match is played between the two losing teams of the semi-finals
1976 AFC Asian Cup
The 1976 AFC Asian Cup was the sixth edition of the Asian Nations Cup, the football championship of Asia. The field of six teams was split into two groups of three, iran won their third title in a row, beating Kuwait in the final 1-0. With three goals, Gholam Hossein Mazloumi, Nasser Nouraei and Fathi Kameel are the top scorers in the tournament, in total,25 goals were scored by 16 different players, with none of them credited as own goal. 3 goals 2 goals 1 goal Details at RSSSF
1980 AFC Asian Cup
The 1980 AFC Asian Cup was the seventh edition of the Asian Nations Cup, the football championship of Asia. It was hosted by Kuwait between 15 and 30 September, the field of ten teams was split into two groups of five. Kuwait won their first championship, beating Korea Republic in the final 3–0, midway through the tournament, Iraq invaded Iran. Kuwaiti television supported the attack and aired propaganda in favor of the Iraqis
The Asian Games, also known as Asiad, is a Pancontinental multi-sport event held every four years among athletes from all over Asia. The Games were regulated by the Asian Games Federation from the first Games in New Delhi, India, since the 1982 Games they have been organized by the Olympic Council of Asia, after the breakup of the Asian Games Federation. The Games are recognized by the International Olympic Committee and are described as the second largest multi-sport event after the Olympic Games, in its history, nine nations have hosted the Asian Games. Forty-six nations have participated in the Games, including Israel, which was excluded from the Games after their last participation in 1974. The most recent games was held in Incheon, South Korea from 19 September to 4 October 2014, while the games will be held in Jakarta and Palembang. The Far Eastern Games were first held in Manila in 1913 with 6 participating nations, ten more Far Eastern Games were held until 1934. Consequently, the Far Eastern Games scheduled for 1938 were cancelled, after World War II, a number of Asian countries became independent. During the 1948 Summer Olympics in London, a conversation between sportsmen from China and the Philippines raised the idea of restoring the Far Eastern Games. As a result, he proposed to sports leaders the idea of having a new competition – which came to be the Asian Games. This led to an agreement to form the Asian Athletic Federation, a preparatory committee was then set up to draft the charter for this new body. Starting in 1962, the Games were hit by several crises, first, the host country Indonesia, refused to permit the participation of Israel and Taiwan due to political and religious issues. As a result, the IOC removed its sponsorship of the Games, the Asian Football Confederation, International Amateur Athletics Federation and International Weightlifting Federation, also removed their recognition of the Games. Prior to the Games, Japan was asked to host the Games and this edition also marked the first time the Games have a television broadcasting throughout the world. In Tehran, in 1974, the Games formally recognized the participation of China, North Korea, the last is 1978, Pakistan dropped its plan to host the Games in 1975 due to financial crisis and political issues. Thailand offered to help and the Games were once held in Bangkok. However, once again, like in 1962, Taiwan and Israel were refused the participation by Games Federation, amid political issues and security fears. Several governing bodies protested against the ban, like IAAF, threatened to bar the players from 1980 Summer Olympics. Following this series of crises, the National Olympic Committee in Asia decided to revise the constitution of the Asian Games Federation, a new association, named the Olympic Council of Asia, was created in November 1981 with the exclusion of Israel
1970 Asian Games
The 6th Asian Games were held from December 9,1970, to December 20,1970, in Bangkok, Thailand. Previous host Thailand stepped in to save the Asiad and staged the Games using the funds of South Korea, a total number of 2,400 athletes, coming from 18 countries, competed in this Asiad, where yachting made its debut. The yellow boxes represent days during which medal-awarding finals for a sport were held, the numeral indicates the number of event finals for each sport held that day. On the left, the calendar lists each sport with events held during the Games, there is a key at the top of the calendar to aid the reader. The top ten ranked NOCs at these Games are listed below, the host nation, Thailand, is highlighted
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies making it the worlds most popular sport, the game is played on a rectangular field with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by getting the ball into the opposing goal, players are not allowed to touch the ball with their hands or arms while it is in play, unless they are goalkeepers. Other players mainly use their feet to strike or pass the ball, the team that scores the most goals by the end of the match wins. If the score is level at the end of the game, the Laws of the Game were originally codified in England by The Football Association in 1863. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, the first written reference to the inflated ball used in the game was in the mid-14th century, Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe. The Online Etymology Dictionary states that the word soccer was split off in 1863, according to Partha Mazumdar, the term soccer originated in England, first appearing in the 1880s as an Oxford -er abbreviation of the word association. Within the English-speaking world, association football is now usually called football in the United Kingdom and mainly soccer in Canada and the United States. People in Australia, Ireland, South Africa and New Zealand use either or both terms, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now primarily use football for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is scientific evidence, cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net. It was remarkably similar to football, though similarities to rugby occurred. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established, phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup, athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda, episkyros and harpastum were played involving hands and violence and they all appear to have resembled rugby football, wrestling and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified mob football, the antecedent of all football codes. Non-competitive games included kemari in Japan, chuk-guk in Korea and woggabaliri in Australia, Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other games played around the world FIFA have recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe. The modern rules of football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the widely varying forms of football played in the public schools of England
In sports, a coach is a person involved in the direction, instruction and training of the operations of a sports team or of individual sportspeople. A coach may also be a teacher, the original sense of the word coach is that of a horse-drawn carriage, deriving ultimately from the Hungarian city of Kocs where such vehicles were first made. Britain took the lead in upgrading the status of sports in the 19th century, for sports to become professionalized, coacher had to become established. It gradually professionalized in the Victorian era and the role was established by 1914. In the First World War, military units sought out the coaches to supervise physical conditioning, a coach, particularly in a professional league, is usually supported by one or more assistant coaches and specialist support staff. The staff may include coordinators, strength and fitness specialists, in elite sport, the role of nutritionists, biomechanists and physiotherapists will all become critical to the overall long-term success of a coach and athlete. In association football, the duties of a coach can vary depending on the level they are coaching at, in professional football, the role of the coach or trainer is limited to the training and development of a clubs first team in most countries. The coach is aided by a number of assistant coaches, one of which carries the responsibility for the training, the coach is also assisted by medical staff and athletic trainers. The medium to long term strategy of a club, with regard to transfer policies, youth development. The system also provides a level of protection against overspending on players in search of instant success. In football, the director of a football team is more commonly awarded the position of manager. Baseball coaches at that level are members of the staff under the overall supervision of the manager. The baseball field manager is essentially equivalent to head coaches in other American professional sports leagues, the term manager used without qualification almost always refers to the field manager, while the general manager is often called the GM. At amateur levels, the terminology is similar to that of other sports. The person known as the manager in professional leagues is called the head coach in amateur leagues. In American football, like other sports, there are many coaches. Sports coaching in the UK follows a structured pattern in principle. In June 2008, the Sports Councils together with the governing bodies of sport formally adopted the UK Coaching Framework at the UK Coaching Summit in Coventry
Football in Iran
Football is the most popular sport in Iran, with wrestling and volleyball as close contenders. Football has been a part of life for Iranians for many decades now and is played in schools, streets, Football was played in Iran as early as 1898, when a team of British residents of Esfahan played a team of Armenians. In south western Iran the game was introduced in 1907 by British sailors and workers, the local Iranian employees of the company first looked on, and then began replacing individual players on the teams, until they formed their own teams. These young Iranian football players met some hostility from their environment for participating in the games of the infidels. In the same year, Tehran Football Association Club, a body for arranging football matches was established. However all teams were made up of British residents of Tehran, although when teams didnt have enough players they sometimes chose Iranian bystanders to come on the field, the first Iranian player was Karim Zandi who played from 1908 to 1916. He was the reason other Iranians became motivated and interested in the sport and it became every young Iranians dream to play alongside these British residents of Tehran. All matches were played at around Mashq Square, in 1910, Samuel M. Jordan, the principal of American School in Tehran, introduced football as part of the schools curriculum. Four years later 1914, start of World War I put an end to football matches. Elsewhere in the south of Iran, football was introduced by the British officers of the South Persia Rifles to the Iranian troops they commanded, Post-Great War saw football matches recommence in Tehran. Then two years later, in 1920, a number of Iranian and British football enthusiasts founded the Iranian Football Association to encourage Iranian players and to popularize the game. The director of the Imperial Bank of Persia, James McMurray, became its president, neligan, they each donated a cup to be awarded to winning teams. Whilst the same year saw the establishment of Irans first football club called Iran Club, soon after the alumni of American College and the students of School of Political Science also formed teams. This group of players won the Tehran Association Cup in 1923, also in the Post-Great War period, some footballers who played abroad such as Hossein Sadaghiani and Khan-Sardar brothers who played in Belgian Football Leagues returned to Iran. Hossein Sadaghiani for instance after returning to Iran temporarily from Europe, during his one-year stay in Mashhad, he arranged football matches between the club and the British Consulate-General. Prior to that, in Mashhad football was played by foreign residents specially the employees of the Telegraph Office. In places that had not entertained a significant foreign presence, such as Ardabil, teams from Khuzestan were always the most successful was the powerhouse the 1950s and early 1960s, but the game had become very popular in Iran by then. Tehran slowly started becoming the capital of Iran, and numerous great clubs emerged from there
Asian Football Confederation
The Asian Football Confederation is the governing body of association football in Asia and Australia. Three other states located along the fringe of Asia – Cyprus, Armenia. Hong Kong and Macau, although not independent countries, are members of the AFC. One of FIFAs six continental confederations, the AFC was formed officially on 8 May 1954 in Manila, Philippines, the main headquarters is located in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The current president is Sheikh Salman Bin Ibrahim Al-Khalifa of Bahrain, the Asian Football Confederation was founded on 8 May 1954. Afghanistan, Burma, Republic of China, Hong Kong, India, Israel, Indonesia, Japan, South Korea, Pakistan, Philippines, Singapore, the Asian Ladies Football Confederation is the section of the AFC who manage womens football in Asia. The group was founded in April 1968 in a meeting involving Taiwan, Hong Kong, Malaysia. In 1986 the ALFC merged with the AFC, the Asian Ladies Football Confederation helped organise the AFC Womens Asian Cup, first held in 1975, as well as the AFCs AFC U-19 Womens Championship and the AFC U-17 Womens Championship. The AFC has 47 member associations split into five regions, all three competitions are held every four years. The top-ranked AFC competition is the AFC Champions League, which started in the 2002–03 season and gathers the top 1–4 teams of each country, a second, lower-ranked competition is the AFC Cup. This competition was launched by AFC in 2004, a third competition, the AFC Presidents Cup, which had started in 2005, was absorbed into the AFC Cup in 2015. The AFC also runs an annual Asian futsal club competition, the AFC Futsal Club Championship
1978 FIFA World Cup
The 1978 FIFA World Cup, the 11th staging of the FIFA World Cup, quadrennial international football world championship tournament, was held in Argentina between 1 and 25 June. The 1978 World Cup was won by Argentina who beat the Netherlands 3–1 at River Plates home stadium Estadio Monumental in the Argentine capital of Buenos Aires after extra time in the final. This win was the first World Cup title for Argentina, who became the fifth team, Argentina, the Netherlands and Brazil were the gold, silver and bronze medalists respectively. Iran and Tunisia made their first appearances in the finals, the official match ball was the Adidas Tango. Argentina was chosen as the host nation by FIFA in London, Mexico withdrew from the bidding process after having been awarded the 1970 competition two years earlier. The logo is based on Juan Peróns signature gesture, a salute to the crowd with both arms extended above his head and this was one of the most famous, populist images of Perón. The design was created in 1974 two years prior to the coup in 1976. The military leadership were aware that the World Cups logo symbolized Peróns gesture, England failed to qualify for the second World Cup in succession, losing out to Italy. European champions Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, and the Soviet Union also failed to qualify for the finals, uruguay failed to qualify for the first time since 1958. Newcomers to the finals were Iran and Tunisia, Austria qualified for the first time since 1958, while France, Spain, for the first time, more than 100 nations entered the competition. A controversial fact surrounding the 1978 World Cup was that Argentina had suffered a military coup only two years before the cup, a known as the National Reorganization Process. Less than a year before the World Cup, in September 1977, Interior Minister General Albano Harguindeguy, because of the political turmoil, some countries, most notably the Netherlands, considered publicly whether they should participate in the event. Despite this, all teams eventually took part without restrictions, allegations that Dutch star Johan Cruyff refused to participate because of political convictions were denied by him 30 years later. More controversy surrounded the host, Argentina, as all of their games in the first round kicked off at night, giving the Argentines the advantage of knowing where they stood in the group. This issue would arise again in Spain 1982, which prompted FIFA to change the rules so that the two group games in subsequent World Cups would be played simultaneously. Further accusations surround the game Argentina and Peru played in the round of the tournament. Argentina needed to win by a margin of four goals to proceed to the final, however, claims that the Argentine military dictatorship interfered to ensure Argentina would defeat Peru, were denied by the Peruvian captain and several Peruvian players. Some accusations originated in the Brazilian media and pointed to the fact that the Peruvian goalkeeper had been born in Argentina, another alleged deal, published by a Colombian drug lord in a controversial book, involved the Peruvian team being bribed without any political implications
The Azadegan League is one of two fully professional football leagues in Iran, and the second-highest professional league in the Iranian football league system after the Persian Gulf Pro League. The top two teams from the group automatically get promoted to the Persian Gulf Pro League, the three worst teams are directly relegated to the 2nd Division. In 1991 the league was founded as Irans top division, but, after the creation of the Persian Gulf Pro League in 2001, the Azadegan League was declared as the second highest football league in the county. Since the leagues inception as the second division in 2001. Paykan has come the closest to achieving the feat, finishing as runners-up in the 2005–06 season, in the summer of 2015 the format of the league was changed from a two group league to a one group and 20 team league. The format was changed after the 2015–16 season as the number of teams was reduced to 18. The first national league in Iran after the revolution was founded in 1989 with the name of Qods League, Esteghlal became winners of the first edition of the league. In 1991, the league was named to Azadegan League in honor of the Iranian prisoners of war who were released. The number of teams, playing in the league, varied from year to year, pas and Saipa dominated the league in the first four years. Pas and Esteghlal both were able to capture Asian Club Championships in the early 1990s. By the mid-90s Persepolis and Esteghlal regained their dominant form and the champions in the period of 1995-2001 was either Esteghlal or Persepolis. Until 2001 the league was the highest division football league in Iran, the Persian Gulf Pro League was created and since then, the Azadegan League became the second-highest division in the Iranian football league system. All teams in the Azadegan League are entered in the Hazfi Cup, if any club from the Azadegan League wins the cup, since 2001, when Azadegan League became the second-highest division league, no team from Azadegan League has become Hazfi Cup champion. Gostaresh Foolad is the club from the Azadegan League that has reached the final of the Hazfi Cup. The Azadegan League consists of two subdivisions, each having 12 teams, the eleventh and twelfth placed teams in the groups are automatically relegated to the 2nd division. Sometimes the playoff match format is not used and one takes place between the teams on a neutral ground instead. Since the 2001–02 season, fifteen seasons of the Azadegan League have been completed, the table below shows the total ranking for the all football clubs competing in all 15 seasons. Teams in bold compete in 2016–17 season
AFC Champions League
The AFC Champions League, commonly known as the Asian Champions League, is an annual continental club football competition organised by the Asian Football Confederation. Introduced in 2002, the replaced the Asian Club Championship which had run since 1985. It is the premier tournament in Asia, equivalent to the CONMEBOL Copa Libertadores. A total of 32 clubs compete in the round robin stage of the competition. Since 2009, the champions do not qualify automatically for the year competition. The winner of the AFC Champions League qualifies for the FIFA Club World Cup, the most successful club in the competition is the Pohang Steelers with a total of three titles. The reigning champions of the competition are the Jeonbuk Hyundai Motors, the competition started as the Asian Champion Club Tournament, the competition had a variety of different formats with the inaugural tournament staged as a straightforward knockout format. The two most successful clubs of this era were Maccabi Tel Aviv and Hapoel Tel Aviv from Israel, the tournament was not held after the 1971 edition for fourteen years due to a lack of professionalism and interest. In 1985/86 competition marked the return of the premier club tournament rebranded the Asian Club Championship, the format would again change for time to time with a few withdrawals also seen. In 1990, the Asian Football Confederation introduced the Asian Cup Winners Cup, the 2002/03 season saw the Asian Club Championship, Asian Cup Winners Cup and Asian Super Cup combine to become the AFC Champions League. League and Cup Winners would qualify for the playoffs with the best eight clubs from east and west Asia progressing to the Group Stage. The first winners under the AFC Champions League name was Al Ain defeating BEC Tero 2–1 on aggregate, the competition would be postponed for one year due to the SARI Virus. The tournament was re-launched in 2004 with 29 clubs from fourteen countries, unlike the previous year, the tournament schedule was changed to March to November. Then, the seven group winners along with the champions qualified to the quarterfinals. The quarterfinals, semifinals, and finals were played as a format, with away goals, extra time. Owing to the lack of professionalism in Asian football, many problems existed in the tournament, such as on field violence. Many blamed the lack of money and expensive travel cost as some of the reasons. The Champions League expanded to 32 clubs in 2009 with direct entry to the top ten Asian leagues, the assessment criteria and ranking for participating associations would be revised by AFC every two years, with the most recent ones being approved for the 2011–2012 seasons
Azerbaijanis are the second largest ethnic group in the nation. Furthermore, the largest population of ethnic Azerbaijanis in the live in Iran. Iranian Azerbaijanis also constitute a significant minority in Tehran, Karaj, Azerbaijanis comprise the largest minority ethnic group in Iran. Apart from Iranian Azerbaijan, indigenous Azeri population is found in numbers in four provinces, Hamadan, Qazvin, Markazi. Azeri-populated parts of Markazi include Komijan, Khondab, Saveh, Zarandieh, Shazand, in Kurdistan, Azeris are mainly found in villages around Qorveh. It is a Turkish language learned and spoken by Iranian peasants”, according to Richard Frye, The Turkish speakers of Azerbaijan are mainly descended from the earlier Iranian speakers, several pockets of whom still exist in the region. Here they divided into Ottomans, who were Sunni and settled, and Turkmens and these are the people today known as Azeris. As for the culture, it remained traditional even after the Turkicization of the local population. The latter entered both the Azeri and Turkish language mainly through the Iranian intermediary, having become independent, the Azeri culture retained close connections with the Iranian and Arab cultures. They were reinforced by religion and common cultural-historical traditions. ”. The Iranian origins of the Azeris likely derive from ancient Iranian tribes, such as the Medes in Iranian Azerbaijan and it is believed that the Medes mixed with an indigenous population, the Caucasian Mannai, a Northeast Caucasian group related to the Urartians. It has also hypothesized that the population of Iranian Azerbaijan was predominantly Persian-speaking before the Oghuz arrived. The claim is mentioned by medieval historians, such as Al-Muqaddasi. Other common Perso-Azeribaijani features include Iranian place names such as Tabriz, the modern presence of the Iranian Talysh and Tats in Azerbaijan is further evidence of the former Iranian character of the region. As a precursor to modern groups, the ancient Azaris are also hypothesized as ancestors of the modern Azeris. The Russo-Persian Wars of the 19th century settled the boundary of Iran, stripping it of all its Caucasian territories. The eventual formation of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic in 1918 established the territory of modern Azerbaijan, as a direct result of Qajar Irans forced ceding to Russia, the Azerbaijanis are nowadays parted between two nations, Iran and Azerbaijan. Despite living on two sides of a border, the Azeris form a single ethnic group
Tabriz is the most populated city in the Iranian Azerbaijan, one of the historical capitals of Iran, and the present capital of East Azerbaijan Province. Located in the Quru River valley between the ridge of the volcanic cones of the Sahand and Eynali mountains, Tabrizs elevation ranges between 1,350 and 1,600 metres above sea level. The valley opens up into a plain that slopes down to the eastern shores of Lake Urmia,60 kilometres to the west. With cold winters and temperate summers, the city is considered a summer resort, Tabriz is named Worlds Carpet and Crafts City, it is also appointed as the exemplary tourism city in 2018 by Organisation of Islamic Cooperation. With a population of 1.6 million, Tabriz is the biggest economic hub, the population consists mostly of Iranian Azerbaijanis and the most spoken language in the city is Azeri Turkish. Tabriz is a heavy industry hub for automobile, machine tools, refineries and petrochemical, textile. The city is famous for its handicrafts including hand-woven rugs and jewelry, local confectioneries, chocolates, dried nuts, and traditional food of Tabriz are recognized all around Iran as some of the best Iranian food. Tabriz is also a hub and a site for some of the most prestigious cultural institutes in the northwest of Iran. The city contains many historical monuments representing the transition of Iranian architecture in its long historical timelines. Most of the historical sites in the city belong to Ilkhanid, Safavid. From the early era, the city was pivotal in the development, movement. From the 19th century, it became the most important city in the country in numerous respects, as the closest Iranian hub to Europe, many aspects of the early modern modernisation in Iran started in Tabriz. During almost the entire Qajar period, it functioned as the seat for the prince as well. According to some sources, including Encyclopædia Britannica, the name Tabriz derives from tap-riz, in AD297, it became the capital of Tiridates III, king of Armenia. However, this story has an origin and no ancient source has recorded such event. This is based on accounts of Vardan, the Armenian historian in 13th century, the early history of Tabriz is not well-documented. The earliest inscription about Tabriz, referring to the city as Tarui or Tauris, is on the Assyrian King Sargon IIs epigraph in 714 BC, Tabriz has been chosen as the capital for some rulers commencing from Atropates era and his dynasty. A recent excavation at the site of the Iron Age museum, in the north of the Blue Mosque site, more likely the city has been destroyed multiple times either by natural disasters or by the invading armies
The Hazfi Cup is the Iranian football knockout cup competition, run by the Iranian Football Federation. The Iranian football league was not being held during the 1980s, after the revive of the league system, the champion of Iranian league qualified for Asian Club Championship and the winner of Hazfi Cup ran for Asian Cup Winners Cup. However, the Asian Cup Winners Cup merged with the Asian Champions Cup in 2002-03 to form the AFC Champions League, the competition was founded in 1975. Esteghlal is the most successful club with six titles, the current title holders are Zob Ahan. The rules for the final were exactly the same as the one for the knockout rounds. The tie was contested over two legs with away goals deciding the winner if the two teams were level on goals after the second leg, if the teams could still not be separated at that stage, then extra time would have been played with a penalty shootout. The champions are shown in Bold. mehrnews. com/fa/NewsDetail. aspx. NewsID=562645 Hazfi Cup - Hailoosport. com Hazfi Cup - Hailoosport. com
Gholam Hossein Mazloumi
Gholam Hossein Mazloumi, nicknamed Sar Talaei, was an Iranian football player, coach and football administrator. He played for three clubs including Taj Abadan, Taj Tehran, and Shahbaz FC, as well as the Iranian national team and he also managed Esteghlal from 1988 to 1989. During his time as a player, he scored 37 goals for the Iran national football team and was Irans all-time top scorer for twelve years before his record being broken by Ali Daei. He was the top scorer at the 1974 Asian Games and the 1976 AFC Asian Cup and he was chairman of Shahin Bushehr from 2011 until 2013 and also honorary deputy chairman of Esteghlal. He died on 19 November 2014 after being diagnosed with cancer two years earlier. Gholam Hossein Mazloumi was born on 13 January 1950 in Abadan, Iran and his younger brother, Parviz is also a former footballer and coach. When playing for Taj Tehran, he was one of the key players, in those years he won the Asian Club Championship in the 1969–70 season as well as the Iranian league in 1970–71 and 1974–75, and he reached the second place in 1973–74. Mazloumi is considered to be one of the finest strikers in Iranian football history as evidenced by total goal tally for the National Team scoring the most goals in the least number of caps, Mazloumi was a great finisher, rarely missing sure-goal opportunities. In this period he became the Iranian leagues top goalscorer in two seasons of 1973–74 and 1974–75. He was the top again in the 1976–77 season when he was playing as one of the key players for Shahbaz reaching the third place in that season. He retired in 1978 at the age of 30 due to an injury and he made his debut for Team Melli in September 1969 in a match against Pakistan. He has a total of 40 caps and 19 goals for Iran and he also participated in the 1976 Olympics in Montreal, when Iran reached the quarterfinals. After he retired, he became coach of Esteghlals youth team in 1980. In 1988, he was promoted as first team manager, replacing Abbas Razavi, Esteghlal finished third in Mazloumis first season in charge. He left the club playing two games in his second season and was replaced with Mansour Pourheidari. He later managed Iran national under-20 football team, Esteghlal Ahvaz, Moghavemat Tehran, Petrochimi Mahshahr and he later became team manager of Esteghlal. He was elected as chairman of Shahin Bushehr on 24 July 2011 and he was diagnosed with stomach cancer in 2012 and died on 19 November 2014 in Naja Hospital in Tehran. He was 64 and was deputy chairman of Esteghlal at the time of his death, Mazloumi is survived by his wife, four children and three grandchildren
Nasrollah Abdollahi is an Iranian football coach and former player. Abdollahi played for Guard F. C. before he changed to Taj SC, there he could win the Iranian league in 1971 as well as the second place in 1974. After playing for Rah Ahan F. C. for two years he joined Shahbaz F. C. where he played many years reaching the third place in the Iranian league in 1976/77. Abdollahi participated in 1976 Olympics in Montreal, when Iran reached the quarterfinals and he also played all three matches of Team Melli at the 1978 World Cup. Abdollahi was capped 39 times for the Iranian national team between 1976 and 1980, he won the 1976 Asian Cup in Iran and captained the team to place in the 1980 Asian Cup in Kuwait. For a brief period during Nasser Hejazis time as Esteghlal F. C. manager, Abdollahi was the assistant manager
Demonstrations against the Shah commenced in October 1977, developing into a campaign of civil resistance that included both secular and religious elements and which intensified in January 1978. Between August and December 1978 strikes and demonstrations paralyzed the country, the Shah left Iran for exile on 16 January 1979, as the last Persian monarch, leaving his duties to a regency council and an opposition-based prime minister. Ayatollah Khomeini was invited back to Iran by the government, the royal reign collapsed shortly after on 11 February when guerrillas and rebel troops overwhelmed troops loyal to the Shah in armed street fighting, bringing Khomeini to official power. It was a relatively non-violent revolution, and helped to redefine the meaning, the Shahs regime became increasingly oppressive, brutal, corrupt, and extravagant. It also suffered from basic functional failures that brought economic bottlenecks, shortages, the Shah was perceived by many as beholden to – if not a puppet of – a non-Muslim Western power whose culture was affecting that of Iran. The Shia clergy had a significant influence on Iranian society, the clergy first showed itself to be a powerful political force in opposition to the monarchy with the 1891 Tobacco Protest. On 20 March 1890, Nasir al-Din Shah granted a concession to Major G. F. Talbot for a monopoly over the production, sale. The boycotts and protests against it were widespread and extensive because of Mirza Hasan Shirazis fatwa, finally Nasir al-Din Shah found himself powerless to stop the popular movement and cancelled the concession. The Tobacco Protest was the first significant Iranians resistance against the Shah and foreign interests, and revealed the power of the people, the growing discontent continued until the Constitutional Revolution. The revolution led to the establishment of a Parliament and approval of the first constitution, although the constitutional revolution was successful in weakening the autocracy of the Qajar regime, it failed to provide a powerful alternative government. Consequently, within the following the establishment of the new parliament. Many of these events can be viewed as a continuation of the struggle between the constitutionalists and the Shahs of Persia, many of whom were backed by foreign powers against the parliament. He established a monarchy, deposing the last of the Qajar shah in 1925 and introduced many social, economic. A number of reforms led to public discontent which provides circumstances for an Iranian revolution. Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavis father, Reza Shah, replaced Islamic laws with Western ones, police forcibly removed and tore chadors off women who resisted his ban on the public hijab. In 1935, dozens were killed and hundreds injured in the Goharshad Mosque rebellion, on the other hand, in the early rise of Reza Shah, Abdul-Karim Haeri Yazdi founded the Qom Seminary and created important changes in seminaries. However, he would avoid entering into political issues, as did other leaders who followed him. Hence, no widespread anti-government attempts were organized by clergy during the Reza Shah Rule, however, the future Ayatollah Khomeini was a student of Sheikh Abdul Karim Ha’eri
Manchester United F.C.
Manchester United Football Club is a professional football club based in Old Trafford, Greater Manchester, England, that competes in the Premier League, the top flight of English football. Nicknamed the Red Devils, the club was founded as Newton Heath LYR Football Club in 1878, changed its name to Manchester United in 1902 and moved to its current stadium, Old Trafford, in 1910. Manchester United have won a record 20 League Titles, a joint-record 12 FA Cups,5 League Cups, the club has also won three European Cups, one UEFA Cup Winners Cup, one UEFA Super Cup, one Intercontinental Cup and one FIFA Club World Cup. In 1998–99, the became the first in the history of English football to achieve the treble of the Premier League, the FA Cup. The 1958 Munich air disaster claimed the lives of eight players, in 1968, under the management of Matt Busby, Manchester United became the first English football club to win the European Cup. Alex Ferguson won 38 trophies, including 13 Premier League titles,5 FA Cups and 2 UEFA Champions Leagues, José Mourinho is the clubs current manager, having been appointed on 27 May 2016. As of June 2015, it is the worlds most valuable football brand and it is one of the most widely supported football teams in the world. In August 2012, Manchester United made a public offering on the New York Stock Exchange. The club holds several rivalries, most notably with Liverpool, Manchester City and Leeds United, Manchester United was formed in 1878 as Newton Heath LYR Football Club by the Carriage and Wagon department of the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway depot at Newton Heath. By 1888, the club had become a member of The Combination. Following the leagues dissolution after only one season, Newton Heath joined the newly formed Football Alliance and this resulted in the club starting the 1892–93 season in the First Division, by which time it had become independent of the railway company and dropped the LYR from its name. After two seasons, the club was relegated to the Second Division, in January 1902, with debts of £2,670 – equivalent to £260,000 in 2017 – the club was served with a winding-up order. The following season began with victory in the first ever Charity Shield, Manchester United won the First Division for the second time in 1911, but at the end of the following season, Mangnall left the club to join Manchester City. In 1922, three years after the resumption of football following the First World War, the club was relegated to the Second Division, relegated again in 1931, Manchester United became a yo-yo club, achieving its all-time lowest position of 20th place in the Second Division in 1934. Gibson, who, in December 1931, invested £2,000, in the 1938–39 season, the last year of football before the Second World War, the club finished 14th in the First Division. Busby led the team to second-place league finishes in 1947,1948 and 1949, in 1952, the club won the First Division, its first league title for 41 years. With an average age of 22, the title winning side of 1956 were labelled the Busby Babes by the media. In 1957, Manchester United became the first English team to compete in the European Cup, despite objections from The Football League, who had denied Chelsea the same opportunity the previous season
Stoke City F.C.
Stoke City Football Club is a professional football club based in Stoke-on-Trent, Staffordshire, England, that plays in the Premier League, the top flight of English football. Founded as Stoke Ramblers in 1863 the club changed its name to Stoke in 1878 and they are the second oldest professional football club in the world, after Notts County, and are one of the founding members of the Football League. Their first, and to date only major trophy, the League Cup was won in 1972, the clubs highest league finish in the top division is 4th, which was achieved in the 1935–36 and 1946–47 seasons. Stoke played in the FA Cup Final in 2011, finishing runners-up to Manchester City and have reached three FA Cup semi-finals, in 1899 then consecutively in 1971 and 1972. Stoke have competed in European football on three occasions, firstly in 1972–73 then in 1974–75 and most recently in 2011–12, the club has won the Football League Trophy twice, in 1992 and in 2000. Stokes home ground is the bet365 Stadium, a 28,116 all-seater stadium, before the stadium was opened in 1997, the club was based at the Victoria Ground, which had been their home ground since 1878. The clubs nickname is The Potters, named after the industry in Stoke-on-Trent and their traditional home kit is a red and white vertically striped shirt, white shorts. Stokes traditional rivals are Midlands clubs West Bromwich Albion and Wolverhampton Wanderers whilst their local rivals are Port Vale with whom they contest the Potteries derby, the clubs first documented match was in October 1868, against an EW May XV at the Victoria Cricket Club ground. Henry Almond, the founder, was also captain. During this period they played at the Victoria Cricket Ground, however, in 1878, the club merged with Stoke Victoria Cricket Club, and became Stoke Football Club. They moved from their previous ground, Sweetings Field, to the Athletic Club ground and it was around this time that the club adopted their traditional red-and-white striped kit. In August 1885, the club turned professional, Stoke were one of the twelve founding members of the Football League when it was introduced in 1888. The club struggled in their first two seasons, 1888–89 and 1889–90, finishing bottom on both occasions, in 1890 Stoke failed to be re-elected and joined the Football Alliance, which they won and thus were re-elected to the Football League. Stoke spent the next 15 seasons in the First Division and reached the FA Cup Semi-Final in the 1898–99 season before being relegated in 1907, Stoke went bankrupt and entered non-league football until 1914, when the First World War meant the Football League was suspended for four years. During the wartime period, Stoke entered the Lancashire Primary and Secondary leagues, when football recommenced in August 1919, Stoke re-joined the league. The club became owners of the Victoria Ground in 1919 and this was followed by the construction of the Butler Street stand, which increased the overall capacity of the ground to 50,000. In 1925, Stoke-on-Trent was granted city status and this led the club to change its name to Stoke City F. C, the 1930s saw the debut of clubs most celebrated player, Stanley Matthews. Matthews, who grew up in Hanley, was an apprentice at the club and made his first appearance in March 1932, against Bury, by end of the decade, Matthews had established himself as an England international and as one of the best footballers of his generation
Football Federation Islamic Republic of Iran
The Football Federation Islamic Republic of Iran is the governing body for football in Iran. It was founded in 1920, and has been a member of FIFA since 1948 and it is also a member of the Asian Football Confederation. The FFIRI is responsible for organizing the Iranian national football team, on 23 November 2006, the federation was suspended by FIFA, due to government interference in football matters. FIFA rules decree that a national football federation should remain autonomous from the national government, the federation and Islamic government do not allow Iranian women into their stadiums. Iran womens national team was briefly banned by FIFA from international competition in 2011 for being forced by the federation to wear hijabs. In 2015, Football Federation Islamic Republic of Iran banned players from the national team due to conscription problems. Reference Official website FIFA website Iran at AFC site