Marcello Vincenzo Domenico Mastroianni was an Italian film actor. His prominent films include: La Dolce Vita, his honours included British Film Academy Awards, Best Actor awards at the Cannes Film Festival and two Golden Globe Awards. Mastroianni was born in Fontana Liri, a small village in the Apennines in the province of Frosinone and grew up in Turin and Rome, he was the son of Ida and Ottone Mastroianni, who ran a carpentry shop, the nephew of sculptor Umberto Mastroianni. During World War II, after the division into Axis and Allied Italy, he was interned in a loosely guarded German prison camp, from which he escaped to hide in Venice, his brother Ruggero Mastroianni was a film editor who edited a number of his brother's films, appeared alongside Marcello in Scipione detto anche l'Africano, a spoof of the once popular sword and sandal film genre released in 1971. Mastroianni made his screen debut as an uncredited extra in Marionette when he was fourteen, made intermittent minor film appearances until landing his first big role in Atto d'accusa.
Within a decade he became a major international celebrity. Mastroianni followed La Dolce Vita with another signature role, that of a film director who, amidst self-doubt and troubled love affairs, finds himself in a creative block while making a movie in Fellini's 8½, his other prominent films include Days of Love with Marina Vlady. He was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actor three times: for Divorce Italian Style, A Special Day and Dark Eyes. Mastroianni, Dean Stockwell and Jack Lemmon are the only actors to have been twice awarded the Best Actor at the Cannes Film Festival. Mastroianni won it in 1970 in 1987 for Dark Eyes. Mastroianni starred alongside his daughter, Chiara Mastroianni, in Raúl Ruiz's Three Lives and Only One Death in 1996. For this performance he won the Silver Wave Award at the Ft. Lauderdale International Film Festival, his final film, Voyage to the Beginning of the World, was released posthumously. Mastroianni married Flora Carabella on 12 August 1950, they had one daughter together, but separated in 1970 because of his affairs with younger women.
Mastroianni's first serious relationship after the separation was with Faye Dunaway, his co-star in A Place for Lovers. Dunaway wanted to marry and have children, but Mastroianni, a Catholic, refused to divorce Carabella. In 1971, after three years of waiting for Mastroianni to change his mind, Dunaway left him. Decades Dunaway said: "I wish to this day it had worked out."Mastroianni had a daughter, Chiara Mastroianni, with French actress Catherine Deneuve, nearly 20 years his junior and lived with him for four years in the 1970s. During that time, the couple made four movies together: It Only Happens to Others, La cagna, A Slightly Pregnant Man and Don't Touch the White Woman!. After Mastroianni and Deneuve broke up, Carabella offered to adopt Chiara because her parents' work kept them away so often. Deneuve would have none of it. According to People magazine, Mastroianni's other lovers included actresses Anouk Aimee, Ursula Andress, Claudia Cardinale and Lauren Hutton. Around 1976, he became involved with an author and filmmaker.
They remained together until his death. He was made a Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic in 1994. Mastroianni died of pancreatic cancer on 19 December 1996 at the age of 72. Both of his daughters, as well as Deneuve and Tatò, were at his bedside; the Trevi Fountain in Rome, associated with his role in Fellini's La Dolce Vita, was symbolically turned off and draped in black as a tribute. At the 1997 Venice Film Festival, Chiara and Deneuve tried to block the screening of Tatò's four-hour documentary, Marcello Mastroianni: I Remember; the festival refused and the movie was shown. The three women tried to do the same thing at Cannes. Tatò said. David di Donatello Best Actor 1964 Yesterday and Tomorrow 1965 Marriage Italian Style 1986 Ginger and Fred 1988 Dark Eyes 1995 Sostiene Pereira 1983 Carrer David 1995 Special David 1997 Carrer David (post
A feature film or theatrical film is a film with a running time long enough to be considered the principal or sole film to fill a program. The term feature film referred to the main, full-length film in a cinema program that included a short film and a newsreel; the notion of how long a feature film should be has varied according to place. According to the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, the American Film Institute and the British Film Institute, a feature film runs for at least 45 minutes, while the Screen Actors Guild asserts that a feature's running time is 75 minutes or longer. Most feature films are between 210 minutes long; the first narrative feature film was the 60-minute The Story of the Kelly Gang. The first -feature-length adaptation was Les Misérables. Other early feature films include The Inferno, Defence of Sevastopol, Quo Vadis?, Oliver Twist, Richard III, From the Manger to the Cross and Cleopatra. The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, the American Film Institute, the British Film Institute all define a feature as a film with a running time of 2,700 seconds or longer.
The Centre National de la Cinématographie in France defines it as a 35 mm film longer than 1,600 metres, 58 minutes and 29 seconds for sound films, the Screen Actors Guild gives a minimum running time of at least 75 minutes. The term feature film came into use to refer to the main film presented in a cinema and the one, promoted or advertised; the term was used to distinguish the longer film from the short films presented before the main film, such as newsreels, animated cartoons, live-action comedies, documentaries. There was no sudden increase in the running times of films to the present-day definitions of feature-length. Early features had been produced in the United States and France, but were released in individual scenes; this left exhibitors the option of playing them alone, to view an incomplete combination of some films, or to run them all together as a short film series. Early features were documentary-style films of noteworthy events; some of the earliest feature-length productions were films of boxing matches, such as The Corbett-Fitzsimmons Fight, Reproduction Of The Corbett-Jeffries Fight, The Jeffries-Sharkey Fight.
Some consider the 100-minute The Corbett-Fitzsimmons Fight to be the first documentary feature film, but it is more characterized as a sports program as it included the full unedited boxing match. In 1900, the documentary film In the Army was made, it was about the training techniques of the British soldier. Inauguration of the Australian Commonwealth ran for 35 minutes, "six times longer than any previous Australian film", has been called "possibly the first feature-length documentary made in Australia"; the American company S. Lubin released a Passion Play titled Lubin's Passion Play in January 1903 in 31 parts, totaling about 60 minutes; the French company Pathé Frères released a different Passion Play, The Life and Passion of Jesus Christ, in May 1903 in 32 parts running about 44 minutes. Defined by length, the first dramatic feature film was the Australian 70-minute film The Story of the Kelly Gang; the first European feature was the 90-minute film L'Enfant prodigue, although, an unmodified record of a stage play.
The first Russian feature was Defence of Sevastopol in 1911. Early Italian features were The Inferno, Quo Vadis?, The Last Days of Pompeii, Cabiria. The first UK features were the documentary With Our King and Queen Through India, filmed in Kinemacolor and Oliver Twist; the first American features were adaptations of Oliver Twist, From the Manger to the Cross and Richard III. The latter starring actor Frederick Warde starred in some of these movie adaptations; the first Asian feature was Japan's The Life Story of Tasuke Shiobara, the first Indian feature was Raja Harishchandra, the first South American feature was Brazil's O Crime dos Banhados, the first African feature was South Africa's Die Voortrekkers. 1913 saw China's first feature film, Zhang Shichuan's Nan Fu Nan Qi. By 1915 over 600 feature films were produced annually in the United States, it is incorrectly cited that The Birth of a Nation was the first American feature film. The most prolific year of U. S. feature production was 1921, with 682 releases.
Between 1922 and 1970, the U. S. and Japan alternated as leaders in the quantity of feature film production. Since 1971, the country with the highest feature output has been India, which produces a thousand films in more than twelve Indian languages each year. In 1927, Warner Bros. released the first feature-length film with sound, The Jazz Singer, whose audio track was recorded with a proprietary technology called Vitaphone. The film's success persuaded other studios to go to the considerable expense of adding microphones to their sets, scramble to start producing their own "talkies". One of the next major advancements made in movie production was color film. Before color was a possibility in movies, early film makers were interested in how color could enhance their stories. Early technique
W is an American fashion magazine published by Condé Nast. Both in print and online, W features stories about style through the lens of culture, art and film. Conde Nast purchased the magazine from the original owner, Fairchild Publications in 2000, it was created in 1972 by the publisher of James Brady. The magazine is an oversize format -- thirteen inches tall. Stefano Tonchi is the editor. W magazine has a reader base of nearly half a million. 80% of the magazine's readers are female and have an average household income of $135,840. The subject of controversy, W magazine has featured stories and covers which have provoked mixed responses from its intended audience. In July 2005, W produced a 60-page Steven Klein portfolio of Angelina Jolie and Brad Pitt entitled "Domestic Bliss"; the shoot was based upon Pitt's idea of the irony of the perfect American family. Other controversial issues include Steven Meisel's shoot entitled "Asexual Revolution," in which male and female models are depicted in gender-bending styles and provocative poses.
In addition, Tom Ford's racy shoot with Steven Klein and the accompanying article on sexuality in fashion came as a shock to some loyal readers. During the interview, Ford is quoted as saying "I've always been about pansexuality. Whether I'm sleeping with girls or not at this point in my life, the clothes have been androgynous, much my standard of beauty." Steven Klein was the photographer for the racy photo shoot featured in the August 2007 issue, showcasing David and Victoria Beckham. Bruce Weber produced a 60-page tribute to New Orleans in the April 2008 issue, shot a 36-page story on the newest fashion designers in Miami for the July 2008 issue. Most of Ws most memorable covers are featured on the W Classics page on the magazine's website. W is known for its coverage of American and European society. Many of these society luminaries, as well as the elite of the entertainment and fashion industries, have allowed W into their homes for the magazine's W House Tours feature, including Marc Jacobs, Sir Evelyn Rothschild and Imelda Marcos.
In 2011, Steven Meisel created controversy again by promoting fake advertisements throughout the November issue of the magazine. In 2013, Meisel shoot RuPaul's Drag Race Season 3/NY Socialite Carmen Carrera in an editorial called "Show girl", promoting the beauty of the transsexual model. In 2013, the magazine started combining the January/December and June/July issues so as to free up money to invest in the magazine's digital brand; the issue of drastic photo retouching became national news when in the December 2009 issue, actress Demi Moore was presented with a remarkably slim figure and what appeared to many critics to be a poorly Photoshopped hip. Both the magazine and Moore denied this claim. Citrano challenged this claim by Moore by offering $5,000 to charity if Moore could prove that the photo she provided was the original photo from the shoot. On November 24, 2009 the consumer watchdog website The Consumerist claimed that Moore's head and arms had been superimposed on runway model Anja Rubik's hips and torso.
An international edition was published in Japan. The South Korean edition is published under license by Doosan Magazine. List of W cover models List of W Korea cover models W magazine website W Magazine – magazine profile at Fashion Model Directory
Neue Deutsche Welle
Neue Deutsche Welle is a genre of West German rock music derived from post-punk and new wave music with electronic influences. The term "Neue Deutsche Welle" was first coined by a Dutch radio DJ Frits Spits on popular nationwide radiostation Hilversum 3, popular among German listeners. Soon after that it got used in a record shop advertisement by Burkhardt Seiler in the West German magazine Sounds in August 1979, coined by journalist Alfred Hilsberg whose article about the movement titled "Neue Deutsche Welle — Aus grauer Städte Mauern" was published in Sounds in October 1979; the history of the Neue Deutsche Welle consists of two major parts. From its beginnings to 1981, the Neue Deutsche Welle was an underground movement with roots in British punk and new wave music. Whilst some of the lyrics of artists like Nena and Ideal epitomized the Zeitgeist of urban West Germany during the Cold War, others used the language in a surreal way playing with the sound or graphic quality of the language rather than using it to express meaning, as done by bands and artists like Spliff, Joachim Witt, Trio.
The main centers of the NDW movement during these years were West Berlin, Düsseldorf, Hamburg and Hagen as well as, to a lesser extent, the Frankfurt Rhein-Main Region, Limburg an der Lahn and Vienna. From about 1980 on, the music industry began noticing the Neue Deutsche Welle. Many one-hit wonders and short-lived bands appeared and were forgotten again in rapid succession, the overly broad application of the "NDW" label to these bands as well as to any German musicians not using English lyrics if their music was not influenced at all by the'original' NDW led to the decay of the entire genre when many of the original musicians turned their backs in frustration. Around 1983/1984, the era of the Neue Deutsche Welle came to an early end, following the oversaturation of the market with what was perceived as stereotypical, manufactured hits. A revival of interest in the style in the Anglophone world occurred in 2003, with the release of DJ Hell's compilation New Deutsch; the NDW has come to be acknowledged as a forerunner to developments in dance-punk, electronic body music, electroclash.
In the 2000s, the term was used by the Berlin-based rap label Aggro Berlin to describe a supposed new German rap movement that they claim to be a part of. This was the subject of Aggro-signed Fler in his 2005 single Neue Deutsche Welle; the band Wir sind Helden was influenced by the Neue Deutsche Welle. Abwärts Andi Arroganti Andreas Dorau Andy Giorbino Carambolage Daälbers D. A. F DIN A Testbild Duotronic Synterror Einstürzende Neubauten Familie Hesselbach Fehlfarben Foyer des arts Front FSK Geile Tiere Geier Sturzflug Geisterfahrer Große Freiheit Grauzone Hans-A-Plast Holger Hiller Ja Ja Ja KeinMenscH! Der KFC Die Klopferbande Kosmonautentraum Kowalski Die Krupps Liaisons Dangereuses Malaria! Male Mania D Mittagspause Mr. Animus Und Die Decider Der Moderne Man Mythen in Tüten Neonbabies Östro 430 Palais Schaumburg Der Plan Pyrolator Die Radierer Rheingold Saal 2 Stahlnetz Stratis S. Y. P. H. Sprung Aus Den Wolken Die Tödliche Doris Tommi Stumpff Trümmerfrauen Die Unbekannten The Wirtschaftswunder X-Mal Deutschland Die ZimmermännerNote: Many of the underground groups were commercially successful.
Angela Werner Bärchen und die Milchbubis Boys in Trouble Combo Colossale D. E. F. DÖF Extrabreit Falco Felix De Luxe Fräulein Menke Gänsehaut Ideal Insisters Ixi Geier Sturzflug Hubert Kah Jawoll Joachim Witt KIZ Klaus Nomi Kraftwerk Markus Münchener Freiheit Nena Nichts Nina Hagen Paso Doble Peter Schilling Spider Murphy Gang Spliff Steinwolke Trio – preferred the label Neue Deutsche Fröhlichkeit to describe their music. UKW United Balls Coldwave Dance-punk Electropunk Neue Deutsche Härte Neue Deutsche Todeskunst IchWillSpass.de - Die Neue Deutsche Welle im Internet Punk-Disco - Discographies of many German punk and NDW bands. Back Again – many Infos about NDW Bands Neue Deutsche Welle on Avant-Avant.net
Federico Fellini, Cavaliere di Gran Croce OMRI was an Italian film director and screenwriter. Known for his distinct style that blends fantasy and baroque images with earthiness, he is recognized as one of the greatest and most influential filmmakers of all time, his films have ranked, in polls such as Cahiers du cinéma and Sight & Sound, as some of the greatest films of all time. Sight & Sound lists his 1963 film 8½ as the 10th-greatest film of all time. In a career spanning fifty years, Fellini won the Palme d'Or for La Dolce Vita, was nominated for twelve Academy Awards, won four in the category of Best Foreign Language Film, the most for any director in the history of the Academy. At the 65th Annual Academy Awards in Los Angeles, he received an honorary award for Lifetime Achievement. Besides La Dolce Vita and 8½, his other well-known films include La Strada, Nights of Cabiria, Juliet of the Spirits, Satyricon and Fellini's Casanova. Fellini was born on 20 January 1920, to middle-class parents in Rimini a small town on the Adriatic Sea.
His father, Urbano Fellini, born to a family of Romagnol peasants and small landholders from Gambettola, moved to Rome in 1915 as a baker apprenticed to the Pantanella pasta factory. His mother, Ida Barbiani, came from a bourgeiois Catholic family of Roman merchants. Despite her family's vehement disapproval, she had eloped with Urbano in 1917 to live at his parents' home in Gambettola. A civil marriage followed in 1918 with the religious ceremony held at Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome a year later; the couple settled in Rimini where Urbano became wholesale vendor. Fellini had two siblings: Riccardo, a documentary director for RAI Television, Maria Maddalena. In 1924, Fellini started primary school in an institute run by the nuns of San Vincenzo in Rimini, attending the Carlo Tonni public school two years later. An attentive student, he spent his leisure time drawing, staging puppet shows, reading Il corriere dei piccoli, the popular children's magazine that reproduced traditional American cartoons by Winsor McCay, George McManus and Frederick Burr Opper.
In 1926, he discovered the world of Grand Guignol, the circus with Pierino the Clown, the movies. Guido Brignone’s Maciste all’Inferno, the first film he saw, would mark him in ways linked to Dante and the cinema throughout his entire career. Enrolled at the Ginnasio Giulio Cesare in 1929, he made friends with Luigi ‘Titta’ Benzi a prominent Rimini lawyer. In Mussolini’s Italy and Riccardo became members of the Avanguardista, the compulsory Fascist youth group for males, he visited Rome with his parents for the first time in 1933, the year of the maiden voyage of the transatlantic ocean liner SS Rex. The sea creature found on the beach at the end of La Dolce Vita has its basis in a giant fish marooned on a Rimini beach during a storm in 1934. Although Fellini adapted key events from his childhood and adolescence in films such as I Vitelloni, 8½, Amarcord, he insisted that such autobiographical memories were inventions: It is not memory that dominates my films. To say that my films are autobiographical is an overly facile liquidation, a hasty classification.
It seems to me that I have invented everything: childhood, nostalgias, memories, for the pleasure of being able to recount them. In 1937, Fellini opened a portrait shop in Rimini, with the painter Demos Bonini, his first humorous article appeared in the "Postcards to Our Readers" section of Milan's Domenica del Corriere. Deciding on a career as a caricaturist and gag writer, Fellini travelled to Florence in 1938, where he published his first cartoon in the weekly 420. According to a biographer, Fellini found school "exasperating" and, in one year, had 67 absences. Failing his military culture exam, he graduated from high school in July 1938 after doubling the exam. In September 1939, he enrolled in law school at the University of Rome to please his parents. Biographer Hollis Alpert reports that "there is no record of his having attended a class". Installed in a family pensione, he met the painter Rinaldo Geleng. Poor, they unsuccessfully joined forces to draw sketches of restaurant and café patrons.
Fellini found work as a cub reporter on the dailies Il Piccolo and Il Popolo di Roma, but quit after a short stint, bored by the local court news assignments. Four months after publishing his first article in Marc’Aurelio, the influential biweekly humour magazine, he joined the editorial board, achieving success with a regular column titled But Are You Listening? Described as “the determining moment in Fellini’s life”, the magazine gave him steady employment between 1939 and 1942, when he interacted with writers and scriptwriters; these encounters led to opportunities in show business and cinema. Among his collaborators on the magazine's editorial board were the future director Ettore Scola, Marxist theorist and scriptwriter Cesare Zavattini, Bernardino Zapponi, a future Fellini screenwriter. Conducting interviews for CineMagazzino proved congenial: when asked to interview Aldo Fabrizi, Italy's most popular variety performer, he established such immediate personal rapport with the man that they collaborated professionally.
Specializing in humorous monologues, Fabrizi commissioned material from his young protégé. Retained on business
Klaus Kinski was a German actor. He appeared in more than 130 films, was a leading role actor in the films of Werner Herzog, including Aguirre, the Wrath of God, Nosferatu the Vampyre, Woyzeck and Cobra Verde, he appeared in many Spaghetti Westerns, such as For a Few Dollars More, A Bullet for the General, The Great Silence, And God Said to Cain, Shoot the Living and Pray for the Dead and A Genius, Two Partners and a Dupe. Kinski was a controversial figure, some of his tantrums on set were filmed in Herzog's documentary My Best Fiend, he is the father of Pola and Nikolai Kinski, born of three different marriages. They have all become actors and have worked in Germany and the United States, in film and TV. Klaus Günter Karl Nakszynski was born to German nationals in Zoppot, Free City of Danzig in 1926, his father, Bruno Nakszynski, was a failed opera singer turned pharmacist. Klaus had three older siblings: Inge and Hans-Joachim. Due to the Great Depression, the family was unable to make a living in Danzig and moved to Berlin in 1931, where they struggled.
They settled in a flat in the Wartburgstraße 3, in the district of Schöneberg, took German citizenship. In 1936, Kinski attended the Prinz-Heinrich-Gymnasium in Schöneberg. During the Second World War, Kinski was conscripted at the age of 17 into the German Wehrmacht some time in 1943, served in the army, he saw no action until the winter of 1944. He was captured by the British on his second day of combat. Kinski gave a different version of events in his 1988 autobiography, he said. A British patrol opened fire on him, he was wounded in the arm and they took him captive. After being treated for his injuries and interrogated, Kinski was transferred to a prisoner of war camp in Britain; the ship transporting him arrived safely. He was held at the prisoner of war "Camp 186" in Berechurch Hall in Essex. There he played his first roles on stage, taking part in variety shows intended to maintain morale among the prisoners. By May 1945, at the end of the war in Europe, the German POWs were anxious to return home.
Kinski had heard that sick prisoners were to be returned first, tried to qualify by standing outside naked at night, drinking urine and eating cigarettes. He remained healthy however, was returned to Germany in 1946, after spending a year and four months in captivity. Arriving in Berlin, he learned his father had died during the war, his mother had been killed in an Allied air attack on the city. After his return to Germany, Kinski started out as an actor, first at a small touring company in Offenburg, where he used his newly adopted name of Klaus Kinski. In 1946, he was hired by the renowned Schlosspark-Theater in Berlin; the next year, he was fired by the manager due to his unpredictable behavior. Other companies followed, but his unconventional and volatile behavior got him into trouble. For three months in 1955, Kinski lived in the same boarding house as a 13-year-old Werner Herzog, who would direct him in a number of films. In the 1999 documentary My Best Fiend, Herzog described how Kinski locked himself in the communal bathroom for 48 hours and broke everything in the room to pieces.
In March 1956, he made a single guest appearance at Vienna's Burgtheater in Goethe's Torquato Tasso. Although respected by his colleagues, among them Judith Holzmeister, cheered by the audience, Kinski did not gain a permanent contract; the Burgtheater's management became aware of the actor's earlier difficulties in Germany. He unsuccessfully tried to sue the company. Living jobless in Vienna, Kinski reinvented himself as a monologist and spoken word artist, he presented the prose and verse of François Villon, William Shakespeare and Oscar Wilde, among others. He established himself as an actor touring Austria and Switzerland with his shows. Kinski's first film role was a small part in the 1948 film Morituri, he appeared in several German Edgar Wallace movies, had bit parts in the American war films Decision Before Dawn and A Time to Love and a Time to Die. He starred as the doomed Jewish refugee in The Counterfeit Traitor with William Holden. In Alfred Vohrer's Die toten Augen von London, his character refused any personal guilt for his evil deeds and claimed to have only followed the orders given to him.
Kinski's performance reflected post-war Germany's reluctance to take responsibility for what had happened during World War II. During the 1960s and 1970s, he appeared in various European exploitation film genres, as well as more acclaimed works such as Doctor Zhivago, featured in a supporting role as an anarchist prisoner on his way to the Gulag, he relocated to Italy during the late 1960s, had roles in numerous Spaghetti Westerns, including For a Few Dollars More, A Bullet for the General, The Great Silence, Twice A Judas, A Genius, Two Partners and a Dupe. He turned down the role of Gestapo Major Arnold Toht in Raiders of the Lost Ark, describing the script as "moronically shitty". In 1977, he starred as the guerrillero Wilfried Böse in Operation Thunderbolt, based on the events of the 1976 Operation Entebbe. Kinski's work with director Werner Herzog brought him international recognition, they made five films together: Aguirre: The Wrath of God (197
Berlin is the capital and largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,748,148 inhabitants make it the second most populous city proper of the European Union after London; the city is one of Germany's 16 federal states. It is surrounded by the state of Brandenburg, contiguous with its capital, Potsdam; the two cities are at the center of the Berlin-Brandenburg capital region, which is, with about six million inhabitants and an area of more than 30,000 km², Germany's third-largest metropolitan region after the Rhine-Ruhr and Rhine-Main regions. Berlin straddles the banks of the River Spree, which flows into the River Havel in the western borough of Spandau. Among the city's main topographical features are the many lakes in the western and southeastern boroughs formed by the Spree and Dahme rivers. Due to its location in the European Plain, Berlin is influenced by a temperate seasonal climate. About one-third of the city's area is composed of forests, gardens, rivers and lakes; the city lies in the Central German dialect area, the Berlin dialect being a variant of the Lusatian-New Marchian dialects.
First documented in the 13th century and situated at the crossing of two important historic trade routes, Berlin became the capital of the Margraviate of Brandenburg, the Kingdom of Prussia, the German Empire, the Weimar Republic, the Third Reich. Berlin in the 1920s was the third largest municipality in the world. After World War II and its subsequent occupation by the victorious countries, the city was divided. East Berlin was declared capital of East Germany. Following German reunification in 1990, Berlin once again became the capital of all of Germany. Berlin is a world city of culture, politics and science, its economy is based on high-tech firms and the service sector, encompassing a diverse range of creative industries, research facilities, media corporations and convention venues. Berlin serves as a continental hub for air and rail traffic and has a complex public transportation network; the metropolis is a popular tourist destination. Significant industries include IT, biomedical engineering, clean tech, biotechnology and electronics.
Berlin is home to world-renowned universities, orchestras and entertainment venues, is host to many sporting events. Its Zoological Garden is one of the most popular worldwide. With the world's oldest large-scale movie studio complex, Berlin is an popular location for international film productions; the city is well known for its festivals, diverse architecture, contemporary arts and a high quality of living. Since the 2000s Berlin has seen the emergence of a cosmopolitan entrepreneurial scene. Berlin lies in northeastern Germany, east of the River Saale, that once constituted, together with the River Elbe, the eastern border of the Frankish Realm. While the Frankish Realm was inhabited by Germanic tribes like the Franks and the Saxons, the regions east of the border rivers were inhabited by Slavic tribes; this is why most of the villages in northeastern Germany bear Slavic-derived names. Typical Germanised place name suffixes of Slavic origin are -ow, -itz, -vitz, -witz, -itzsch and -in, prefixes are Windisch and Wendisch.
The name Berlin has its roots in the language of West Slavic inhabitants of the area of today's Berlin, may be related to the Old Polabian stem berl-/birl-. Since the Ber- at the beginning sounds like the German word Bär, a bear appears in the coat of arms of the city, it is therefore a canting arm. Of Berlin's twelve boroughs, five bear a Slavic-derived name: Pankow, Steglitz-Zehlendorf, Marzahn-Hellersdorf, Treptow-Köpenick and Spandau. Of its ninety-six neighborhoods, twenty-two bear a Slavic-derived name: Altglienicke, Alt-Treptow, Buch, Gatow, Kladow, Köpenick, Lankwitz, Lübars, Marzahn, Prenzlauer Berg, Schmöckwitz, Stadtrandsiedlung Malchow, Steglitz and Zehlendorf; the neighborhood of Moabit bears a French-derived name, Französisch Buchholz is named after the Huguenots. The earliest evidence of settlements in the area of today's Berlin are a wooden beam dated from 1192, remnants of a house foundation dated to 1174, found in excavations in Berlin Mitte; the first written records of towns in the area of present-day Berlin date from the late 12th century.
Spandau is first mentioned in 1197 and Köpenick in 1209, although these areas did not join Berlin until 1920. The central part of Berlin can be traced back to two towns. Cölln on the Fischerinsel is first mentioned in a 1237 document, Berlin, across the Spree in what is now called the Nikolaiviertel, is referenced in a document from 1244. 1237 is considered the founding date of the city. The two towns over time formed close economic and social ties, profited from the staple right on the two important trade routes Via Imperii and from Bruges to Novgorod. In 1307, they formed an alliance with a common external policy, their internal administrations still being separated. In 1415, Frederick I became the elector of the Margraviate of Brandenburg, which he ruled until 1440. During the 15th century, his successors established Berlin-Cölln as capital of the margraviate, subsequent members of the Hohenzol