You Only Live Twice (film)
You Only Live Twice is a 1967 British spy film and the fifth in the James Bond series produced by Eon Productions, starring Sean Connery as the fictional MI6 agent James Bond. The film's screenplay was written by Roald Dahl, loosely based on Ian Fleming's 1964 novel of the same name, it is the first James Bond film to discard most of Fleming's plot, using only a few characters and locations from the book as the background for an new story. In the film, Bond is dispatched to Japan after American and Soviet manned spacecraft disappear mysteriously in orbit. With each nation blaming the other amidst the Cold War, Bond travels secretly to a remote Japanese island to find the perpetrators and comes face to face with Ernst Stavro Blofeld, the head of SPECTRE; the film reveals the appearance of Blofeld, a unseen character. SPECTRE is working for the government of an unnamed Asian power, implied to be the People's Republic of China, to provoke war between the superpowers. During the filming in Japan, it was announced that Sean Connery would retire from the role of Bond, but after a hiatus, he returned in 1971's Diamonds Are Forever and 1983's non-Eon Bond film Never Say Never Again.
You Only Live Twice is the first Bond film to be directed by Lewis Gilbert, who directed the 1977 film The Spy Who Loved Me and the 1979 film Moonraker, both starring Roger Moore. You Only Live Twice was a great success, receiving positive reviews and grossing over $111 million in worldwide box office. American NASA spacecraft Jupiter 16 is hijacked from orbit by an unidentified spaceship; the United States suspects it to be the work of the Soviets, but the British suspect Japanese involvement since the spacecraft, after having "swallowed" Jupiter 16, landed in the Sea of Japan. To investigate, MI6 operative James Bond is sent to Tokyo, after faking his own death in Hong Kong and being buried at sea from HMS Tenby. Upon his arrival, Bond meets a mysterious Japanese woman while watching a sumo match, she introduces Bond to local MI6 operative Dikko Henderson, who claims to have critical evidence about the rogue craft, but is killed before he can elaborate. Bond chases and kills the assailant, taking the assailant's clothing as a disguise, is driven in the getaway car to Osato Chemicals.
Once there, Bond breaks into the office safe of president Mr. Osato. After obtaining certain documents, Bond is pursued by armed security, but is rescued by the woman he had met earlier, who flees to a secluded subway station. Bond chases her, but falls down a trap door leading to the office of the head of the Japanese secret service, Tiger Tanaka, who reveals that the woman is his assistant Aki; the stolen documents are examined, found to include a photograph of the cargo ship Ning-Po, with a microdot message saying the tourist who took the photo was killed as a security precaution. While at Tanaka's spa, Bond meets with Aki again and they spend the night together. Bond goes to Osato Chemicals masquerading as a potential new buyer. Osato humours Bond, but after their meeting, he orders his secretary, Helga Brandt, to have him killed. Outside the building, assassins open fire on Bond. Bond and Aki drive to Kobe, they investigate the company's dock facilities, discover that the ship was delivering elements for rocket fuel.
They are discovered. He wakes, tied up in SPECTRE operative Helga Brandt's cabin on the Ning-Po. In a sexy cocktail dress, she interrogates Bond, but he thinks of managing to bribe his way to freedom when she chooses to enjoy herself by kissing and freeing him. Brandt flies Bond to Tokyo the next day, but en route, she sets off a flare in the plane and bails out persuaded to kill him. Bond manages to land the plane. After finding out where the Ning-Po unloaded, Bond flies over the area in a armed autogyro created by Q. Near a volcano, Bond is attacked by helicopters, which he defeats, confirming his suspicions that the enemy's base is nearby. A Soviet spacecraft is captured in orbit by another unidentified craft, heightening tensions between Russia and the United States; the mysterious spaceship lands in an extensive base hidden inside the volcano. It soon turns out that the true mastermind behind this is Ernst Stavro Blofeld, the mysterious leader of SPECTRE, hired by the People's Republic of China to start a Soviet-American war.
Blofeld summons Osato to answer for not having killed Bond. Blofeld gives Osato a last chance, but as Brandt leaves, he activates a mechanism that drops her to her death into a pool filled with piranhas. Blofeld orders Osato to kill Bond. Bond is informed of Tanaka's plan: he is to train with Tanaka's ninjas, disguise himself as a Japanese fisherman alongside a Japanese wife, infiltrate SPECTRE's island. Before this plan can be completed, Aki is killed when she accidentally ingests poison that a SPECTRE assassin had meant for Bond to take. Bond moves on and enters into a fake marriage to Tanaka's student, Kissy Suzuki. Acting on her lead, the pair reconnoitre the volcano above it. Establishing that the mouth of the volcano is a disguised hatch to the secret rocket base, Bond slips in, while Kissy goes to alert Tanaka. Bond locates and frees the captured astronauts and, with their help, steals a space suit in an attempt to infiltrate the SPECTRE spacecraft, "Bird One". However, Blofeld spots Bond, he is detained while Bird One is launched.
Bird One closes in on the American space capsule, U. S. forces prepare to launch a nu
Six Degrees Records
Six Degrees Records is an independent record label noted for its catalog of recordings from international musicians and vocalists. In 1996, former Windham Hill employees Pat Berry and Bob Duskis founded Six Degrees Records with the intention of promoting new trends in world music. Affiliated with Island Records and Duskis achieved their first major success with the release of London-based tabla player Talvin Singh's influential compilation album Anokha - Soundz of the Asian Underground. Although Singh was not the only artist featured on the album, he was marketed as the focal point of the release. In this way, the media acquired a poster child upon which to lavish its attention, enabling album sales to approach 200,000 units. Beyond its work with the Asian underground, Six Degrees Records has signed and promoted artists from around the world, placing a great emphasis on the promotion of hybrid dance music forms and innovative cross-cultural collaborations. Standout acts include Algerian-born and San Francisco based Cheb i Sabbah, Malians Issa Bagayogo and Vieux Farka Toure, Brazilians Bebel Gilberto and Céu, Egyptian-born and London based Natacha Atlas, the Iranian Azam Ali.
Gilberto's 2000 album Tanto Tempo was a particular highpoint, selling over a million copies and introducing Gilberto, the daughter of renowned musician João Gilberto, to a wider global audience. Based in San Francisco, the label operates under the motto, "Everything is closer than you think," encapsulating their aim of introducing global artists to the American market alongside an embrace of the increased accessibility of musical media through digitization. Beyond releasing music in digital formats and pursuing social media marketing opportunities and Duskis promote the licensing of their artists' music for LGBT film and commercial use. Artistic integrity remains a priority, in a short period of time, the label has developed a significant reputation by emphasizing creativity before commerce. Artists under the label make music within a wide range of musical genres, from bossa nova and folk, to electronic music and dubstep. List of record labels Official site
Arabic is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term used to describe peoples living in the area bounded by Mesopotamia in the east and the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, in the Sinai Peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, derived from Classical Arabic; as the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is taught in schools and universities, is used to varying degrees in workplaces and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic, the official language of 26 states, the liturgical language of the religion of Islam, since the Quran and Hadith were written in Arabic. Modern Standard Arabic follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic, uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties.
Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era in modern times. Due to its grounding in Classical Arabic, Modern Standard Arabic is removed over a millennium from everyday speech, construed as a multitude of dialects of this language; these dialects and Modern Standard Arabic are described by some scholars as not mutually comprehensible. The former are acquired in families, while the latter is taught in formal education settings. However, there have been studies reporting some degree of comprehension of stories told in the standard variety among preschool-aged children; the relation between Modern Standard Arabic and these dialects is sometimes compared to that of Latin and vernaculars in medieval and early modern Europe. This view though does not take into account the widespread use of Modern Standard Arabic as a medium of audiovisual communication in today's mass media—a function Latin has never performed. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe in science and philosophy.
As a result, many European languages have borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence in vocabulary, is seen in European languages Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid-9th to mid-10th centuries. Many of these words relate to related activities; the Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history; some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Spanish, Kashmiri, Bosnian, Bengali, Malay, Indonesian, Punjabi, Assamese, Sindhi and Hausa, some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times.
Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims, Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by as many as 422 million speakers in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography. Arabic is a Central Semitic language related to the Northwest Semitic languages, the Ancient South Arabian languages, various other Semitic languages of Arabia such as Dadanitic; the Semitic languages changed a great deal between Proto-Semitic and the establishment of the Central Semitic languages in grammar. Innovations of the Central Semitic languages—all maintained in Arabic—include: The conversion of the suffix-conjugated stative formation into a past tense; the conversion of the prefix-conjugated preterite-tense formation into a present tense.
The elimination of other prefix-conjugated mood/aspect forms in favor of new moods formed by endings attached to the prefix-conjugation forms. The development of an internal passive. There are several features which Classical Arabic, the modern Arabic varieties, as well as the Safaitic and Hismaic inscriptions share which are unattested in any other Central Semitic language variety, including the Dadanitic and Taymanitic languages of the northern Hejaz; these features are evidence of common descent from Proto-Arabic. The following features can be reconstructed with confidence for Proto-Arabic: negative particles m *mā.
A folk dance is developed by people that reflect the life of the people of a certain country or region. Not all ethnic dances are folk dances. For example, ritual dances or dances of ritual origin are not considered to be folk dances. Ritual dances are called "Religious dances" because of their purpose; the terms "ethnic" and "traditional" are used when it is required to emphasize the cultural roots of the dance. In this sense, nearly all folk dances are ethnic ones. If some dances, such as polka, cross ethnic boundaries and cross the boundary between "folk" and "ballroom dance", ethnic differences are considerable enough to mention, they share some or all of the following attributes: Dances are held at folk dance gatherings or social functions by people with little or no professional training to traditional music. Dances not designed for public performance or the stage, though they may be arranged and set for stage performances. Execution dominated by an inherited tradition from various international cultures rather than innovation.
New dancers learn informally by observing others or receiving help from others. More controversially, some people define folk dancing as dancing for which there is no governing body or dancing for which there are no competitive or professional institutions; the term "folk dance" is sometimes applied to dances of historical importance in European culture and history. For other cultures the terms "ethnic dance" or "traditional dance" are sometimes used, although the latter terms may encompass ceremonial dances. There are a number of modern dances, such as hip hop dance, that evolve spontaneously, but the term "folk dance" is not applied to them, the terms "street dance" or "vernacular dance" are used instead; the term "folk dance" is reserved for dances which are to a significant degree bound by tradition and originated in the times when the distinction existed between the dances of "common folk" and the dances of the modern ballroom dances originated from folk ones. Varieties of European folk dances include: Sword dances include long sword dances and rapper dancing.
Some choreographed dances such as contra dance, Scottish country dance, modern Western square dance, are called folk dances, though this is not true in the strictest sense. Country dance overlaps with contemporary folk ballroom dance. Most country dances and ballroom dances originated from folk dances, with gradual refinement over the years. People familiar with folk dancing can determine what country a dance is from if they have not seen that particular dance before; some countries' dances have features that are unique to that country, although neighboring countries sometimes have similar features. For example, the German and Austrian schuhplattling dance consists of slapping the body and shoes in a fixed pattern, a feature that few other countries' dances have. Folk dances sometimes evolved long before current political boundaries, so that certain dances are shared by several countries. For example, some Serbian and Croatian dances share the same or similar dances, sometimes use the same name and music for those dances.
International folk dance groups exist in cities and college campuses in many countries, in which dancers learn folk dances from many cultures for recreation. Balfolk events are social dance events with live music in Western and Central Europe, originating in the folk revival of the 1970s and becoming more popular since about 2000, where popular European partner dances from the end of the 19th century such as the schottische, polka and waltz are danced, with additionally other European folk dances from France, but from Sweden and other countries. Attan - The national dance of Pakistan. Folk dance of Pashtuns tribes of Pakistan including the unique styles of Quetta and Waziristan in Pakistan. Lewa - Baluch folk dance in Pakistan. Khattak Dance - Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa in Pakistan. Chitrali Dance - Chitral, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa in Pakistan. Azerbaijani dances Kurdish dance Dabke, a folk dance of the Levant Thabal chongba Assyrian folk dance Armenian dance Bhangra, a Punjabi harvest dance in Pakistan and music style that has become popular worldwide.
Bihu, an Assamese dance celebrating the arrival of spring, traditionally the beginning of the Assamese New Year Garba Circular Devotional dance from Gujarat danced the world over Kalbelia is one of the most sensuous dance forms of Rajasthan, performed by the kalbelia tribe Khigga, a common folk dance among Assyrian people Israeli folk dance Odori, Japanese traditional dance danced in long parades in the streets where anyone can join in Buyō, typical dance of the Japanese geishas or dance artists Kyushtdepdi - The national dance of Turkmenistan Yangge Romvong Bon dance Rimse Kachāshī Nongak Cariñosa Tinikling Singkil Maglalatik Binasuan Pandanggo Pista Kuratsa Magkasuyo Sayaw sa Bangko Itik-itik kuratsa La Jota Moncadena Balse Marikina Paraguanen Kuntao Silat Amil Bangsa Benjan Lerion Kalesa Zapin Bamboo dance Baile Folklorico Hula Haka List of ethnic and folk dances sorted by origin Dance basic topics, a list of general dance topics Balfolk, contemporary folk dance practised across Europe Elizabeth Burchinal, authority on American folk dance Folk Dance Hawaii Folk dancing at Curlie Dancilla Folklore People Community Folk Dance Folklore Festivals Folklore Festivals Society for International Folk Dancing
Music of North Africa
North Africa has contributed to popular music Egyptian classical and el Gil, Algerian raï and chaabi. The broad region is sometimes called the Maghreb, the term Maghrebian music is in use. For a variety of reasons Libya does not have as extensive a popular tradition as its neighbors. Folk music, abounds, despite frequent condemnation and suppression from governments, exists in multiple forms across the region—the Berbers, Sephardic Jews and Nubians, for example, retain musical traditions with ancient roots. Andalusian music is influential, is played in varying forms across the region; this music was imported from Andalusia in the 15th century, after Spain expelled the Moors from that province. The Spanish conquest of the Muslim Iberian peninsula had been going on for some time, had the result of moving a large number of Iberian Muslims, who were themselves descended from people from across the Mediterranean, into North Africa; these people brought with them a vibrant tradition that had arisen as a fusion of various kinds of Muslim music from Baghdad, Istanbul and elsewhere.
The most well-known derivatives of this style are al-âla in Morocco and related styles in Algeria and malouf in Tunisia. Out of all the North African countries, Algerian popular music may be best-known abroad. Raï, a style of urban popular music developed in early 20th century Oran, has been famous in Europe France since the late 1980s; the music of the Berber Kabyle people and chaabi are both renowned throughout the country, in France. Descended from music imported from Andalusia in the 15th century, Algerian nuubaat is a kind of classical music that remains popular in much of the country. Over the years, it has evolved into related styles like hawzii. Egypt's best-known popular tradition is the classical Egyptian music of stars like Abdel Halim Hafez. Other prominent modern styles include Shaabi, el Gil, other Egyptian pop. Libyan music, like the music of other North African countries, consists of both local and foreign elements; the factors important to the development of music in Libya are: indigenous North African music, Arabic music theory and culture, Ottoman Turkish music.
Because of these factors, Libya's musical heritage can be further divided into four types: 1. Ceremonial music, associated with the culture and customs of the Sufi-Turugs. 2. Classical vocal music that belongs to the traditional Arab music of Al-Andalus, includes Al-muash'shahat and Al-maluf. 3. Classical instrumental music, which evolved from the Arab art-music heritage and was inspired by Turkish elements. 4. Libyan folk music, which features Central African and Arab musical influences styles. Tunisia is best known as the center for malouf, a derivative of the Andalusian music imported to North Africa in the 15th century. Since the 1930s, a number of organizations have been promoting malouf as an integral aspect of Tunisian culture, helping to keep the ancient tradition alive. Since the 2000s, modern styles have penetrated the market and have been adapted to Tunisian culture, such as Reggae or Rap. Many of these artists such as Weld El 15, reached public notoriety, from the Tunisian revolution and after for criticizing the ancient regime and the abuses of power during the country's democratization process
Kroke is a Polish instrumental ensemble of world music. The band's name in Yiddish means Kraków; the band was founded in 1992 by three graduates of the Academy of Music in Kraków. They were associated with klezmer music with strong Balkan influences, their work draws inspiration from a variety of ethnic music and sounds of the Orient, combining these with jazz to create their own distinctive style. In addition to their own projects, Kroke have recorded albums with artists such as Nigel Kennedy, Edyta Geppert, Maja Sikorowska and Tindra. One of their songs, "The Secret of the Life Tree", features on the soundtrack of David Lynch's 2006 film Inland Empire; the first official release from KROKE was the 1993 cassette “Klezmer Acoustic Music”. During a promotional concert for the album, the band met Steven Spielberg, who invited them to perform at the “Survivors Reunion” concert in Jerusalem and during the Polish premier of the film Schindler’s List. In 1996, the band signed with the German record label Oriente Musik.
The first album of material, released the same year, through this collaboration was Trio. Upon the invitation of Peter Gabriel, KROKE made their first appearance at the WOMAD festival in July 1997; as a result, joint recording sessions at Real World Studios with other musicians led to material from the band being subsequently used by Peter Gabriel on his album Long Walk Home- music from the Rabbit-Proof Fence, the soundtrack to the film of the same name. In the same year, KROKE released their second full-length album – Eden; the following years saw the band touring, during with time they participated in such prestigious music festivals as: Umea Folk Music Festival. During this time, the albums Live at the Pit and The Sounds of the Vanishing Wold were released. In 2001, KROKE began collaborating with Nigel Kennedy, the result of, the album East Meets East, released in 2003. During the same year, the band released Ten Pieces to Save the World as a trio; this album went on to rank number two in the World Music Charts Europe.
Along with Nigel Kennedy, the band once again performed at the WOMAD festival in 2004. The same year, KROKE received a nomination in the World Music category from BBC Radio 3 for the album Quartet – Live at Home as well as working with Edyta Geppert, which would bring about the joint release Śpiewam życie. At the same time, a project was begun with the Sinfonia Baltica orchestra, entitled “KROKE – symfonicznie”, conducted and arranged by Bohdan Jarmołowicz. In 2006, KROKE's song “The Secret of the Life Tree” appeared on the soundtrack to David Lynch's film Inland Empire. Another original album entitled Seventh Trip was released in 2007. 2008 was filled with concerts in Poland and throughout Europe as well as work on an "intimate project” arranged by Krzysztof Herdzin, which premiered in Spain with the Sinfonica de Burgos orchestra conducted by Javier Castro. Performances of this project played in Kraków and St. Petersburg in Russia with the accompaniment of Sinfonietta Cracovia conducted by Robert Kabara.
Released in 2009, the album Out of Sight was a kind of return to roots for the band. The musicians returned to working as their concerts took on a more intimate nature. In 2010, they began work on a collection of Greek songs with Maja Sikorowska as well as performing concerts together with the Norwegian band Tindra and Spanish violinist Diego Galaz. Other special events that year included the recording of music for the film Streetcar Memories, directed by Łukasz Czuj, participation in the Kennedy's Polish Weekend at the Southbank Centre in London alongside Nigel Kennedy. In the same year, KROKE performed at the Schleswig-Holstein Musik Festival in Germany and took part in the concert “Your Angel's Name is Liberty”, directed by Robert Wilson, on occasion of the 30th anniversary of Solidarity in Gdańsk. In January 2011, the collaboration album Śpiewam Życie with Edyta Geppert was certified “gold”; that same month, KROKE along with Maja Sikorowska completed work on the album Avra, which contains 12 Greek songs.
This project involved guest percussionist Sławomir Berny. In the same year Kroke & Tindra released album Live in Førde - the recordings were made in the auditorium at Førdehuset on July 10, 2010 for NRK's radio P2. Culture of Kraków Official website
Jean-Michel André Jarre is a French composer and record producer. He is a pioneer in the electronic and new-age genres, known for organising outdoor spectacles featuring his music, vast laser displays and fireworks. Jarre was trained on the piano. From an early age, he was introduced to a variety of art forms, including street performers, jazz musicians and the artist Pierre Soulages, he played guitar in a band, but his musical style was most influenced by Pierre Schaeffer, a pioneer of musique concrète at the Groupe de Recherches Musicales. His first mainstream success was the 1976 album Oxygène. Recorded in a makeshift studio at his home, the album sold an estimated 12 million copies. Oxygène was followed in 1978 by Équinoxe, in 1979, Jarre performed to a record-breaking audience of more than a million people at the Place de la Concorde, a record he has since broken three times. More albums were to follow, but his 1979 concert served as a blueprint for his future performances around the world.
Several of his albums have been released to coincide with large-scale outdoor events, he is now as well known as a performer as he is as a musician. As of 2004, Jarre had sold an estimated 80 million albums, he was the first Western musician invited to perform in the People's Republic of China and holds the world record for the largest-ever audience at an outdoor event. Jean-Michel Jarre was born in Lyon on 24 August 1948, to Francette Pejot, a French Resistance member and concentration camp survivor, composer Maurice Jarre; when Jarre was five, his parents separated and his father moved to the United States, leaving him with his mother. He did not see his father again until reaching the age of 18. For the first eight years of his life, Jarre spent six months each year at his maternal grandparents' flat on the Cours de Verdun, in the Perrache district of Lyon. Jarre's grandfather was an oboe player and inventor, designing an early audio mixer used at Radio Lyon, he gave Jean-Michel his first tape recorder.
From his vantage point high above the pavement, the young Jarre was able to observe street performers at work, an experience he cited as proving influential on his art. Jarre struggled with classical piano studies, although he changed teachers and worked on his scales. A more general interest in musical instruments was sparked by his discovery at the Saint-Ouen flea market, where his mother sold antiques, of a Boris Vian trumpet violin, he accompanied his mother to Le Chat Qui Pêche, a friend's Paris jazz club, where saxophonists Archie Shepp and John Coltrane, trumpet players Don Cherry and Chet Baker were regular performers. These early jazz experiences suggested to him that music may be "descriptive, without lyrics", he was influenced by the work of French artist Pierre Soulages, whose exhibition at the Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris he attended. Soulages' paintings used multiple textured layers, Jarre realised that "for the first time in music, you could act as a painter with frequencies and sounds."
He was influenced by classical, modernist music. I saw the last concert by the great Arabic singer Om Khalsoum, she is the Maria Callas of the Orient. I heard "Georgia on My Mind" by Ray Charles, I realised that music can talk to your tummy. I was so impressed by the organic sensuality coming from Ray Charles's music – there was no intellectual process and it was great; as a young man Jarre earned money by selling his paintings, exhibiting some of his works at the Lyon Gallery – L'Œil écoute, by playing in a band called Mystère IV. While he studied at the Lycée Michelet, his mother arranged for him to take lessons in harmony and fugue with Jeannine Rueff of the Conservatoire de Paris. In 1967 he played guitar in a band called The Dustbins, who appear in the film Des garçons et des filles, he mixed instruments including the flute with tape effects and other sounds. More experimentation followed in 1968, when he began to use tape loops and other electronic devices, but joining the Groupe de Recherches Musicales in 1969 under the direction of Pierre Schaeffer, proved hugely influential.
Jarre was introduced to the Moog modular synthesizer and spent time working at the studio of influential German composer Karlheinz Stockhausen in Cologne. In the kitchen of his flat on Rue de la Trémoille, near the Champs-Élysées, Jarre set up a small recording studio, it included his first synthesiser, an EMS VCS 3, an EMS Synthi AKS, each linked to Revox tape machines. For a 1969 exposition at the Maison de la Culture in Reims, Jarre wrote the five-minute song "Happiness Is a Sad Song", his first commercial release was La Cage/Erosmachine, a mixture of harmony, tape effects and synthesisers in 1969. In 1971 Jarre was commissioned by choreographer Norbert Schmucki to perform a ballet called AOR, at the Palais Garnier, he composed music for ballet, theatre and television programs, as well as music and lyrics for artists like Patrick Juvet and Christophe. Jarre composed the soundtrack for Les Granges Brûlées and in 1972 wrote music for the International Festival of Magic; that year he released his first solo album, Deserted Palace, from 1973–74 wrote music for Françoise Hardy and Gérard Lenorman, wrote lyrics for Christophe and directed Christophe's Olympia show.
Jarre's 1976 lo