Brice's Cross Roads National Battlefield Site
Brice's Cross Roads National Battlefield Site commemorates the Battle of Brice's Crossroads, in which the Confederate army, under Major-General Nathan Bedford Forrest, defeated a much larger Union force on June 10, 1864, to secure supply lines between Nashville and Chattanooga, Tennessee. The Brice's Cross Roads National Battlefield Site, in Lee County, preserves the battlefield at Brice's Cross Roads which extended northward into southwestern Prentiss County; this is the spot. It is located about 6 miles west of Baldwyn, on Highway 370; the site features a memorial erected soon after the battlefield was designated as a historic site in 1929. In addition, on June 11, 2005, a second memorial was dedicated to Confederate Capt. John W. Morton, Chief of Artillery, his battery. Brice's Cross Roads is the only component of the National Park System designated a "battlefield site"; the modern Bethany Presbyterian Church is located on the southeast side of the crossroads. At the time of the battle, this congregation's meeting house was located further south along the Baldwyn Road.
The Bethany Cemetery, adjacent to the battlefield site, predates the Civil War. Many of the area's earliest settlers are buried here; the graves of more than 90 Confederate soldiers killed in the battle are located in this cemetery. Union dead from the battle were buried in common graves on the battlefield, but were reinterred in the Memphis National Cemetery at Memphis, Tennessee; the Brice's Crossroads Visitor Center, located in Baldwyn, is owned and operated by a public commission. Brice's Crossroads National Battlefield Commission, Inc. formed in 1994 by concerned local citizens, is involved in protecting the greater battlefield, considered one of the most beautiful preserved battlefields of the American Civil War. With assistance from the Civil War Trust and the support of federal and local governments, the commission has purchased for preservation 1,423 acres of the original battlefield; the site was established February 21, 1929, transferred from the War Department to the National Park Service on August 10, 1933.
The battlefield was automatically listed on the National Register of Historic Places on October 15, 1966. It is administered under the Natchez Trace Parkway. Natchez Trace Parkway National Register of Historic Places listings in Lee County, Mississippi Tupelo National Battlefield The National Parks: Index 2001–2003. Washington: U. S. Department of the Interior. GovernmentOfficial websiteGeneral informationBrice's Cross Roads National Battlefield Site at the American Battlefield Protection Program Brice's Cross Roads National Battlefield Site at the Civil War Trust Brice's Cross Roads National Battlefield Site at the National Park Foundation
Port Gibson, Mississippi
Port Gibson is a city in Claiborne County, United States. The population was 1,567 at the 2010 census. Port Gibson is the county seat of Claiborne County, bordered on the west by the Mississippi River, it is the site of the Claiborne County Courthouse. The first European settlers in Port Gibson were French colonists in 1729, it was chartered as a town in 1803 after the United States acquired the territory in the Louisiana Purchase from France. To develop cotton plantations in the area after Indian Removal of the 1830s, planters in the state imported thousands of African-American slaves from the Upper South; the county had a black majority established well before the Civil War. Several notable people are natives of Port Gibson; the town saw action during the American Civil War. Port Gibson has several historical sites listed on the National Register of Historic Places. In the 20th century, Port Gibson was home to The Rabbit's Foot Company, it had a substantial role in the development of blues in Mississippi, including taverns and juke joints now included on the Mississippi Blues Trail.
With the decline in agriculture and lack of other jobs, the city and rural county have suffered from reduced population and poverty. The peak of population in the city was in 1950. A report in the New York Times in 2002 characterized Port Gibson as 80 percent black and poor, with 20 percent of families living on incomes of less than $10,000 a year, according to the 2000 Census, it has an "entrenched population of whites, many of whom are related and have some historical connection to cotton." Chartered as a town on March 12, 1803, Port Gibson is Mississippi's third-oldest European-American settlement. It was developed beginning in 1729 by French colonists, was within French-claimed territory known as La Louisiane. More Americans entered the area following Indian Removal in the 1830s. Planters developed cotton plantations of the fertile river lowlands of the Mississippi Delta; as the planter population increased, they founded the Port Gibson Female College here in 1843. The college closed, one of its buildings now serves as the city hall.
Port Gibson was the site of several clashes during the American Civil War and figured in Ulysses S. Grant's Vicksburg Campaign; the Battle of Port Gibson occurred on May 1, 1863, resulted in the deaths of over 200 Union and Confederate soldiers. The battle was a turning point in the Confederates' ability to hold Mississippi and defend against an amphibious attack. Port Gibson is the site of a cottonseed oil plant. Many of the town's historic buildings survived the Civil War because Grant proclaimed the city to be "too beautiful to burn"; these words appear on the town's city limits signs. Historic buildings near the city include the Windsor Ruins, which have been shown in several motion pictures. Gemiluth Chessed synagogue, built in 1892, had an active congregation when the town was thriving as the parish seat, it is the only Moorish Revival building in the state. The Jewish population moved to larger cities and areas offering more opportunity as the economy changed, none remain in Port Gibson.
The Rabbit's Foot Company was established in 1900 by Pat Chappelle, an African-American theatre owner in Tampa, Florida. This was the leading traveling vaudeville show in the southern states, with an all-black cast of singers, musicians and entertainers. After Chappelle's death in 1911, the company was taken over by a white farmer, he based the touring company in Port Gibson after 1918, continued to manage it until 1950. The Rabbit's Foot Company remained popular, but was no longer considered "authentic."The Mississippi Blues Commission has placed a marker in Port Gibson to recognize The Rabbit's Foot Company as important on the Mississippi Blues Trail. The marker commemorates the contribution the company made to the development of the blues in Mississippi, in its decades of operation after the founder's death. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.8 square miles, all land. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,840 people, 692 households, 447 families residing in the city.
The population density was 1,048.0 people per square mile. There were 787 housing units at an average density of 448.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 19.40% White, 80.00% African American, 0.05% Native American, 0.22% Asian, 0.05% from other races, 0.27% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.71% of the population. There were 692 households out of which 30.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 31.9% were married couples living together, 27.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.3% were non-families. 30.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.64 and the average family size was 3.33. In the city, the population was spread out with 29.3% under the age of 18, 10.5% from 18 to 24, 24.7% from 25 to 44, 20.9% from 45 to 64, 14.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 80.2 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 76.2 males. The median income for a household in the city was $24,848, the median income for a family was $28,958. Males had a median income of $28,036 versus $21,115 for females; the per capita income for the city was $12,928. About 26.0% of families and 31.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 41.9% of those under age 18 a
U.S. Route 80
U. S. Route 80 is an east-west United States Numbered Highway, much of, once part of the early auto trail known as the Dixie Overland Highway; as the "0" in the route number indicates, it was a cross-country route, from the Pacific Ocean to the Atlantic Ocean. Its original western terminus was in California. However, the entire segment west of Dallas, has been decommissioned in favor of various Interstate Highways and state highways; the highway's western terminus is at an interchange with Interstate 30 on the Dallas–Mesquite, Texas city line. The highway's eastern terminus is in Tybee Island, Georgia, at the intersection of Butler Avenue, Inlet Avenue, Tybrisa Street, near the Atlantic Ocean. Modern US 80 begins as a significant component of the urban freeway system of Texas. With Spur 557, it serves as the shortest freeway route from the central and northern portions of Dallas to I-20, heading east towards Shreveport, Louisiana. From its origin at I-30 in eastern Dallas, through its interchange with the I-635 "LBJ" Loop, to its junction with I-20 southwest of Terrell, US 80/Spur 557 is a full Interstate-grade, limited-access freeway.
In western Terrell, US 80 leaves the freeway, which continues southeast as Spur 557 to I-20, while US 80 runs north of I-20 through a number of small towns and cities, including Terrell, Mineola and Marshall. It rejoins I-20 for about five miles, before splitting to pass through downtown Waskom before crossing into Louisiana. US 80 is parallel to the newer I-20, which has supplanted it as a long-distance route, for the entirety of its length in Louisiana; the highway crosses the state line from Texas into Caddo Parish as a two-lane road and crosses over to the south of I-20 without connecting with the freeway. It passes through the town of Greenwood where it meets US 79 coming north from Texas, these two routes run concurrently eastward from there to Minden. US 79/US 80 crosses over I-20 again, this time at an interchange, enters the city of Shreveport as Greenwood Road; the highway passes over I-220 without an interchange and continues east to an intersection with Jefferson Paige Road where it expands to four undivided lanes and enters the main part of the urbanized area.
US 171 ends at US 79/US 80 at the intersection with Hearne Avenue. At this intersection, the road narrows to two through lanes. US 80 intersects I-20 again just east of here. At Mansfield Road, the highway name changes to Texas Avenue and angles northeast through an industrial area; the road skirts the I-20/I-49 interchange and expands to four lanes for its final approach to downtown. At the west edge of downtown, eastbound jogs one block east on Crockett Street and two blocks north on Common Street north to Texas Street. US 79/US 80 passes through downtown Shreveport on Texas Street before crossing the Red River on the 1930s vintage Long–Allen Bridge and entering Bossier City and Bossier Parish. Through Bossier Parish, US 79/US 80 comprises a major urban and suburban arterial carrying a minimum of four lanes. In the eastern reaches of the parish, continuing into Webster Parish, it is a divided highway; the road intersects the east end of I-220 at an interchange. US 79/US 80 stays to the north of I-20, except for a stretch east of Haughton where it strays to the south for a period, skirting the north edge of the Louisiana Army Ammunition Plant.
At Dixie Inn, the highway intersects US 371. In Minden, US 79 continues its northeasterly trajectory toward Arkansas. East of Minden, US 80 crosses to the south of I-20 and serves the Bienville Parish towns of Gibsland and Arcadia. Entering Lincoln Parish, the highway serves Simsboro and Grambling before entering Ruston and overlapping US 167 on a north–south couplet of streets through the business district. US 80 resumes its eastward path on the north side of Ruston and exits the city on East Georgia Avenue. Between Ruston and Monroe the highway serves the small communities of Calhoun. Now on the north side of the interstate, it enters Ouachita Parish and approaches the Monroe area as a two-lane road. US 80 crosses Louisiana Highway 143 and enters West Monroe on Cypress Street, where it continues south into the business district and widens to a four-lane urban arterial. At junction LA 34, US 80 makes a left turn, angling northeast, crosses the Ouachita River, entering the city of Monroe; as Louisville Avenue it passes north of downtown, but the downtown area can be accessed via Business US 165 which intersects US 80 at North 5th/North 6th Street and becomes concurrent from there to the east.
Louisville Avenue becomes a commercialized urban arterial and remains so as it passes through the city curving southwestward and meeting the intersection with Desiard Street. As Desiard Street, US 80 meets mainline US 165, on its expressway bypass alignment, at a diamond interchange. Eastward from there, US 80 passes through suburban areas until it meets LA 139, where it is forced to turn off its four-lane alignment at an intersection which favors LA 139 traffic. Now a two-lane road, US 80 continues east through northeast Louisiana, passing through Richland and Madison parishes and serving the communities and towns of Start, Delhi, Tallulah and Delta. Just west of Delta, US 80 turns off its original route and runs a short distance south to an interchange with I-20; the orig
U.S. Route 412
U. S. Route 412 is an east–west United States highway, first commissioned in 1982, its route number is a "violation" of the usual AASHTO numbering scheme, as it comes nowhere near its implied "parent", US 12. U. S. 412 overlaps expressway-grade Cimarron Turnpike from Tulsa west to Interstate 35 and the Cherokee Turnpike from 5 miles east of Chouteau, Oklahoma, to 8 miles west of the Arkansas state line. A curiosity of this highway is that it runs the entire length of the Oklahoma Panhandle and traverses the Missouri Bootheel; as of 2004, the highway's eastern terminus is in Columbia, Tennessee at an intersection with Interstate 65, where it continues east as State Route 99. Its western terminus is in Springer, New Mexico at an intersection with Interstate 25. U. S. 412 overlaps with U. S. 43, U. S. 56, US 60, U. S. 62, U. S. 63, U. S. 64, U. S. 65, I-155, U. S. 270, runs parallel to U. S. 62 and U. S. 64 in various places and intersects U. S. 70. The highway begins at Interstate 25 in Springer, it is concurrent with U.
S. Route 56 throughout its entire route in the state at just under 100 miles. Besides Springer, the only other town Route 412 passes through is Clayton, where it merges with U. S. Route 64. Just before entering Oklahoma, the highway touches the northwestern corner of Texas at a small road junction. Highway 412 runs across the Panhandle and northern part of the state passing through cities such as Boise City, Woodward and Tulsa; some major highway junctions include Interstate 35 in Noble County and several others in Tulsa such as I-44, 244, 444, U. S. Routes 75 and 169. Two sections of this highway are tolled: the Cimarron Turnpike, the Cherokee Turnpike; the Arkansas section starts at the Oklahoma line, runs through the scenic Ozark Mountains in the northern part of Arkansas, leaves the state at the Missouri Bootheel. Cities along the route include Siloam Springs, Alpena, Cotter, Mountain Home, Walnut Ridge, Paragould. In Harrison, U. S. Route 412 is concurrent with both US 62 and US 65; the route enters Arkansas in the northwest portion of the state.
In Benton County, the route serves Siloam Springs as a major route through the southern part of the city. US 412 has a concurrency with Highway 59. US 412 runs east to enter Washington County; the route enters Tontitown, passes the historic Tontitown School Building, intersects Highway 112 before entering Springdale. US 412 crosses I-49/US 62/US 71 in Springdale, where the route is four-lane with a center left-turn lane. Now named Sunset Avenue, the route passes through developed parts of Springdale, including many restaurants and businesses before turning south, forming a concurrency with US 71B; the concurrency ends and US 412 heads east past the Springdale Municipal Airport and Highway 265 out of town. Again becoming four-lane divided, the route winds east to Hindsville; the route nears Hindsville, including an intersection with a former alignment now designated US 412B. The community was bypassed in 2009 with a four-lane alignment of US 412. US 412 continues east. Near Huntsville, the highway intersects another business route and Highway 23 before entering Carroll County.
The highway has a brief overlap with Highway 21 in the southwest corner of the county, has junctions with many rural routes in Carroll County. The highway passes the James C. Chaney House and Stamps Store in Osage, the Dog Branch School, the Yell Masonic Lodge Hall in Carrollton. In Alpena, US 412 begins a concurrency with US 62; this overlap is 150 miles through many north central Arkansas communities, including Harrison, Mountain Home, Ash Flat, Hardy. In Imboden, US 412 breaks from US 62 north, now concurrent with US 63 until 2 miles east of Portia. After the concurrency ends, US 412 runs due east to through downtown Walnut Ridge. US 412 runs near the Old Walnut Ridge Post Office, Missouri-Pacific Depot, the Walnut Ridge Commercial Historic District, each on the National Register of Historic Places. Further east, the route intersects US 67 at a full interchange before crossing the Cache River and entering Greene County; the route passed over the water on the Cache River Bridge, but the 1934 Parker pony truss bridge was bypassed in 1995.
The highway runs due east, intersecting Highway 228, Highway 141, Highway 168 before Paragould. US 412 runs as Kings Hwy in Paragould, passing the Linwood Mausoleum, US 49B, Highway 69, Highway 135 in the city limits; the route continues east across the St. Francis River. U. S. 412 crosses Missouri on its Bootheel, runs concurrent with Interstate 155 east of Hayti to the Tennessee state line. Still concurrent with I-155, US 412 enters Tennessee from Missouri on the Caruthersville Bridge before meeting US 51 in Dyersburg; the interstate designation ends as 412 turns southeast toward Jackson on a stretch of highway, upgraded from 2 to 4 lanes in the 1990s. After leaving Jackson on its eastern side, US 412 passes through the towns of Lexington and Hohenwald before reaching Columbia; the section from Hohenwald eastward to I-65 near Columbia is overlapped with unsigned State Route 99. East of I-65 at the eastern terminus of US 412, the route remains SR 99. Arkansas Highway 68 is the former designation of U.
S. Highway 412 from the Arkansas-Oklahoma State Line to U. S. Highway 62 at Alpena; the original eastern terminus of Highway 68 was 10 miles east of Huntsville at Highway 21, but was extended in the 1940s to Alpena. An old alignment of Highway 68 can be found 4
Tennessee is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States. Tennessee is the 16th most populous of the 50 United States. Tennessee is bordered by Kentucky to the north, Virginia to the northeast, North Carolina to the east, Georgia and Mississippi to the south, Arkansas to the west, Missouri to the northwest; the Appalachian Mountains dominate the eastern part of the state, the Mississippi River forms the state's western border. Nashville is the state's capital and largest city, with a 2017 population of 667,560. Tennessee's second largest city is Memphis, which had a population of 652,236 in 2017; the state of Tennessee is rooted in the Watauga Association, a 1772 frontier pact regarded as the first constitutional government west of the Appalachians. What is now Tennessee was part of North Carolina, part of the Southwest Territory. Tennessee was admitted to the Union as the 16th state on June 1, 1796. Tennessee was the last state to leave the Union and join the Confederacy at the outbreak of the American Civil War in 1861.
Occupied by Union forces from 1862, it was the first state to be readmitted to the Union at the end of the war. Tennessee furnished more soldiers for the Confederate Army than any other state besides Virginia, more soldiers for the Union Army than the rest of the Confederacy combined. Beginning during Reconstruction, it had competitive party politics, but a Democratic takeover in the late 1880s resulted in passage of disenfranchisement laws that excluded most blacks and many poor whites from voting; this reduced competition in politics in the state until after passage of civil rights legislation in the mid-20th century. In the 20th century, Tennessee transitioned from an agrarian economy to a more diversified economy, aided by massive federal investment in the Tennessee Valley Authority and, in the early 1940s, the city of Oak Ridge; this city was established to house the Manhattan Project's uranium enrichment facilities, helping to build the world's first atomic bombs, two of which were dropped on Imperial Japan near the end of World War II.
Tennessee's major industries include agriculture and tourism. Poultry and cattle are the state's primary agricultural products, major manufacturing exports include chemicals, transportation equipment, electrical equipment; the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, the nation's most visited national park, is headquartered in the eastern part of the state, a section of the Appalachian Trail follows the Tennessee-North Carolina border. Other major tourist attractions include the Tennessee Aquarium in Chattanooga; the earliest variant of the name that became Tennessee was recorded by Captain Juan Pardo, the Spanish explorer, when he and his men passed through an American Indian village named "Tanasqui" in 1567 while traveling inland from South Carolina. In the early 18th century, British traders encountered a Cherokee town named Tanasi in present-day Monroe County, Tennessee; the town was located on a river of the same name, appears on maps as early as 1725. It is not known whether this was the same town as the one encountered by Juan Pardo, although recent research suggests that Pardo's "Tanasqui" was located at the confluence of the Pigeon River and the French Broad River, near modern Newport.
The meaning and origin of the word are uncertain. Some accounts suggest, it has been said to mean "meeting place", "winding river", or "river of the great bend". According to ethnographer James Mooney, the name "can not be analyzed" and its meaning is lost; the modern spelling, Tennessee, is attributed to James Glen, the governor of South Carolina, who used this spelling in his official correspondence during the 1750s. The spelling was popularized by the publication of Henry Timberlake's "Draught of the Cherokee Country" in 1765. In 1788, North Carolina created "Tennessee County", the third county to be established in what is now Middle Tennessee; when a constitutional convention met in 1796 to organize a new state out of the Southwest Territory, it adopted "Tennessee" as the name of the state. Tennessee is known as The Volunteer State, a nickname some claimed was earned during the War of 1812 because of the prominent role played by volunteer soldiers from Tennessee during the Battle of New Orleans.
Other sources differ on the origin of the state nickname. This explanation is more because President Polk's call for 2,600 nationwide volunteers at the beginning of the Mexican–American War resulted in 30,000 volunteers from Tennessee alone in response to the death of Davy Crockett and appeals by former Tennessee Governor and Texas politician, Sam Houston. Tennessee borders eight other states: Virginia to the north. Tennessee is tied with Missouri as the state bordering the most other states; the state is trisected by the Tennessee River. The highest point in the state is Clingmans Dome at 6,643 feet (
Fairview is a city located in Williamson County, Tennessee. It is part of the Nashville metropolitan area; the population was 7,720 at the 2010 census, a 33.1% increase in population from the 2000 census. In the communities just outside Fairview, there are an additional 4,100 people, there are over 11,000 people living within the Fairview area. Fairview was incorporated on July 28, 1959, under the Uniform City Manager-Commission Charter as set out in the Tennessee Code Annotated. Fairview city limits is located about one mile southwest from the Nashville-Davidson County line and has two interstates passing through it. With an average elevation of 800 feet above sea level, Fairview is about 150 feet higher than Nashville and surrounding suburbs which gives Fairview the advantage of being less flood prone, it is home to Bowie Nature Park, one of the largest city managed parks in the state of Tennessee. As a comparison, New York's Central Park is 843 acres. Fairview has two Elementary Schools and Westwood serving over 1000 students with grades K-5.
Fairview Middle is home to grades 6th-8th. FVHS serves over 1000 students, Fairview High School was listed as one of the top 1000 High Schools in the US according to Newsweek Magazine. Fairview schools are part of the Williamson County School system, it has a recreation center, part of Williamson County Parks and Recreation system. The center offers civic meeting rooms, WAVES org, exercise classes, a gym with free weights and machines and a large outdoor swimming pool. There is a full size basketball court, open for free play. Fairview Ball Park has been open since 1982. In the spring and early summer, the youth of Fairview play softball and baseball in the local recreation leagues. In the fall, the park is home to an adult softball league. There are four fields located at the park, Field 1 for senior league baseball, Field 2 for tee ball, softball, Field 3 for age groups up to 12 playing baseball, Field 4, a softball field; the camp scenes in Ernest Goes to Camp were filmed at Camp Marymount, a 340-acre retreat/summer camp owned by the Catholic Church, established in the summer of 1946.
This city is twenty-five miles from downtown Nashville, is located along State Highway 100 in the NW section of Williamson County. Fairview is located at 35°58′55″N 87°7′45″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 14.1 square miles, of which 14.1 square miles is land and 0.04 square miles is water. The 2010 census showed a population increase of 33.1% over the 2000 census with a population of 7,720. Racial makeup as of the 2010 census was 2.8 % Latino and 1.1 % African American. Median household income in 2010 was $46,088. A special census was conducted in 2015 and reported the city limit population had increased to nearly 10,000; as of the census of 2000, there are 5,800 people, 2,105 households, 1,606 families residing in the city. The population density was 410.9 people per square mile. There were 2,245 housing units at an average density of 159.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 97.07% White, 0.66% African American, 0.38% Native American, 0.24% Asian, 0.33% from other races, 1.33% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.48% of the population. There were 2,105 households out of which 43.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.0% were married couples living together, 11.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 23.7% were non-families. 18.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.76 and the average family size was 3.17. In the city, the population was spread out with 30.3% under the age of 18, 8.6% from 18 to 24, 34.1% from 25 to 44, 19.7% from 45 to 64, 7.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.5 males. The median income for a household in the city was $44,148, the median income for a family was $49,817. Males had a median income of $36,461 versus $26,277 for females; the per capita income for the city was $20,403. About 5.6% of families and 8.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.2% of those under age 18 and 12.3% of those age 65 or over.
A Publix supermarket opened in Bowie Commons in 2011. A Walmart Supercenter store opened in 2014; this is the third Super Walmart to open in Williamson County. Tennessee State Route 100 and Tennessee State Route 96 give Fairview direct access to Interstate 40 and Interstate 840. City of Fairview Municipal Technical Advisory Service entry for Fairview — information on local government and link to charter Bowie Nature Park
Gordonsburg is an unincorporated community in northeastern Lewis County, Tennessee. It lies at the intersection of U. S. Route 412 with the Natchez Trace Parkway, east of the city of Hohenwald, the county seat of Lewis County, its elevation is 610 feet