The Republicans (France)
The Republicans is a centre-right, conservative political party in France. The party was formed on 30 May 2015 by renaming the Union for a Popular Movement party, founded in 2002 under the leadership of former President of France Jacques Chirac; the party used to be one of the two major political parties in the French Fifth Republic along with the centre-left Socialist Party, following the 2017 legislative election, it remains the second largest party in the National Assembly. LR is a member of the European People's Party, the Centrist Democrat International, the International Democrat Union. After the election in November 2014 of Nicolas Sarkozy, the President of France from 2007 to 2012, as president of the Union for a Popular Movement, Sarkozy put forward a request to the party's general committee to change its name to "The Republicans" and alter the statutes of the party. With the name chosen, vice-president of the UMP Nathalie Kosciusko-Morizet presented Sarkozy and the party's political bureau the proposed new statutes.
The proposed statutes provided for, among other provisions, the election of the presidents of the departmental federations by direct democracy, the end of the political currents and consulting members on election nominations. Critics of Sarkozy claimed it was "illegal" for him to name the party "Republicans" because every French person is a republican if they support the values and ideals of the French Republic that emanated from the French Revolution, as such the term is above party politics; the new name was adopted by the party bureau on 5 May 2015 and approved by the party membership on 28 May by an online "yes" vote of 83.3% on a 45.7% turnout after a court ruling in favour of Sarkozy. The new party statutes were adopted by 96.3% of voters and the composition of the new political bureau by 94.8%. The change to the name "The Republicans" was confirmed at the party's founding congress on 30 May 2015 at the Paris Event Centre in Paris, attended by 10,000 activists. Angela Merkel, chairwoman of the centre-right CDU, sent a congratulatory message to the congress.
The Republicans thus became the legal successor of the UMP and the leading centre-right party in France. The organisation has been declared in the préfecture de Saône-et-Loire on 9 April 2015. According to the statement of this declaration, its aim is to "promote ideas of the right and centre, open to every people who wish to be member and debate in the spirit of a political party with republican ideas in France or outside France"; this party foundation was published in the Journal officiel de la République française on 25 April 2015. On 3 July 2016, Nicolas Sarkozy announced that he would resign as leader that year in order to compete to be the right-wing candidate in the 2017 presidential election. After winning the party's presidential primary, François Fillon suffered a historic defeat in the first round of the presidential election, with the candidate of the right failing to continue to the second round for the first time in the history of the Fifth Republic amid "Penelopegate". In the second round of the legislative elections in June, The Republicans and its allies suffered further losses, losing nearly a hundred deputies, which represented its worst performance.
After Emmanuel Macron was elected as president, he appointed three right-wing politicians in his government – Édouard Philippe as Prime Minister, Bruno Le Maire as French Ministry for the Economy and Finance, Gérald Darmanin as Minister of Public Action and Accounts. As a consequence, a parliamentary group including LR dissidents supportive of the government line, "The Constructives", was formed in the National Assembly, separate from the existing group. On 11 July, the political bureau of The Republicans agreed to hold a leadership election for president of the party on 10 and 17 December. Politics of France List of political parties in France The Republicans group The Republicans group Official web site of Les Républicains
Longjumeau is a commune in the southern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 18.2 km from the center of Paris. Inhabitants of Longjumeau are known as Longjumellois. In 1911 Lenin founded the Longjumeau Party School to provide instruction to selected militants of the Russian Social Democratic Workers Party who would travel from Russia to attend. There were 18 students, with three each from Moscow and St Petersburg, with the rest coming from across the Russian Empire. Lenin was the principal lecturer delivering 56 lectures on diverse subjects. Other instructors included: Nikolai Semashko, David Riazanov, C. Rappoport, Inessa Armand, Z. Leder, Anatoli Lunacharsky. Longjumeau is served by three stations on Paris RER line C: Longjumeau, Gravigny – Balizy and Chilly Mazarin RER, which are peaceful due to the low transit; as of 2016 the six communal preschools had 895 students, the six communal elementary schools had 1,432 students, making a total of 2,377 students. Schools include: Public preschools: Albert Schweitzer, Jean Bernose, Maryse Bastié, Charles Perrault, Albert Gubanski Public elementary schools: Albert Schweitzer, Jules Ferry, Hélène Boucher, Antoine de Saint-Exupéry, Georges Guynemer, Balizy Public junior high schools: Collège Louis Pasteur, Collège André Marois, Collège Pablo Picasso Public senior high schools/sixth-form colleges: Lycée Jacques-Prévert and Lycée des Métiers Jean-Perrin Private schools: Ecole Maternelle les Saules and Ecole Privée Saint-Anne Nicolas Charles Seringe, was a French physician and botanist born in Longjumeau.
Marc Lavoine, is actor. Loïc Loval, footballer Vincent Dufour, is a French former football player, now a manager. Benjamin Mendy, footballer Jérémy Ménez, footballer Olivier Ntcham, footballer Stéphane Owona, footballer Ibrahima Tandia, footballer Adrien Planté, is a French rugby union player Jamie Ryan, is an Irish bass guitarist in the French metal band Mass Hysteria. Nathalie Kosciusko-Morizet referred to by her initials NKM, is a French politician. Longjumeau is the setting for the opera-comique Le postillon de Longjumeau by Adolphe Adam where it is presented as an early 19th-century rural community; the opera was first performed in Paris at the Opéra-Comique on 13 October 1836. Performances followed in London at the St. James Theatre on 13 March 1837, in New Orleans at the Théâtre d'Orléans on 19 April 1838. Longjumeau is twinned with Pontypool in South Wales, UK. Communes of the Essonne department Media related to Longjumeau at Wikimedia Commons Official website Mérimée database - Cultural heritage Land use INSEE Mayors of Essonne Association
Sèvres is a commune in the southwestern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 9.9 kilometres from the centre of Paris and is in the department of Hauts-de-Seine in the region of Île-de-France. The commune is known for its famous porcelain production at the Manufacture nationale de Sèvres, where the abortive Treaty of Sèvres was signed, for being the location of the International Bureau of Weights and Measures. Sèvres is a commune in the western suburbs of Paris, 10.5 km to the west of the Cathedral of Notre-Dame de Paris, with an eastern edge by the River Seine. The commune borders the Île Seguin, an island in the River Seine, in the commune of Boulogne-Billancourt, adjoining Sèvres. Situation of Sèvres The area of the commune is 391 hectares; the altitude varies between 27–171 metres. Work at Sèvres, including for the construction of the expressway, permitted an update of interesting fossils in different geological layers. For example, in chalk, some types of sea urchins, belemnite beaks and oysters were found.
The Seine The Ru de Marivel 80 metres upstream of the Pont de Sèvres. The climate of île-de-France is oceanic; the popular observation stations for meteorology at Sèvres are Vélizy-Villacoublay airport. The climate in the departments of the small Parisian crown is characterised by sunshine and low precipitation; the following table allows a comparison of the île-de-France climate with that of some large French cities: The following table shows the monthly averages of temperature and precipitation for the station of Orly collected over the period 1961-1990: Sèvres is traversed from side to side by the RN 10, today downgraded and allowing connection of the city to Boulogne-Billancourt and Chaville. It is the starting point of the RN 118 at the level of the Pont de Sèvres. Sèvres presents a main traffic artery which supports important transit traffic at morning and evening peak hours; this allows preservation of its secondary residential purpose from suffering the negative effects of through traffic, on which the development zone 30 was under study, as early as 2007.
The city hall has, launched a reconsideration on these routes for sharing public spaces in favour of soft links and the use of public transit where they pass. Since November 2011, fifteen streets have two-way cycle lanes, they are the subject of ground markings and installation of specific signaling panels: Avenue de la Cristallerie Rue Brancas, between the Rue de Ville-d'Avray and Rue Bernard-Palissy Grande Rue, between the Rue de Ville-d'Avray and the Place Gabriel-Péri Rue du Docteur Gabriel-Ledermann, between the Rue de Rueil and Rue Jules Sandeau Rue Riocreux, between Place Pierre-Brossolette and Rue de Ville d'Avray Rue Brongniart Rue Léon Journault Rue Victor-Hugo Rue des Bas-Tillets between Rue Benoît Malon and the Rue de la Garenne Rue Albert Dammouse, between Rue Avice and the Stade des Fontaines turn Rue Rouget-de-l'Isle Rue Jules-Ferry Rue du Docteur Roux Rue Charles-Vaillant Rue Jean-Jaurès Rue des Verrières Bus routes 169, 171, 179, 426 of the RATP bus network, route 469 of the Établissement Transdev de Nanterre, route 45 in the Phébus bus network and at night by N61 and N145 of the Noctilien route network.
The city makes one minibus available to people with L'autre Bus. Sèvres is served by Sèvres-Rive-Gauche station on the Transilien Paris – Montparnasse suburban rail line, it is served by Sèvres – Ville d'Avray station on the Transilien Paris – Saint-Lazare suburban rail line. It is served by the Musée de Sèvres and Brimborion stations on Line 2 of the Tramway of Île-de-France which links Paris - Porte de Versailles and La Défense. INSEE has divided the commune into ten islets grouped for statistical information; the commune of Sèvres includes 16 quarters, named as follows: In the project planning and sustainable development approved 10 May 2007, the commune displays an ambition to maintain its population around its situation of early 2005. It has a commitment to offer every household in the commune the opportunity to live and grow in Sèvres, a stake in preserving its fabric of facilities and local businesses. Studies conducted in the context of the PLH show that by 2015, this would involve the construction of 40 homes per year to maintain the communal population.
In 2005, the commune had 24.5% of its total as social housing. These homes are located along the RD 910, around the city centre; the commune displays a desire to preserve this social mix by ensuring a diversity of different types of housing, under the framework of future construction operations. As such, it shows the will to maintain its social housing stock at around 25% of the total stock of main residences. On the other hand, private rental declined between 1990 and 1999. An effort in favour of this type of housing will be always sought in order to maintain the diversity of population profiles; some areas of the city are poorly provided with social housing, the development of this type of housing should allow a better balance across the commune. The main projects are: The reconstruction of the Croix Bosset school The development of links between the banks of the Seine, the city and woodlands by pedestrian openings designed to develop a frame of soft East/West links
15th arrondissement of Paris
The 15th arrondissement of Paris is one of the 20 arrondissements of the capital city of France. In spoken French, this arrondissement is referred to as quinzième; the arrondissement, called Vaugirard, is situated on the left bank of the River Seine. Sharing the Montparnasse district with the 6th and 14th arrondissements, it is the city's most populous arrondissement; the Tour Montparnasse – the tallest skyscraper in Paris – and the neighbouring Gare Montparnasse are both located in the 15th arrondissement, at its border with the 14th. It is home to the convention center Paris expo Porte de Versailles and the high-rise district of the Front de Seine. In 2020, the 180 meters high Tour Triangle will house a 120-room hotel and 70,000 square metres of office space; the loi du 16 juin 1859 decreed the annexation to Paris of the area between the old Wall of the Farmers-General and the wall of Thiers. The communes of Grenelle and Javel were incorporated into Paris in 1860. Charles Michels, was elected Député for the 15th arrondissement by the Popular Front.
As in all the Parisian arrondissements, the fifteenth is made up of four administrative quarters. To the south, quartier Saint-Lambert occupies the former site of the village of Vaugirard, built along an ancient Roman road; the geography of the area was suited to wine-making, as well as quarrying. In fact, many Parisian monuments, such as the École Militaire, were built from Vaugirard stone; the village, not yet being part of Paris, was considered by Parisians to be an agreeable suburb, pleasant for country walks or its cabarets and puppet shows. In 1860 Vaugirard was annexed to Paris, along with adjoining villages. Today, notable attractions in this area include the Parc des Expositions, Parc Georges-Brassens, a park built on the former site of a slaughterhouse where every year wine by the name of Clos des Morillons is produced and auctioned at the civic center. To the east, quartier Necker was an uninhabited space between Paris and Vaugirard; the most well-known landmarks in the area are the Gare Montparnasse train station and the looming Tour Montparnasse office tower.
The area around the train station has been renovated and now contains a number of office and apartment blocks, a park, a shopping center. The quartier contains a number of public buildings: the Lycée Buffon, the Necker Children's Hospital, as well as the private foundation Pasteur Institute. To the north, quartier Grenelle was a village of the same name. Grenelle plain extended from the current Hôtel des Invalides to the suburb of Issy-les-Moulineaux on the other side of the Seine, but remained uninhabited in centuries past due to difficulties farming the land. At the beginning of the 19th century, an entrepreneur by the name of Violet divided off a section of the plain: this became the village of Beaugrenelle, known for its series of straight streets and blocks, which remain today; the whole area broke off from the commune of Vaugirard in 1830, becoming the commune of Grenelle, in turn annexed to Paris in 1860. A century a number of apartment and office towers were built along the Seine, the Front de Seine along with the Beaugrenelle shopping mall.
To the west, quartier Javel lies to the south of Grenelle plain. In years past, it was the industrial area of the arrondissement: first with chemical companies electrical companies, car manufacturers, whose factories occupied a large part of the quartier up until the early 1970s; the industrial areas have since been rehabilitated, the neighbourhood now contains Parc André Citroën, Georges Pompidou European Hospital, a number of large office buildings and television studios. In addition, to the south of the circular highway, an extension of the 15th an aerodrome at the beginning of the 20th century, is now a heliport, a gym and a recreation center; the early airfield here has been encroached upon by urban development and a sports centre, but the residual area laid to grass, continues to serve Paris as a heliport. The Sécurité Civile has a detachment there close to maintenance facilities. Customs facilities are available and busy during the Salon d'Aeronautique airshows held at Le Bourget on the other side of the city.
The land area of this arrondissement is 8.502 km2. The peak of population of Paris's 15th arrondissement occurred in 1962, when it had 250,551 inhabitants. Since it has lost one-tenth of its population, but it remains the most populous arrondissement of Paris, with 225,362 inhabitants at the last census in 1999. With 144,667 jobs at the same census, the 15th is very dense in business activities; this arrondissement is home to many families and is known in Paris as one of the quietest sections in Paris. The majority of the arrondissement is unfrequented by tourists, a rarity for one of the world's most visited cities. Musée Pasteur Musée du Service des Objets Trouvés Musée Bourdelle Musée Mendjisky, specializing in school of Paris artists, housed in a Robert Mallet-Stevens building. Musée Jean Moulin, French Resistance – Church of Notre-Dame de la Salette in Paris Beaugrenelle Shopping Center Parts of the Montparnasse area; the former workshop of Constantin Brâncuși, where the sculptor
Union for a Popular Movement
The Union for a Popular Movement was a centre-right political party in France, one of the two major contemporary political parties in France along with the centre-left Socialist Party. The UMP was formed in 2002 as a merger of several centre-right parties under the leadership of President Jacques Chirac. In May 2015, the party was succeeded by The Republicans. Nicolas Sarkozy the president of the UMP, was elected President of France in the 2007 presidential election, but was defeated by PS candidate François Hollande in a run-off five years later. After the November 2012 party congress, the UMP experienced internal fractioning and was plagued by monetary scandals which forced its president, Jean-François Copé, to resign. After his re-election as UMP president in November 2014, Sarkozy put forward an amendment to change the name of the party into The Republicans, approved and came into effect on 30 May 2015; the UMP enjoyed an absolute majority in the National Assembly from 2002 to 2012 and was a member of the European People's Party, the Centrist Democrat International and the International Democrat Union.
Since the 1980s, the political groups of the parliamentary right have joined forces around the values of economic liberalism and the building of Europe. Their rivalries had contributed to their defeat in the 1988 legislative elections. Before the 1993 legislative election, the Gaullist Rally for the Republic and the centrist Union for French Democracy formed an electoral alliance, the Union for France. However, in the 1995 presidential campaign they were both divided between followers of Jacques Chirac, elected, supporters of Prime Minister Edouard Balladur. After their defeat in the 1997 legislative election, the RPR and UDF created the Alliance for France in order to coordinate the actions of their parliamentary groups. Before the 2002 presidential campaign, the supporters of President Jacques Chirac, divided in three centre-right parliamentary parties, founded an association named Union on the Move. After Chirac's re-election, in order to contest the legislative election jointly, the Union for the Presidential Majority was created.
It was as such established as a permanent organisation. The UMP was the merger of the Gaullist-conservative Rally for the Republic, the conservative-liberal party Liberal Democracy, a sizeable portion of the Union for French Democracy, more the UDF's Christian Democrats, the Radical Party and the centrist Popular Party for French Democracy. In the UMP four major French political families were thus represented: Gaullism, Christian democracy and radicalism. Chirac's close ally Alain Juppé became the party's first president at the party's founding congress at the Bourget in November 2002. Juppé won 79.42% of the vote, defeating Nicolas Dupont-Aignan, the leader of the party's Eurosceptic Arise the Republic faction, three other candidates. During the party's earlier years, it was marked by tensions and rivalries between Juppé and other chiraquiens and supporters of Nicolas Sarkozy, the then-Minister of the Interior. In the 2004 regional elections the UMP suffered a heavy blow, winning the presidencies of only 2 out of 22 regions in metropolitan France and only half of the departments in the simultaneous 2004 cantonal elections.
In the 2004 European Parliament election on 13 June 2004, the UMP suffered another heavy blow, winning 16.6% of the vote, far behind the Socialist Party, only 16 seats. Juppé resigned the party's presidency on 15 July 2004 after being found guilty in a corruption scandal in January of the same year. Nicolas Sarkozy announced that he would take over the presidency of the UMP and resign his position as finance minister, ending months of speculation. On 28 November 2004, Sarkozy was elected to the party's presidency with 85.09% of the votes against 9.1% for Dupont-Aignan and 5.82% for Christine Boutin, the leader of the UMP's social conservatives. Having gained control of what had been Chirac's party, Sarkozy focused the party machinery and his energies on the 2007 presidential election; the failure of the referendum on the European Constitution on 25 May 2005 led to the fall of the government of Jean-Pierre Raffarin and to the formation of a new cabinet, presided by another UMP politician, Dominique de Villepin.
However, during this time, the UMP under Sarkozy gained a record number of new members and rejuvenated itself in preparation of the 2007 election. On 14 January 2007, Sarkozy was nominated unopposed as the UMP's presidential candidate for the 2007 election. On the issues, the party under Sarkozy publicly disapproved of Turkey's proposed membership in the European Union, which Chirac had endorsed several times publicly, took a more right-wing position. On 22 April 2007 Nicolas Sarkozy won the plurality of votes in the first round of the 2007 presidential election. On 6 May he faced the Socialist Party candidate Ségolène Royal in the second round and won, taking 53.06% of the vote. As a consequence, he resigned from the presidency of the UMP on 14 May 2007, two days before becoming President of the French Republic. François Fillon was appointed Prime Minister. On 17 June 2007, at a
Laurent Timothée Marie Wauquiez is a French politician serving as President of The Republicans. He was the Secretary of State for European Affairs under the Foreign and European Affairs Minister, Alain Juppé, he was Government Spokesman from June 2007 to March 2008 as Minister of State under the Prime Minister. He was elected as 2nd Vice President of ORU Fogar at the organization's General Assembly held in Quito on 16 October 2016. On 10 December 2017, Wauquiez was elected president of The Republicans by a wide margin. Pundits have described him as moving the party to the right. Wauquiez graduated from Université Panthéon-Sorbonne with a masters in history and studied public law at the Institut d'études politiques de Paris, attended the École nationale d'administration. Wauquiez held several governmental positions over the course of Nicolas Sarkozy's presidency, he was named the Secretary of State for Employment in 2008 and functioned as the government spokesman. He served as Minister of European Affairs and of Higher Education.
In 2012, he was re-elected to the National Assembly and became head of the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region in 2015. On 10 December 2017, he was elected as the president of The Republicans. Wauquiez is famous for his red parka coat. Minister of Higher Education and Research: 2011-2012 Minister for European Affairs: 2010-2011 Secretary of State to the Prime Minister, Government Spokesperson: 2007-2008 Secretary of State for Employment: 2008-2010 Member of the National Assembly of France for Haute-Loire's 1st constituency: 2004-2007 / Since 2012. Elected in 2004, reelected in 2007 and 2012. President of the Regional Council of Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes: since 2016 Mayor of Le Puy-en-Velay: 2008-2016. Reelected in 2014. Municipal councillor of Le Puy-en-Velay: 2008-2016. Reelected in 2014. Official government profile
Île-de-France called the région parisienne, contains the city of Paris, is the most populous of the 18 regions of France. It covers 12,012 square kilometres, or two percent of the national territory, has official estimated population of 12,213,364 as of January 1, 2019, or 18.2% of the population of France. The region accounts for nearly 30 percent of the French Gross Domestic Product; the region is made up of eight administrative departments: Paris, Hauts-de-Seine, Seine-Saint-Denis, Seine-et-Marne, Val-de-Marne, Val-d'Oise and Yvelines. It was created as the "District of the Paris Region" in 1961 renamed in 1976 after the historic province of Île-de-France, when its status was aligned with the other French administrative regions created in 1972. Residents are sometimes referred to an administrative word created in the 1980s; the GDP of the region in 2016 was €681 billion. It has the highest per-capita GDP among regions in France and the third-highest of regions in the European Union. In 2018 all of the twenty-eight French companies listed in the Fortune Global 500 had their headquarters in the Paris region.
Besides the landmarks of Paris, the region has many important historic sites, including the Palace of Versailles and the Palace of Fontainebleau, as well as the most-visited tourist attraction in France, Disneyland Paris. Although the modern name Île-de-France means "Island of France", the etymology is in fact unclear; the "island" may refer to the land between the rivers Oise and Seine, or it may have been a reference to the Île de la Cité, where the French royal palace and cathedral were located. The Île-de-France was inhabited by the Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris's Left Bank, it became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris's strategic importance—with its bridges preventing ships from passing—was established by successful defence in the Siege of Paris. In 987, Hugh Capet, Count of Paris and Duke of the Franks, was elected King of the Franks. Under the rule of the Capetian kings, Paris became the largest and most prosperous city in France; the Kings of France enjoyed getting away from Paris and hunting in the game-filled forests of the region. They built palatial hunting lodges, most notably Palace of Fontainebleau and the Palace of Versailles. From the time of Louis XIV until the French Revolution, Versailles was the official residence of the Kings and the seat of the French government; the Ile-de-France became the term used for the territory of Paris and the surrounding province, administered directly by the King.
During the French Revolution, the royal provinces were abolished and divided into departments, the city and region were governed directly by the national government. In the period after World War II, as Paris faced a major housing shortage, hundreds of massive apartment blocks for low-income residents were built around the edges of Paris. In the 1950s and the 1960s, Many thousands of immigrants settled in the communes bordering the city. In 1959, under President Charles De Gaulle, a new region was created out of six departments, which corresponded with the historic region, with the name District de la région de Paris. On 6 May 1976, as part of the process of regionalisation, the district was reconstituted and increased administrative and political powers and renamed the Île-de-France region. Île-de-France has a land area of 12,011 km2. It is composed of eight départements centered on Paris. Around the département of Paris, urbanization fills a first concentric ring of three departments known as the petite couronne, extends into a second outer ring of four départements known as the grande couronne.
The former département of Seine, abolished in 1968, included the city proper and parts of the petite couronne. The petite couronne consists of the départements of Hauts-de-Seine, Seine-Saint-Denis, Val-de-Marne, the grande couronne of those of Seine-et-Marne, Yvelines and Val-d'Oise. Politically, the region is divided into 8 départements, 25 arrondissements, 155 cantons and 1 276 communes, out of the total of 35 416 in metropolitan France, The outer parts of the Ile-de-France remain rural. Agriculture land and natu