Scenic design is the creation of theatrical, as well as film or television scenery. Scenic designers come from a variety of artistic backgrounds, but in recent years, are trained professionals, holding a B. F. A. or M. F. A. degrees in theater arts. Scenic designers design sets and scenery that aim to support the overall artistic goals of the production. A designer looks at the details searching for evidence through research to produce conceptual ideas that’s best toward supporting the content and values with visual elements; the subject of, “How do we generate creative ideas?” is a legitimate question. The most consuming part of expanding our horizons toward scenic concepts is much more than witnessing creativity, creative people, it starts with us opening our mind to the possibilities. To have an attitude toward learning and engaging in creativity and to be willing to be adventurous and curious. Our imagination is visual. Whether outside or inside, colorful trees or concerts, star lit skies or the architecture of a great building, scenic design is a process of discovery.
Discovering what will best clarify and support the setting, atmosphere, ambience, & world, being created. The scenic designer works with the director and other designers to establish an overall visual concept for the production and design the stage environment, they are responsible for developing a complete set of design drawings that include the following: basic ground plan showing all stationary scenic elements. All of these required drawing elements can be created from one accurate 3-D CAD model of the set design; the scenic designer is responsible for collaborating with the theatre director and other members of the production design team to create an environment for the production and communicating the details of this environment to the technical director, production manager, charge scenic artist and prop master. Scenic designers are responsible for creating scale models of the scenery, paint elevations and scale construction drawings as part of their communication with other production staff.
In Europe and Australia, scenic designers take a more holistic approach to theatrical design and will be responsible not only for scenic design but costume and sound and are referred to as theatre designers or scenographers or production designers. Notable scenic designers and present, include: Alban Piot, Adolphe Appia, Boris Aronson, Alexandre Benois, Alison Chitty, Antony McDonald, Barry Kay, Caspar Neher, Cyro Del Nero, Aleksandra Ekster, David Gallo, Edward Gordon Craig, Es Devlin, Ezio Frigerio, Christopher Gibbs, Franco Zeffirelli, George Tsypin, Howard Bay, Inigo Jones, Jean-Pierre Ponnelle, Jo Mielziner, John Lee Beatty, Josef Svoboda, Ken Adam, Léon Bakst, Luciano Damiani, Maria Björnson, Ming Cho Lee, Natalia Goncharova, Nathan Altman, Nicholas Georgiadis, Oliver Smith, Ralph Koltai, Neil Patel, Robert Wilson, Russell Patterson, Brian Sidney Bembridge, Santo Loquasto, Sean Kenny, Todd Rosenthal, Robin Wagner, Tony Walton, Roger Kirk. Scenic painting Scenographer Scenography Set construction Theatrical scenery Film sculptor Making the Scene: A History of Stage Design and Technology in Europe and the United States by Oscar G. Brockett, Margaret Mitchell, Linda Hardberger 365 pages.
Designing and Painting for the Theater by Lynn Pecktal. Detailing production design for theater and ballet, Designing and Drawing for the Theater is a foundational text that provides a professional picture and encyclopedic reference of the design process. Well illustrated with detailed lined drawings and photographs, the book conveys the beauty and craft of scenic and production design. Prague Quadrennial of Performance Design and Space - the largest scenography event in the world - presenting contemporary work in a variety of performance design disciplines and genres - costume, light, sound design, theatre architecture for dance, drama, site specific, multi-media performances, performance art, etc. Prague, CZ What is Scenography Article illustrating the differences between US and European theatre design practices. Special:WhatLinksHere/Julia Anastasopoulos
Cubism is an early-20th-century avant-garde art movement that revolutionized European painting and sculpture, inspired related movements in music and architecture. Cubism has been considered the most influential art movement of the 20th century; the term is broadly used in association with a wide variety of art produced in Paris during the 1910s and throughout the 1920s. The movement was pioneered by Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque, joined by Jean Metzinger, Albert Gleizes, Robert Delaunay, Henri Le Fauconnier, Fernand Léger. One primary influence that led to Cubism was the representation of three-dimensional form in the late works of Paul Cézanne. A retrospective of Cézanne's paintings had been held at the Salon d'Automne of 1904, current works were displayed at the 1905 and 1906 Salon d'Automne, followed by two commemorative retrospectives after his death in 1907. In Cubist artwork, objects are analyzed, broken up and reassembled in an abstracted form—instead of depicting objects from a single viewpoint, the artist depicts the subject from a multitude of viewpoints to represent the subject in a greater context.
In France, offshoots of Cubism developed, including Orphism, Abstract art and Purism. The impact of Cubism was wide-ranging. In other countries Futurism, Dada, Constructivism, De Stijl and Art Deco developed in response to Cubism. Early Futurist paintings hold in common with Cubism the fusing of the past and the present, the representation of different views of the subject pictured at the same time called multiple perspective, simultaneity or multiplicity, while Constructivism was influenced by Picasso's technique of constructing sculpture from separate elements. Other common threads between these disparate movements include the faceting or simplification of geometric forms, the association of mechanization and modern life. Historians have divided the history of Cubism into phases. In one scheme, the first phase of Cubism, known as Analytic Cubism, a phrase coined by Juan Gris a posteriori, was both radical and influential as a short but significant art movement between 1910 and 1912 in France.
A second phase, Synthetic Cubism, remained vital until around 1919, when the Surrealist movement gained popularity. English art historian Douglas Cooper proposed another scheme, describing three phases of Cubism in his book, The Cubist Epoch. According to Cooper there was "Early Cubism", when the movement was developed in the studios of Picasso and Braque. Douglas Cooper's restrictive use of these terms to distinguish the work of Braque, Gris and Léger implied an intentional value judgement. Cubism burgeoned between 1907 and 1911. Pablo Picasso's 1907 painting Les Demoiselles d'Avignon has been considered a proto-Cubist work. In 1908, in his review of Georges Braque's exhibition at Kahnweiler's gallery, the critic Louis Vauxcelles called Braque a daring man who despises form, "reducing everything, places and a figures and houses, to geometric schemas, to cubes". Vauxcelles recounted how Matisse told him at the time, "Braque has just sent in a painting made of little cubes"; the critic Charles Morice spoke of Braque's little cubes.
The motif of the viaduct at l'Estaque had inspired Braque to produce three paintings marked by the simplification of form and deconstruction of perspective. Georges Braque's 1908 Houses at L’Estaque prompted Vauxcelles, in Gil Blas, 25 March 1909, to refer to bizarreries cubiques. Gertrude Stein referred to landscapes made by Picasso in 1909, such as Reservoir at Horta de Ebro, as the first Cubist paintings; the first organized group exhibition by Cubists took place at the Salon des Indépendants in Paris during the spring of 1911 in a room called'Salle 41'. By 1911 Picasso was recognized as the inventor of Cubism, while Braque's importance and precedence was argued with respect to his treatment of space and mass in the L’Estaque landscapes, but "this view of Cubism is associated with a distinctly restrictive definition of which artists are properly to be called Cubists," wrote the art historian Christopher Green: "Marginalizing the contribution of the artists who exhibited at the Salon des Indépendants in 1911 "The assertion that the Cubist depiction of space, mass and volume supports the flatness of the canvas was made by Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler as early as 1920, but it was subject to criticism in the 1950s and 1960s by Clement Greenberg.
Contemporary views of Cubism are complex, formed to some extent in response to the "Salle 41" Cubists, whose methods were too distinct from those of Picasso and Braque to be considered secondary to them. Alternative interpretations of Cubism have therefore developed. Wider views of Cubism include artists who were associated with the "Salle 41" artists, e.g. Francis Picabia.
Yerevan is the capital and largest city of Armenia as well as one of the world's oldest continuously inhabited cities. Situated along the Hrazdan River, Yerevan is the administrative and industrial center of the country, it has been the capital since 1918, the fourteenth in the history of Armenia and the seventh located in or around the Ararat plain. The city serves as the seat of the Araratian Pontifical Diocese; the history of Yerevan dates back to the 8th century BC, with the founding of the fortress of Erebuni in 782 BC by king Argishti I at the western extreme of the Ararat plain. Erebuni was "designed as a great administrative and religious centre, a royal capital." By the late ancient Armenian Kingdom, new capital cities were established and Yerevan declined in importance. Under Iranian and Russian rule, it was the center of the Erivan Khanate from 1736 to 1828 and the Erivan Governorate from 1850 to 1917, respectively. After World War I, Yerevan became the capital of the First Republic of Armenia as thousands of survivors of the Armenian Genocide in the Ottoman Empire arrived in the area.
The city expanded during the 20th century as Armenia became part of the Soviet Union. In a few decades, Yerevan was transformed from a provincial town within the Russian Empire to Armenia's principal cultural and industrial center, as well as becoming the seat of national government. With the growth of the Armenian economy, Yerevan has undergone major transformation. Much construction has been done throughout the city since the early 2000s, retail outlets such as restaurants and street cafés, which were rare during Soviet times, have multiplied; as of 2011, the population of Yerevan was 1,060,138, just over 35% of the Republic of Armenia's total population. According to the official estimate of 2016, the current population of the city is 1,073,700. Yerevan was named the 2012 World Book Capital by UNESCO. Yerevan is an associate member of Eurocities. Of the notable landmarks of Yerevan, Erebuni Fortress is considered to be the birthplace of the city, the Katoghike Tsiranavor church is the oldest surviving church of Yerevan and Saint Gregory Cathedral is the largest Armenian cathedral in the world, Tsitsernakaberd is the official memorial to the victims of the Armenian Genocide, several opera houses, museums and other cultural institutions.
Yerevan Opera Theatre is the main spectacle hall of the Armenian capital, the National Gallery of Armenia is the largest art museum in the Republic of Armenia and shares a building with the History Museum of Armenia, the Matenadaran repository contains one of the largest depositories of ancient books and manuscripts in the world. One theory regarding the origin of Yerevan's name is the city was named after the Armenian king, Yervand IV, the last leader of the Orontid Dynasty, founder of the city of Yervandashat. However, it is that the city's name is derived from the Urartian military fortress of Erebuni, founded on the territory of modern-day Yerevan in 782 BC by Argishti I; as elements of the Urartian language blended with that of the Armenian one, the name evolved into Yerevan. Scholar Margarit Israelyan notes these changes when comparing inscriptions found on two cuneiform tablets at Erebuni: The transcription of the second cuneiform bu of the word was essential in our interpretation as it is the Urartaean b, shifted to the Armenian v.
The original writing of the inscription read «er-bu-ni». In other words b was placed between two vowels; the true pronunciation of the fortress-city was Erebuny. Early Christian Armenian chroniclers attributed the origin of the name Yerevan to a derivation from an expression exclaimed by Noah, in Armenian. While looking in the direction of Yerevan, after the ark had landed on Mount Ararat and the flood waters had receded, Noah is believed to have exclaimed, "Yerevats!". In the late medieval and early modern periods, when Yerevan was under Turkic and Persian rule, the city was known in Persian as Iravân; this name is still used by Azerbaijanis. The city was known as Erivan under Russian rule during the 19th and early 20th centuries; the city was renamed back to Yerevan in 1936. Up until the mid-1970s the city's name was spelled Erevan, more than Yerevan, in English sources; the principal symbol of Yerevan is Mount Ararat, visible from any area in the capital. The seal of the city is a crowned lion on a pedestal with the inscriptit in the upper part.
The emblem is a rectangular shield with a blue border. On 27 September 2004, Yerevan adopted an anthem, "Erebuni-Yerevan", written by Paruyr Sevak and composed by Edgar Hovhanisyan, it was selected in new flag that would best represent the city. The chosen flag has a white background with the city's seal in the middle, surrounded by twelve small red triangles that symbolize the twelve historic capitals of Armenia; the flag includes the three colours of the Armenian National flag. The lion is portrayed on the orange background with blue edging; the territory of Yerevan has been inhabited since the 2nd half of the 4th millennium BC. The southern part of the city known as Sheng
Russia the Russian Federation, is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and North Asia. At 17,125,200 square kilometres, Russia is by far or by a considerable margin the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, the ninth most populous, with about 146.77 million people as of 2019, including Crimea. About 77 % of the population live in the European part of the country. Russia's capital, Moscow, is one of the largest cities in the world and the second largest city in Europe. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Estonia, Latvia and Poland, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, China and North Korea, it shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U. S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. However, Russia recognises two more countries that border it, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, both of which are internationally recognized as parts of Georgia.
The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' disintegrated into a number of smaller states; the Grand Duchy of Moscow reunified the surrounding Russian principalities and achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had expanded through conquest and exploration to become the Russian Empire, the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state; the Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War.
The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Lithuania, it is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. Russia's economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2018. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally; the country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction.
Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Trade Organization, as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Collective Security Treaty Organization and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union, along with Armenia, Belarus and Kyrgyzstan; the name Russia is derived from Rus', a medieval state populated by the East Slavs. However, this proper name became more prominent in the history, the country was called by its inhabitants "Русская Земля", which can be translated as "Russian Land" or "Land of Rus'". In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus' by modern historiography.
The name Rus itself comes from the early medieval Rus' people, Swedish merchants and warriors who relocated from across the Baltic Sea and founded a state centered on Novgorod that became Kievan Rus. An old Latin version of the name Rus' was Ruthenia applied to the western and southern regions of Rus' that were adjacent to Catholic Europe; the current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Rus', Ρωσσία Rossía—spelled Ρωσία in Modern Greek. The standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is rossiyane in Russian. There are two Russian words which are commonly
The October Revolution known in Soviet historiography as the Great October Socialist Revolution and referred to as the October Uprising, the October Coup, the Bolshevik Revolution, the Bolshevik Coup or the Red October, was a revolution in Russia led by the Bolshevik Party of Vladimir Lenin, instrumental in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917. It took place with an armed insurrection in Petrograd on 7 November 1917, it followed and capitalized on the February Revolution of the same year, which overthrew the Tsarist autocracy and resulted in a provisional government after a transfer of power proclaimed by Grand Duke Michael, the younger brother of Tsar Nicholas II, who declined to take power after the Tsar stepped down. During this time, urban workers began to organize into councils wherein revolutionaries criticized the provisional government and its actions. After the Congress of Soviets, now the governing body, had its second session, it elected members of the Bolsheviks and other leftist groups such as the Left Socialist Revolutionaries to important positions within the new state of affairs.
This initiated the establishment of the Russian Soviet Republic. On 17 July 1918, his family were executed; the revolution was led by the Bolsheviks, who used their influence in the Petrograd Soviet to organize the armed forces. Bolshevik Red Guards forces under the Military Revolutionary Committee began the occupation of government buildings on 7 November 1917; the following day, the Winter Palace was captured. The long-awaited Constituent Assembly elections were held on 12 November 1917. In contrast to their majority in the Soviets, the Bolsheviks only won 175 seats in the 715-seat legislative body, coming in second behind the Socialist Revolutionary Party, which won 370 seats, although the SR Party no longer existed as a whole party by that time, as the Left SRs had gone into coalition with the Bolsheviks from October 1917 to March 1918; the Constituent Assembly was to first meet on 28 November 1917, but its convocation was delayed until 5 January 1918 by the Bolsheviks. On its first and only day in session, the Constituent Assembly came into conflict with the Soviets, it rejected Soviet decrees on peace and land, resulting in the Constituent Assembly being dissolved the next day by order of the Congress of Soviets.
As the revolution was not universally recognized, there followed the struggles of the Russian Civil War and the creation of the Soviet Union in 1922. At first, the event was referred to as the October coup or the Uprising of 3rd, as seen in contemporary documents. In Russian, however, "переворот" has a similar meaning to "revolution" and means "upheaval" or "overturn", so "coup" is not the correct translation. With time, the term October Revolution came into use, it is known as the "November Revolution" having occurred in November according to the Gregorian Calendar. The February Revolution had toppled Tsar Nicholas II of Russia, replaced his government with the Russian Provisional Government. However, the provisional government was riven by internal dissension, it continued to wage World War I, which became unpopular. A nationwide crisis developed in Russia, affecting social and political relations. Disorder in industry and transport had intensified, difficulties in obtaining provisions had increased.
Gross industrial production in 1917 had decreased by over 36% from what it had been in 1914. In the autumn, as much as 50% of all enterprises were closed down in the Urals, the Donbas, other industrial centers, leading to mass unemployment. At the same time, the cost of living increased sharply. Real wages fell about 50% from what they had been in 1913. Russia's national debt in October 1917 had risen to 50 billion rubles. Of this, debts to foreign governments constituted more than 11 billion rubles; the country faced the threat of financial bankruptcy. Throughout June and August 1917, it was common to hear working-class Russians speak about their lack of confidence and misgivings with those in power in the Provisional Government. Factory workers around Russia felt unhappy with the growing shortages of food and other materials, they blamed their own managers or foremen and would attack them in the factories. The workers blamed many rich and influential individuals, such as elites in positions of power, for the overall shortage of food and poor living conditions.
Workers labelled these rich and powerful individuals as opponents of the Revolution, called them words such as "bourgeois and imperialist."In September and October 1917, there were mass strike actions by the Moscow and Petrograd workers, miners in Donbas, metalworkers in the Urals, oil workers in Baku, textile workers in the Central Industrial Region, railroad workers on 44 railway lines. In these months alone, more than a million workers took part in strikes. Workers established control over production and distribution in many factories and plants in a social revolution. Workers were able to organize these strikes through factory committees; the factory committees represented the workers and were able to negotiate better working conditions and hours. Though workplace conditions may have been increasing in quality, the overall quality of life for workers was not improving. There were still shortages of food and the increased wages workers had obtained did little to provide for their families.
By October 1917, peasant uprisings were common. By autumn the peasant movement ag
An illustrator is an artist who specializes in enhancing writing or elucidating concepts by providing a visual representation that corresponds to the content of the associated text or idea. The illustration may be intended to clarify complicated concepts or objects that are difficult to describe textually, the reason illustrations are found in children's books. Illustration is the art of making images that work with something and add to it without needing direct attention and without distracting from what they illustrate; the other thing is the focus of the attention, the illustration's role is to add personality and character without competing with that other thing. Illustrations have been used in advertisements, architectural rendering, greeting cards, books, graphic novels, manuals, magazines, video games and newspapers. A cartoon illustration can add humor to essays. Use reference images to create scenes and characters; this can be as simple as looking at an image to inspire your artwork, or creating character sketches and detailed scenes from different angles to create the basis of a picture book world.
Some traditional illustration techniques include watercolor and ink, airbrush art, oil painting, wood engraving, linoleum cuts. John Held, Jr. was an illustrator who worked in a variety of styles and media, including linoleum cuts and ink drawings, magazine cover paintings, comic strips, set design, while creating fine art with his animal sculptures and watercolor, many established illustrators attended an art school or college of some sort and were trained in different painting and drawing techniques. Traditional illustration seems to have made a resurgence in the age of social media thanks to social networks like Instagram, Facebook and YouTube. Traditional and digital illustration are both flourishing. Universities and art schools offer specific courses in illustration so this has become a new avenue into the profession. Many illustrators are freelance. Most scientific illustrations and technical illustrations are known as information graphics. Among the information graphics specialists are medical illustrators who illustrate human anatomy requiring many years of artistic and medical training.
A popular medium with illustrators of the 1950s and 1960s was casein, as was egg tempera. The immediacy and durability of these media suited illustration's demands well; the artwork in both types of paint withstood the rigors of travel to clients and printers without damage. Computer illustration, or digital illustration, is the use of digital tools to produce images under the direct manipulation of the artist through a pointing device, such as a tablet or a mouse. Computers changed the industry and today, many cartoonists and illustrators create digital illustrations using computers, graphics tablets, scanners. Software such as Adobe Illustrator, Adobe Photoshop, Corel Painter, Affinity Designer are now used by those professionals. Airbrush artist Archaeological illustration Architectural illustrator Cartoonist Fashion illustration Graphic designer Marker rendering Painters Pictorial maps Storyboard artist Stuttgart Database of Scientific Illustrators Visualizer Societies and organizationsDirectory of Illustration Illustratörcentrum Society of Illustrators American Illustration Communication Arts Society of Children’s Book Writers and Illustrators San Francisco Society of Illustrators Society of Illustrators of Los Angeles The Association of Illustrators The Illustrators Partnership of America AIIQ – l’Association des Illustrateurs et Illustratrices du Québec Colorado Alliance of Illustrators The Association Archaeological Illustrators and Surveyors Guild of Natural Science Illustrators The Association of Medical Illustrators Guild of Natural Science Illustrators-Northwest Illustrators Australia French illustrators Urban Sketchers Official website
The Russian avant-garde was a large, influential wave of avant-garde modern art that flourished in Russian Empire and Soviet Union from 1890 to 1930—although some have placed its beginning as early as 1850 and its end as late as 1960. The term covers many separate, but inextricably related, art movements. Given that many avant-garde artists involved were born, grew up and active in what is present day Belarus and Ukraine, they are atributed to the Ukrainian avant-garde; the Russian avant-garde reached its creative and popular height in the period between the Russian Revolution of 1917 and 1932, at which point the ideas of the avant-garde clashed with the newly emerged state-sponsored direction of Socialist Realism. Notable figures from this era include: LEF Mir iskusstva Grigori Aleksandrov Boris Barnet Alexander Dovzhenko Sergei Eisenstein Lev Kuleshov Yakov Protazanov Vsevolod Pudovkin Dziga Vertov Andrei Bely Elena Guro Velimir Khlebnikov Daniil Kharms Aleksei Kruchenykh Vladimir Mayakovsky Viktor Shklovsky Sergei Tretyakov Marina Tsvetaeva Sergei Yesenin Ilya Zdanevich Vsevolod Meyerhold Nikolai Evreinov Yevgeny Vakhtangov Sergei Eisenstein Yakov Chernikhov Moisei Ginzburg Ilya Golosov Ivan Leonidov Konstantin Melnikov Vladimir Shukhov Alexander VesninPreserving Russian avant-garde architecture has become a real concern for historians and architects.
In 2007, the Modern Museum of Art MoMA in New York, devoted an exhibition to the *Lost Vanguard: Soviet Architecture, featuring the work of American Photographer Richard Pare. Samuil Feinberg Arthur Lourié Mikhail Matyushin Nikolai Medtner Alexander Mossolov Nikolai Myaskovsky Nikolay Borisovich Obukhov Gavriil Popov Sergei Prokofiev Nikolai Roslavets Leonid Sabaneyev Alexander Scriabin Vissarion Shebalin Dmitri ShostakovichMany Russian composers that were interested in avant-garde music became members of the Association for Contemporary Music, headed by Roslavets. Constructivist architecture Soviet montage theory Universal Flowering Russian symbolism Jack of Diamonds Russian Futurism Cubo-Futurism Constructivism Suprematism Avant-garde Vkhutemas Oberiu Proletkult Soviet art Rayonism UNOVIS Friedman, Julia. Beyond Symbolism and Surrealism: Alexei Remizov's Synthetic Art, Northwestern University Press, 2010. ISBN 0-8101-2617-6 Kovalenko, G. F; the Russian Avant-Garde of 1910-1920 and Issues of Expressionism.
Moscow: Nauka, 2003. Shishanov V. A. Vitebsk Museum of Modern Art: a history of creation and a collection. 1918-1941. - Minsk: Medisont, 2007. - 144 p. “Encyclopedia of Russian Avangard. Fine Art. Architecture Vol.1 A-K, Vol.2 L-Z Biography”. I. Sarab’yanov A. D. Moscow, 2013Surviving Suprematism: Lazar Khidekel. Judah L. Magnes Museum, Berkeley CA, 2004 Lazar Khidekel and Suprematism. Prestel, 2014 Why did Soviet Photographic Avant-garde decline? The Russian Avant-garde Foundation Thessaloniki State Museum of Contemporary Art - Costakis Collection Yiddish Book Collection of the Russian Avant-Garde at the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library at Yale University International campaign to save the Shukhov Tower in Moscow Masters of Russian Avant-garde Masters of Russian Avant-garde from the collection of the M. T. Abraham Foundation