Nathan Bedford Forrest was a Confederate Army general during the American Civil War. Although scholars respect Forrest as a military strategist, he has remained a controversial figure in Southern racial history for his role in the massacre of black soldiers at Fort Pillow and his 1867–1869 leadership of the Ku Klux Klan. Before the war, Forrest amassed substantial wealth as a cotton plantation owner and cattle trader, real estate broker, slave trader. In June 1861, he enlisted in the Confederate Army, one of the few officers during the war to enlist as a private and be promoted to general without any prior military training. An expert cavalry leader, Forrest was given command of a corps and established new doctrines for mobile forces, earning the nickname "The Wizard of the Saddle", his methods influenced future generations of military strategists, although the Confederate high command is seen by some commentators to have under appreciated his talents. In April 1864, in what has been called "one of the bleakest, saddest events of American military history", troops under Forrest's command massacred Union troops who had surrendered, most of them black soldiers along with some white Southern Tennesseans fighting for the Union, at the Battle of Fort Pillow.
Forrest was blamed for the massacre in the Union press and that news may have strengthened the North's resolve to win the war. Forrest was elected its first Grand Wizard; the group was a loose collection of local factions throughout the former Confederacy that used violence and the threat of violence to maintain white control over the newly-enfranchised slaves. The Klan, with Forrest at the lead, suppressed voting rights of blacks in the South through violence and intimidation during the elections of 1868. In 1869, Forrest expressed disillusionment with the lack of discipline among the various white supremacist groups across the South, issued a letter ordering the dissolution of the Ku Klux Klan and the destruction of its costumes. In the last years of his life, Forrest publicly denounced the violence and racism of the Klan, insisted he had never been a member, made a public speech in favor of racial harmony. Nathan Bedford Forrest was born on July 13, 1821 to a poor settler family in a secluded frontier cabin near Chapel Hill hamlet part of Bedford County, but now encompassed in Marshall County.
Forrest was the first son of William Forrest. His father William was of English descent and most of his biographers state that his mother Mariam was of Scotch-Irish descent, but the Memphis Genealogical Society says that she was of English descent as well, he and his twin sister, were the two eldest of blacksmith William Forrest's 12 children with wife Miriam Beck. Forrest's great-grandfather, Shadrach Forrest of English birth, moved from Virginia to North Carolina, between 1730–1740, there his son and grandson were born. Forrest's family lived in a log house from 1830 to 1833. John Allan Wyeth, who served in an Alabama regiment under Forrest, described it as a one-room building with a loft and no windows. William Forrest worked as a blacksmith in Tennessee until 1834. William died in 1837 and Forrest became the primary caretaker of the family aged 16. In 1841 Forrest went into business with his uncle Jonathan Forrest in Mississippi, his uncle was killed there in 1845 during an argument with the Matlock brothers.
In retaliation, Forrest shot and killed two of them with his two-shot pistol and wounded two others with a knife, thrown to him. One of the wounded Matlock men served under Forrest during the Civil War. Forrest had success as a businessman and slaveholder, he acquired several cotton plantations in the Delta region of West Tennessee, became a slave trader at a time when demand for slaves was booming in the Deep South. In 1858, Forrest served two consecutive terms. By the time the American Civil War started in 1861, he had become one of the richest men in the South, having amassed a "personal fortune that he claimed was worth $1.5 million". Forrest was well known as Mississippi gambler. In 1859, he bought two large cotton plantations in Coahoma County, Mississippi and a half-interest in another plantation in Arkansas. Nathan Bedford Forrest was a tall man who stood six feet two inches in height and weighed about 180 pounds. Captain Lewis Hosea, an aide to Gen. James H. Wilson. Forrest drank and abstained from tobacco usage.
He was known as a tireless rider in a skilled swordsman. Although he was not formally educated, Forrest was able to read and write in clear and grammatical English. Forrest had 12 sisters, he contracted the disease, but survived. His mother Miriam married James Horatio Luxton, of Marshall, Texas, in 1843 and gave birth to four more children. In 1845, Forrest married Mary Ann Mo
Clara Dillingham Pierson was an early 20th century American children's author. Clara Eleanor Dillingham was born in 1868 in Coldwater, the only child of Jennie Lincoln Dillingham and Captain Lucius Abell Dillingham. After being home-schooled, she went on to complete a training program for kindergarten teachers in Chicago, Illinois, she taught in a similar program at Alma College for a few years, becoming superintendent of the college's Training Department. Pierson became a successful author of children's books, with her most popular works being quasi-naturalistic stories about animals, her "Among the People" series of animal story collections published between 1897 and 1902 placed her among the leading nature-story authors of her day. Due to its enduring popularity, this series is back in print. Like similar animal tales written a few years by Thornton Burgess, her stories carry a moral, hinted at in titles such as "The Thrifty Deer-Mouse"; the "Among the People" books were illustrated by F. C. Gordon.
Another of her series features the adventures of the three Miller children and a house called Pencroft, the name of the summer home in Omena, that Pierson built with her income as a writer. She married hardware store owner John Williams Smith Pierson in 1894, they resided in Stanton, Michigan, in the early 1900s, they had a child who died shortly after birth, they adopted two sons, John Howard Pierson and Harold Dillingham. Their home on Lincoln Street in Stanton is now a church. Pierson and her husband moved to Grand Rapids in 1930, where she resided until her death in 1952, her papers—including story drafts, an unpublished autobiography—are held by the University of Michigan. "Among the People" seriesAmong the Meadow People Among the Forest People Among the Farmyard People Among the Pond People Among the Night People"The Millers" seriesThree Little Millers: A Story of the Boys and Girls of Pencroft The Millers at Pencroft The Millers and Their Playmates The Millers and Their New Home Other booksDooryard Stories Tales of a Poultry Farm Plow Stories Living with Our Children: A Book of Little Essays for Mothers Works by Clara D. Pierson at Project GutenbergPhotograph of Pierson's house in Stanton, Michigan
1,4-Benzoquinone known as para-quinone, is a chemical compound with the formula C6H4O2. In a pure state, it forms bright-yellow crystals with a characteristic irritating odor, resembling that of chlorine and hot plastic or formaldehyde; this six-membered ring compound is the oxidized derivative of 1,4-hydroquinone. The molecule is multifunctional: it exhibits properties of a ketone, forming an oxime. 1,4-Benzoquinone is sensitive toward both strong mineral acids and alkali, which cause condensation and decomposition of the compound. 1,4-Benzoquinone is prepared industrially by oxidation of hydroquinone, which can be obtained by several routes. One route involves oxidation of the Hock rearrangement; the net reaction can be represented as follows: C6H42 + 3 O2 → C6H4O2 + 2 OCMe2 + H2OThe reaction proceeds via the bis and the hydroquinone. Acetone is a coproduct. Another major process involves the direct hydroxylation of phenol by acidic hydrogen peroxide: C6H5OH + H2O2 → C6H42 + H2O Both hydroquinone and catechol are produced.
Subsequent oxidation of the hydroquinone gives the quinone. Quinone was prepared industrially by oxidation of aniline, for example by manganese dioxide; this method is practiced in PRC where environmental regulations are more relaxed. Oxidation of hydroquinone is facile. One such method makes use of hydrogen peroxide as the oxidizer and iodine or an iodine salt as a catalyst for the oxidation occurring in a polar solvent; when heated to near its melting point, 1,4-benzoquinone sublimes at atmospheric pressure, allowing for an effective purification. Impure samples are dark-colored due to the presence of quinhydrone, a dark green 1:1 charge-transfer complex of quinone with hydroquinone. Benzoquinone is a planar molecule with localized, alternating C=C, C=O, C–C bonds. Reduction gives the semiquinone anion C6H4O2−}, which adopts a more delocalized structure. Further reduction coupled to protonation gives the hydroquinone, wherein the C6 ring is delocalized. Quinone is used as a precursor to hydroquinone, used in photography and rubber manufacture as a reducing agent and antioxidant.
Benzoquinonium is a Skeletal muscle relaxant, ganglion blocking agent, made from benzoquinone. It is used as a hydrogen oxidant in organic synthesis. 1,4-Benzoquinone serves as a dehydrogenation reagent. It is used as a dienophile in Diels Alder reactions. Benzoquinone reacts with sulfuric acid to give the triacetate of hydroxyquinol; this reaction is called the Thiele reaction or Thiele–Winter reaction after Johannes Thiele, who first described it in 1898, after Ernst Winter, who further described its reaction mechanism in 1900. An application is found in this step of the total synthesis of Metachromin A: Benzoquinone is used to suppress double-bond migration during olefin metathesis reactions. An acidic potassium iodide solution reduces a solution of benzoquinone to hydroquinone, which can be reoxidized back to the quinone with a solution of silver nitrate. Due to its ability to function as an oxidizer, 1,4-benzoquinone can be found in methods using the Wacker-Tsuji oxidation, wherein a palladium salt catalyzes the conversion of an alkene to a ketone.
This reaction is carried out using pressurized oxygen as the oxidizer, but benzoquinone can sometimes preferred. It is used as a reagent in some variants on Wacker oxidations. 1,4-Benzoquinone is used in the synthesis of related analogs. 1,4-Benzoquinone is a toxic metabolite found in human blood and can be used to track exposure to benzene or mixtures containing benzene and benzene compounds, such as petrol. The compound can interfere with cellular respiration, kidney damage has been found in animals receiving severe exposure, it is excreted in its original form and as variations of its own metabolite, hydroquinone. Benzoquinone compounds are a metabolite of paracetamol. 1,4-Benzoquinone is able to stain skin dark brown, cause erythema and lead on to localized tissue necrosis. It is irritating to the eyes and respiratory system, its ability to sublime at encountered temperatures allows for a greater airborne exposure risk than might be expected for a room-temperature solid. IARC has found insufficient evidence to comment on the compound's carcinogenicity, but has noted that it can pass into the bloodstream and that it showed activity in depressing bone marrow production in mice and can inhibit protease enzymes involved in cellular apoptosis.1,4-Benzoquinone is a constituent of tobacco smoke.
A variety of derivatives and analogues are known. Ubiquinone-1 is a occurring 1,4-benzoquinone, involved in respiration apparatus; the benzoquinone blattellaquinone is a sex pheromone in cockroaches. Illustrative examples of quinones and derivatives of benzoquinone that are useful in industry and organic chemistry include: 1,4-Naphthoquinone, derived by oxidation of naphthalene with chromium trioxide. 2,3-Dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone, a stronger oxidant and dehydrogenation agent than 1,4-benzoquinone. Chloro-p-benzoquinone, Chloranil, 1,4-C6Cl4O2, a stronger oxidant and dehydrogenation agent than 1,4-benzoquinone. Ambazone can be obtained in a two step synthetic method, reacting 1,4-benzoquinone with aminoguanidine and thiosemicarbazide. Mecarbinate is made by the reaction of ethyl N-methyl-β-aminocrotonate with para-benzoquinone. Amendol Oxyphemedol Phemedol all in FR5142 ― 1967-06-05. Note: These are all indoles made via the Nenitze