Carol W. Greider
Carolyn Widney "Carol" Greider is an American molecular biologist and Nobel laureate. She is a Bloomberg Distinguished Professor, Daniel Nathans Professor, Director of Molecular Biology and Genetics at Johns Hopkins University, she discovered the enzyme telomerase in 1984, while she was a graduate student of Elizabeth Blackburn at the University of California, Berkeley. Greider pioneered research on the structure of the ends of the chromosomes, she was awarded the 2009 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine, along with Blackburn and Jack W. Szostak, for their discovery that telomeres are protected from progressive shortening by the enzyme telomerase. Greider was born in California, her father, Kenneth Greider, was a physics professor. Her family moved from San Diego to Davis, where she spent many of her early years and graduated from Davis Senior High School in 1979, she graduated from the College of Creative Studies at the University of California, Santa Barbara, with a B. A. in biology in 1983.
During this time she studied at the University of Göttingen and made significant discoveries there. Greider is dyslexic and states that her "compensatory skills played a role in my success as a scientist because one has to intuit many different things that are going on at the same time and apply those to a particular problem" Greider suspected her dyslexia after seeing patterns of common mistakes such as backwards words when she received back graded work in the first grade. Greider started to memorize words and their spellings rather than attempting to sound out the spelling of words. Greider has worked to overcome her dyslexia to become successful in her professional life, credits her dyslexia as helping her appreciate differences and making unusual decisions such as the one to work with Tetrahymena, an unusual organism. Greider had difficulty getting in to graduate school due to low GRE scores as a result of her dyslexia. U. C. Berkeley’s graduate school admission office was able to focus on Greider’s impressive experience and credentials and accepted her.
Greider applied to thirteen grad schools and was only accepted to two, Caltech and U. C. Berkeley, she chose the University of California, Berkeley where she would be able to work with Elizabeth Blackburn and the two made their telomerase discovery. She completed her Ph. D. in molecular biology in 1987 at the University of California, under Elizabeth Blackburn. While at UC Berkeley, Greider co-discovered telomerase, a key enzyme in cancer and anemia research, along with Blackburn. Greider joined Blackburn's laboratory in April 1984 looking for the enzyme, hypothesized to add extra DNA bases to the ends of chromosomes. Without the extra bases, which are added as repeats of a six base pair motif, chromosomes are shortened during DNA replication resulting in chromosome deterioration and senescence or cancer-causing chromosome fusion. Blackburn and Greider looked for the enzyme in the model organism Tetrahymena thermophila, a fresh-water protozoan with a large number of telomeres. On December 25, 1984, Greider first obtained results indicating that a particular enzyme was responsible.
After six months of additional research Greider and Blackburn concluded that it was the enzyme responsible for telomere addition. They published their findings in the journal Cell in December, 1985; the enzyme called "telomere terminal transferase," is now known as telomerase. Telomerase rebuilds the tips of chromosomes and determines the life span of cells. Greider's additional research to confirm her discovery was focused on identifying the mechanism that telomerase uses for elongation. Greider chose to use RNA degrading enzymes and saw that the telomeres stopped extending, an indication that RNA was involved in the enzyme. Greider used telomerase deficient mice and saw that her sixth generation of mice had become sterile, she mated them with control mice and the telomerase deficient mice were able to regenerate their telomeres. Greider completed her postdoctoral work, held a faculty position, at the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Long Island, New York. During this time, Greider, in collaboration with Ronald A. DePinho, produced the first telomerase knockout mouse, showing that although telomerase is dispensable for life short telomeres result in various deleterious phenotypes, colloquially referred to as premature aging.
In the mid-1990s, Greider was recruited by Michael D. West, founder of biotechnology company Geron to join the company's Scientific Advisory Board. Greider and Jack Szostak, Ph. D. of Harvard Medical School, shared the 2006 Albert Lasker Award for Basic Medical Research for their work on telomeres. In February 2014, Greider was named a Bloomberg Distinguished Professor at Johns Hopkins University. Greider serves as director of and professor at the Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics at Johns Hopkins Medicine. Greider was first promoted to Daniel Nathans Professor at the Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics in 2004. Greider's lab employs both student and post-doctoral trainees in order to further examine the relationships between the biology of telomeres and their connection to disease. Greider's lab uses a variety of tools including yeast and biochemistry in order to look at progressive telomere shortening. Greider's lab is researching how tumor reformation can be controlled by the presence of short telomeres.
The lab's future work will focus more on identifying the processing and regulation of telomeres and telomere elongation. Greider married Nathaniel C. Comfort, a fellow academic, in 1992, she has two children. Greider is divorced. Before Greider's children were bor
History of biology
The history of biology traces the study of the living world from ancient to modern times. Although the concept of biology as a single coherent field arose in the 19th century, the biological sciences emerged from traditions of medicine and natural history reaching back to ayurveda, ancient Egyptian medicine and the works of Aristotle and Galen in the ancient Greco-Roman world; this ancient work was further developed in the Middle Ages by Muslim physicians and scholars such as Avicenna. During the European Renaissance and early modern period, biological thought was revolutionized in Europe by a renewed interest in empiricism and the discovery of many novel organisms. Prominent in this movement were Vesalius and Harvey, who used experimentation and careful observation in physiology, naturalists such as Linnaeus and Buffon who began to classify the diversity of life and the fossil record, as well as the development and behavior of organisms. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek revealed by means of microscopy the unknown world of microorganisms, laying the groundwork for cell theory.
The growing importance of natural theology a response to the rise of mechanical philosophy, encouraged the growth of natural history. Over the 18th and 19th centuries, biological sciences such as botany and zoology became professional scientific disciplines. Lavoisier and other physical scientists began to connect the animate and inanimate worlds through physics and chemistry. Explorer-naturalists such as Alexander von Humboldt investigated the interaction between organisms and their environment, the ways this relationship depends on geography—laying the foundations for biogeography and ethology. Naturalists began to reject essentialism and consider the importance of extinction and the mutability of species. Cell theory provided a new perspective on the fundamental basis of life; these developments, as well as the results from embryology and paleontology, were synthesized in Charles Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection. The end of the 19th century saw the fall of spontaneous generation and the rise of the germ theory of disease, though the mechanism of inheritance remained a mystery.
In the early 20th century, the rediscovery of Mendel's work led to the rapid development of genetics by Thomas Hunt Morgan and his students, by the 1930s the combination of population genetics and natural selection in the "neo-Darwinian synthesis". New disciplines developed especially after Watson and Crick proposed the structure of DNA. Following the establishment of the Central Dogma and the cracking of the genetic code, biology was split between organismal biology—the fields that deal with whole organisms and groups of organisms—and the fields related to cellular and molecular biology. By the late 20th century, new fields like genomics and proteomics were reversing this trend, with organismal biologists using molecular techniques, molecular and cell biologists investigating the interplay between genes and the environment, as well as the genetics of natural populations of organisms; the word biology is formed by combining the Greek βίος, meaning "life", so the suffix'-logy', meaning "science of", "knowledge of", "study of", "about of", based on the Greek verb λέγειν,'legein' "to select", "to gather".
The term biology in its modern sense appears to have been introduced independently by Thomas Beddoes, Karl Friedrich Burdach, Gottfried Reinhold Treviranus and Jean-Baptiste Lamarck. The word itself appears in the title of Volume 3 of Michael Christoph Hanow's Philosophiae naturalis sive physicae dogmaticae: Geologia, phytologia generalis et dendrologia, published in 1766. Before biology, there were several terms used for the study of plants. Natural history referred to the descriptive aspects of biology, though it included mineralogy and other non-biological fields. Natural philosophy and natural theology encompassed the conceptual and metaphysical basis of plant and animal life, dealing with problems of why organisms exist and behave the way they do, though these subjects included what is now geology, physics and astronomy. Physiology and pharmacology were the province of medicine. Botany and geology replaced natural history and natural philosophy in the 18th and 19th centuries before biology was adopted.
To this day, "botany" and "zoology" are used, although they have been joined by other sub-disciplines of biology. The earliest humans must have had and passed on knowledge about plants and animals to increase their chances of survival; this may have included aspects of animal behavior. However, the first major turning point in biological knowledge came with the Neolithic Revolution about 10,000 years ago. Humans first domesticated plants for farming livestock animals to accompany the resulting sedentary societies; the ancient cultures of Mesopotamia, the Indian subcontinent, China, among others, produced renowned surgeons and students of the natural sciences such as Susruta and Zhang Zhongjing, reflecting independent sophisticated systems of natural philosophy. However, the roots of modern biology are traced back to the secular tradition of ancient Greek philosophy; the Mesopotamians seem to have had little interest in the natural world as such, preferring to study how the gods had ordered the universe.
Animal physiology was studied for d
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Barbara McClintock was an American scientist and cytogeneticist, awarded the 1983 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. McClintock received her PhD in botany from Cornell University in 1927. There she started her career as the leader in the development of maize cytogenetics, the focus of her research for the rest of her life. From the late 1920s, McClintock studied chromosomes and how they change during reproduction in maize, she developed the technique for visualizing maize chromosomes and used microscopic analysis to demonstrate many fundamental genetic ideas. One of those ideas was the notion of genetic recombination by crossing-over during meiosis—a mechanism by which chromosomes exchange information, she produced the first genetic map for maize. She demonstrated the role of the telomere and centromere, regions of the chromosome that are important in the conservation of genetic information, she was recognized as among the best in the field, awarded prestigious fellowships, elected a member of the National Academy of Sciences in 1944.
During the 1940s and 1950s, McClintock discovered transposition and used it to demonstrate that genes are responsible for turning physical characteristics on and off. She developed theories to explain the suppression and expression of genetic information from one generation of maize plants to the next. Due to skepticism of her research and its implications, she stopped publishing her data in 1953, she made an extensive study of the cytogenetics and ethnobotany of maize races from South America. McClintock's research became well understood in the 1960s and 1970s, as other scientists confirmed the mechanisms of genetic change and genetic regulation that she had demonstrated in her maize research in the 1940s and 1950s. Awards and recognition for her contributions to the field followed, including the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, awarded to her in 1983 for the discovery of genetic transposition. Barbara McClintock was born Eleanor McClintock on June 16, 1902 in Hartford, the third of four children born to homeopathic physician Thomas Henry McClintock and Sara Handy McClintock.
Thomas McClintock was the child of British immigrants. Marjorie, the oldest child, was born in October 1898; the youngest, Malcolm Rider, was born 18 months after Barbara. As a young girl, her parents determined that Eleanor, a "feminine" and "delicate" name, was not appropriate for her, chose Barbara instead. McClintock was an independent child beginning at a young age, a trait she identified as her "capacity to be alone". From the age of three until she began school, McClintock lived with an aunt and uncle in Brooklyn, New York in order to reduce the financial burden on her parents while her father established his medical practice, she was described as a independent child. She was close to her father, but had a difficult relationship with her mother, tension that began when she was young; the McClintock family moved to Brooklyn in 1908 and McClintock completed her secondary education there at Erasmus Hall High School. She reaffirmed her solitary personality during high school, she wanted to continue her studies at Cornell University's College of Agriculture.
Her mother resisted sending McClintock for fear that she would be unmarriageable. McClintock was prevented from starting college, but her father intervened just before registration began, she matriculated at Cornell in 1919. McClintock began her studies at Cornell's College of Agriculture in 1919. There, she participated in student government and was invited to join a sorority, though she soon realized that she preferred not to join formal organizations. Instead, McClintock took up music jazz, she studied botany, receiving a BSc in 1923. Her interest in genetics began when she took her first course in that field in 1921; the course was based on a similar one offered at Harvard University, was taught by C. B. Hutchison, a plant breeder and geneticist. Hutchison was impressed by McClintock's interest, telephoned to invite her to participate in the graduate genetics course at Cornell in 1922. McClintock pointed to Hutchison's invitation as the reason she continued in genetics: "Obviously, this telephone call cast the die for my future.
I remained with genetics thereafter." Although it has been reported that women could not major in genetics at Cornell, therefore her MS and PhD—earned in 1925 and 1927, respectively—were awarded in botany, recent research has revealed that women did earn graduate degrees in Cornell's Plant Breeding Department during the time that McClintock was a student at Cornell. During her graduate studies and postgraduate appointment as a botany instructor, McClintock was instrumental in assembling a group that studied the new field of cytogenetics in maize; this group brought together plant breeders and cytologists, included Marcus Rhoades, future Nobel laureate George Beadle, Harriet Creighton. Rollins A. Emerson, head of the Plant Breeding Department, supported these efforts, although he was not a cytologist himself, she worked as a research assistant for Lowell Fitz Randolph and for Lester W. Sharp, both Cornell Botanists. McClintock's cytogenetic research focused on developing ways to visualize and characterize maize chromosomes.
This particular part of her work influenced a generation of students, as it was included in most textbooks. She developed a technique using carmine staining to visualize mai
George Washington University
The George Washington University is a private research university in Washington, D. C, it was chartered in 1821 by an act of the United States Congress. The university is organized into 14 colleges and schools, including the Columbian College of Arts and Sciences, the Elliott School of International Affairs, the GW School of Business, the School of Media and Public Affairs, the Trachtenberg School of Public Policy and Public Administration, the GW Law School and the Corcoran School of the Arts and Design. George Washington's main Foggy Bottom Campus is located in the heart of Washington, D. C. with the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank located on campus and the White House and the U. S. Department of State within blocks of campus. GWU hosts numerous research centers and institutes, including the National Security Archive and the Institute for International Economic Policy. GWU has two satellite campuses: the Mount Vernon Campus, located in D. C.'s the Virginia Science and Technology Campus.
It is the largest institution of higher education in the District of Columbia. George Washington, the first President of the United States, advocated the establishment of a national university in the U. S. capital in his first State of the Union address in 1790 and continued to promote this idea throughout his career and until his death. In his will, Washington left shares in the Potomac Company to endow the university. However, due to the company's financial difficulties, funds were raised independently. On 9 February 1821, the university was founded by an Act of Congress, making it one of only five universities in the United States with a Congressional charter. George Washington offers degree programs in seventy-one disciplines, enrolling an average of 11,000 undergraduate and 15,500 post-graduate students from more than 130 countries; the Princeton Review ranked GWU 1st for Top Universities for Internship Opportunities. As of 2015, George Washington had over 1,100 active alumni in the U. S. Foreign Service, the nation's diplomatic corps.
GWU is ranked by The Princeton Review in the top "Most Politically Active" Schools. George Washington is home to extensive student life programs, as well as a strong Greek culture, over 450 other student organizations; the school's athletic teams, the George Washington Colonials, play in the Atlantic 10 Conference. GW is known for the numerous prominent events it holds yearly, from hosting U. S. presidential debates and academic symposiums to the being the host of the World Bank and International Monetary Fund's Annual Meetings in DC, since 2013. George Washington alumni and affiliates include numerous prominent politicians, including the current U. S. Attorney General, heads of state and government, CEOs of major corporations, Nobel laureates, MacArthur fellows, Olympic athletes, Academy Award and Golden Globe winners and Time 100 notables. Historical records have shown that the first president of the United States, President George Washington, had made indications to Congress that he aspired to have a university established in the capital of the United States.
He included the subject in his last will and testament. Baptist missionary and leading minister Luther Rice raised funds to purchase a site in Washington, D. C. for a college to educate citizens from throughout the young nation. A large building was constructed on College Hill, now known as Meridian Hill, on February 9, 1821, President James Monroe approved the congressional charter creating the non-denominational Columbian College; the first commencement in 1824 was considered an important event for the young city of Washington, D. C. In attendance were President Monroe, John C. Calhoun, Henry Clay, Marquis de Lafayette and other dignitaries; the George Washington University, like much of Washington, D. C. traces many of its origins back to the Freemasons. The Bible that the President of the George Washington University use to swear an oath on upon inauguration is the Bible of Freemason George Washington. Freemasonry symbols are prominently displayed throughout the campus including the foundation stones of many of the university buildings.
During the Civil War, most students left to join the Confederacy and the college's buildings were used as a hospital and barracks. Walt Whitman was among many of the volunteers to work on the campus. Following the war, in 1873, Columbian College became the Columbian University and moved to an urban downtown location centered on 15th and H streets, NW. In 1904, Columbian University changed its name to the George Washington University in an agreement with the George Washington Memorial Association to build a campus building in honor of the first U. S. President. Neither the university nor the association were able to raise enough funds for the proposed building near the National Mall; the university moved its principal operations to the D. C. neighborhood of Foggy Bottom in 1912. Many of the Colleges of the George Washington University stand out for their history; the Law School is the oldest law school in the District of Columbia. The School of Medicine and Health Sciences is the 11th oldest medical school in the nation.
The Columbian College was founded in 1821, is the oldest unit of the university. The Elliott School of International Affairs was formalized in 1898; the majority of the present infrastructure and financial stability at GW is due to the tenures of GW Presidents Cloyd Heck Marvin, Lloyd Hartman Elliott and Stephen Joel Trachtenberg. In the 1930s, the university was a major center for theoretical physics; the cosmologist George Gamow produced critica
History of Science Society
The History of Science Society is the primary professional society for the academic study of the history of science. It was founded in 1924 by George Sarton and Lawrence Joseph Henderson to support the publication of Isis, a journal of the history of science Sarton had started in 1912; the society has over 3,000 members worldwide. It continues to publish the quarterly journal Isis, the yearly Osiris, sponsors the IsisCB: History of Science Index, holds an annual conference; as of 2016, the current president of the HSS is Janet Browne. HSS sponsors two special lectures annually: The George Sarton Memorial Lecture, delivered at the Annual Meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science since 1960 The History of Science Society Distinguished Lecture, delivered at a plenary session of the annual meeting of the HSS since 1981In addition, the HSS awards a number of prizes: The Suzanne J. Levinson Prize, established in 2006, is awarded biennially for a book in the history of the life sciences and natural history The Nathan Reingold Prize, established in 1955, for an outstanding essay in the history of science written by a graduate student The Derek Price/Rod Webster Prize, established in 1978, for an outstanding article in Isis The Margaret W. Rossiter History of Women in Science Prize, first awarded in 1987, for an outstanding work on the subject of women in science The Joseph H. Hazen Education Prize, established in 1998, for outstanding contributions to teaching history of science The Watson Davis and Helen Miles Davis Prize, established in 1985, for a textbook or popular book on the history of science The Pfizer Award, established in 1958, for an outstanding book in the history of science The George Sarton Medal, first awarded in 1955, for lifetime achievement in the history of science International Academy of the History of Science Official website IsisCB Explore: History of Science Index An open access discovery service for the history of science History of Science Society, Publications, 1989-1999 from the Smithsonian Institution Archives
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory is a private, non-profit institution with research programs focusing on cancer, plant biology and quantitative biology. It is one of 68 institutions supported by the Cancer Centers Program of the U. S. National Cancer Institute and has been an NCI-designated Cancer Center since 1987; the Laboratory is one of a handful of institutions that played a central role in the development of molecular genetics and molecular biology. It has been home to eight scientists who have been awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. CSHL is ranked among the leading basic research institutions in molecular biology and genetics with Thomson Reuters ranking it #1 in the world; the Laboratory is led by a biochemist and cancer researcher. Since its inception in 1890, the institution's campus on the North Shore of Long Island has been a center of biology education. Current CSHL educational programs serve professional scientists, doctoral students in biology, teachers of biology in the K-12 system, students from the elementary grades through high school.
In the past 10 years CSHL conferences & courses have drawn over 81,000 scientists and students to the main campus. For this reason, many scientists consider CSHL a "crossroads of biological science." Since 2009 CSHL has partnered with the Suzhou Industrial Park in Suzhou, China to create Cold Spring Harbor Asia which annually draws some 3,000 scientists to its meetings and courses. In 2015, CSHL announced a strategic affiliation with the nearby Northwell Health to advance cancer therapeutics research, develop a new clinical cancer research unit at Northwell Health in Lake Success, NY, to support early-phase clinical studies of new cancer therapies, recruit and train more clinician-scientists in oncology. CSHL hosts the preprint repository for biologists. Research staff in CSHL's 52 laboratories numbers over 600, including postdoctoral researchers. Cell biology and genomicsRNA interference and small-RNA biology. Cancer research Principal cancer types under study: breast, blood. Research foci: drug resistance.
Neuroscience Stanley Institute for Cognitive Genomics employs deep sequencing and other tools to study genetics underlying schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depression. Swartz Center for the Neural Mechanisms of Cognition studies cognition in the normal brain as a baseline for understanding dysfunction in psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. Other research foci: autism genetics. Plant biology Plant genome sequencing. Other initiatives: genetics of aquatic plants for biofuel development. Much of this work takes place on 12 acres of farmland at the nearby CSHL Uplands Farm, where expert staff raise crops and Arabidopsis plants for studies. Seven CSHL faculty members conduct research in plant biology - Drs. David Jackson, Zachary Lippman, Robert Martienssen, Richard McCombie, Ullas Pedmale, Doreen Ware, Thomas Gingeras. Simons Center for Quantitative Biology Genome validation. In addition to its research mission, CSHL has a broad educational mission; the Watson School of Biological Sciences, established in 1998, awards the Ph.
D. degree and funds the research program of every student. Students are challenged to obtain their doctoral degree in 4–5 years; the Undergraduate Research Program for gifted college students, the Partners for the Future Program for advanced high school students are now hosted at the WSBS. The CSHL Meetings & Courses Program brings over 8,500 scientists from around the world to Cold Spring Harbor annually to share research results – unpublished—in 60 meetings, most held biannually; the Cold Spring Harbor Symposium series, held every year since 1933 with the exception of three years during the Second World War, has been a forum for researchers in genetics, genomics and plant biology. At the Banbury Center, about 25-30 discussion-style meetings are held yearly for a limited number of invited participants; as of 2016 a two-week course at CSHL costs between $3,700 and $4,700 per student and three-day conferences cost about $1,000 per attendee. The DNA Learning Center, founded in 1988, was among the early pioneers in developing hands-on genetics lab experiences for middle and high school students.
In 2013, 31,000 students on Long Island and New York City were taught genetics labs at the DNALC and satellite facilities in New York. Over 9,000 high school biology teachers have participated in DNALC teacher-training programs; the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Pr