The city asserts that it serves as the heart of Black culture in Boston. Roxbury was one of the first towns founded in the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1630, the original boundaries of the Town of Roxbury can be found in Drakes History of Roxbury and its noted Personages. OBryant School of Mathematics & Science, Y. M. C. A, harvard Medical School and many hospitals and schools in the area. This side of the Muddy River is Roxbury, the side is Brookline. Here, Walnut Avenue changes its name to Sigourney Street, indicating the area is now Jamaica Plain, one side of Columbia Road is Roxbury, the other Dorchester. Melnea Cass Boulevard is located approximately over the Roxbury Canal that brought boats into Roxbury, the neighborhood has recently added a new police station improving response time assisting its residents. This facility opened in 2011, and is energy efficient, assisting the community are programs such as the Child Services of Roxbury, the youth build Boston programs, and many more. New initiatives by the city of Boston have propelled the neighborhood of Boston to become eco-friendly, there has been development of new E+ buildings.
Along with the move into a community, each building is now mandated to provide accessibility to people with handicaps. The high density population leads to large amounts of crime, 1/4 of the population are immigrants and half of the population is under 25 years old. Many of the adults are young professionals, many jobs in Roxbury are office and retail oriented. There are many emergency response facilities who help underprivileged people in the area, such as youth centers, the Massachusetts Bay Colony found the coastline largely empty, and quickly founded a group of six towns, among them Boston and Roxbury. For more than 200 years, Roxbury encompassed West Roxbury, three miles south the only land route to the capital led through Roxbury, which made the town important for both transportation and trade. Roxbury in the 1600s held many of the resources English colonists prized, potentially arable land, the settlers of Roxbury originally comprised the congregation of the First Church in Roxbury, established in 1632.
During this time the church served not only as a place of worship, the congregation had no time to raise a meeting house the first winter and so met with the neighboring congregation in Dorchester. One of the leaders of this church was Amos Adams. The first meeting house was built in 1632, and the building pictured here is the meeting house. The town is located where Boston was previously connected to mainland Massachusetts by an isthmus called Boston Neck or alternately
James Merritt Ives
James Merritt Ives was an American lithographer and businessman. He oversaw the business and financial side of the firm and Ives, Ives was born on March 5,1824 in New York City, New York. His father worked as the superintendent of Bellevue Hospital in New York City, a self-trained artist, Ivess art education included visits to art galleries and the Astor Library. Although he went to work at the age of twelve, he continued his art education on his own, on 24 Jun 1846 he married Caroline Clark. The couple had six children, two sons and four daughters, Caroline was the sister-in-law of Nathaniel Curriers brother, Charles Currier. Charles recommended Ives to Nathaniel, who hired him as a bookkeeper in 1852 for his firm, Ives helped to improve and modernize Curriers bookkeeping methods, reorganize the firms inventory, and streamline production methods. In 1857, Currier offered Ives a full partnership in the firm, now called Currier and Ives, in his new position Ives helped Currier interview potential artists and craftsman, and select images that the firm would publish.
It was Ives who encouraged production of the images of daily middle class American life that made the firm so successful. The firm of Currier and Ives was known for its popular and affordable art prints of subjects such as scenes, sporting events, ships. These prints are still sought after by collectors today. Ives worked over forty years at the firm until his death in Rye and he is buried in Greenwood-Cemetery, New York. After Ivess death, his sons and Curriers sons continued to manage the firm until it was liquidated in 1907, image of James Ives at the Library of Congress Images of Currier and Ives and of the firm History of the Firm The Currier & Ives Foundation
Lithography is a method of printing originally based on the immiscibility of oil and water. The printing is from a stone or a plate with a smooth surface. It was invented in 1796 by German author and actor Alois Senefelder as a method of publishing theatrical works. Lithography can be used to print text or artwork onto paper or other suitable material, Lithography originally used an image drawn with oil, fat, or wax onto the surface of a smooth, level lithographic limestone plate. The stone was treated with a mixture of acid and gum arabic, when the stone was subsequently moistened, these etched areas retained water, an oil-based ink could be applied and would be repelled by the water, sticking only to the original drawing. The ink would finally be transferred to a paper sheet. This traditional technique is used in some fine art printmaking applications. In modern lithography, the image is made of a coating applied to a flexible aluminum plate. The image can be printed directly from the plate, or it can be offset, by transferring the image onto a sheet for printing.
In fact, photolithography is used synonymously with offset printing, the technique as well as the term were introduced in Europe in the 1850s. Beginning in the 1960s, photolithography has played an important role in the fabrication, Lithography uses simple chemical processes to create an image. For instance, the part of an image is a water-repelling substance. Thus, when the plate is introduced to a printing ink and water mixture, the ink will adhere to the positive image. This allows a flat print plate to be used, enabling much longer, Lithography was invented by Alois Senefelder in the Kingdom of Bavaria in 1796. In the early days of lithography, a piece of limestone was used. After the oil-based image was put on the surface, a solution of gum arabic in water was applied, during printing, water adhered to the gum arabic surfaces and was repelled by the oily parts, while the oily ink used for printing did the opposite. Lithography works because of the repulsion of oil and water. The image is drawn on the surface of the print plate with a fat or oil-based medium such as a wax crayon, which may be pigmented to make the drawing visible
Winfield Scott was a United States Army general and unsuccessful presidential candidate of the Whig Party in 1852. He served as Commanding General of the United States Army for twenty years, a national hero after the Mexican–American War, he served as military governor of Mexico City. Such was his stature that, in 1852, the Whig Party passed over its own incumbent President of the United States, Millard Fillmore, at six feet five inches in height, he remains the tallest man ever nominated by a major party. He was educated by tutors and in the schools, and briefly attended the College of William. He studied law in the office of attorney David Robinson, Scott attained admission to the bar, and made a brief attempt to practice law. He gained his military experience as a corporal of cavalry in the Virginia militia near Petersburg in 1807. He was subsequently commissioned as a captain in the Light Artillery in May 1808, Scotts early career in the army was tumultuous. Scotts commission was suspended for one year, and after returning to duty, Scott earned the nickname Old Fuss and Feathers for his insistence on military bearing, courtesy and discipline.
In his own campaigns after reaching high rank, Scott preferred to use a core of Army regulars augmented by volunteers whenever possible, Scott perennially concerned himself with the welfare of his men, as demonstrated by his quarrel with Wilkinson over the New Orleans bivouac site. In another instance, when cholera broke out at a post under his command, the army promoted Scott to lieutenant colonel of the 2nd Artillery Regiment in July 1812. Scott served primarily on the Niagara Campaign front in the War of 1812 and he took command of an American landing party during the Battle of Queenston Heights on October 13,1812. The British held Scott as a prisoner of war, the British considered Irish-American prisoners of war British subjects and traitors and executed 13 such Americans captured at Queenstown Heights. The British paroled and released Scott in a prisoner exchange, upon release, Scott returned to Washington to pressure the Senate to take punitive action against British prisoners of war in retaliation for the British executions of Irish-American soldiers.
The Senate wrote a bill after this urging, but President James Madison believed the execution of prisoners of war unworthy of civilized nations. Scott was promoted to colonel in March 1813, Scott planned and led the capture of Fort George, Upper Canada, on the Niagara River. By crossing the Niagara and landing on the Lake Ontario shore, Colonel Scott was wounded in this battle, which is considered among the best-planned and best-executed U. S. operations of the war. Scott was promoted to general on March 19,1814. He was only 27 years old at the time, one of the youngest generals in the history of the U. S. Army, Scott commanded the 1st Brigade, and was instrumental in the American success at the Battle of Chippawa on July 5,1814
Netherlands Institute for Art History
The Netherlands Institute for Art History or RKD is located in The Hague and is home to the largest art history center in the world. The center specializes in documentation and books on Western art from the late Middle Ages until modern times, all of this is open to the public, and much of it has been digitized and is available on their website. The main goal of the bureau is to collect, via the available databases, the visitor can gain insight into archival evidence on the lives of many artists of past centuries. The library owns approximately 450,000 titles, of which ca.150,000 are auction catalogs, there are ca.3,000 magazines, of which 600 are currently running subscriptions. Though most of the text is in Dutch, the record format includes a link to library entries and images of known works. The RKD manages the Dutch version of the Art and Architecture Thesaurus, the original version is an initiative of the Getty Research Institute in Los Angeles, California. Their bequest formed the basis for both the art collection and the library, which is now housed in the Koninklijke Bibliotheek.
Though not all of the holdings have been digitised, much of its metadata is accessible online. The website itself is available in both a Dutch and an English user interface, in the artist database RKDartists, each artist is assigned a record number. To reference an artist page directly, use the code listed at the bottom of the record, usually of the form, for example, the artist record number for Salvador Dalí is 19752, so his RKD artist page can be referenced. In the images database RKDimages, each artwork is assigned a record number, to reference an artwork page directly, use the code listed at the bottom of the record, usually of the form, https, //rkd. nl/en/explore/images/ followed by the artworks record number. For example, the record number for The Night Watch is 3063. The Art and Architecture Thesaurus assigns a record for each term, they are used in the databases and the databases can be searched for terms. For example, the painting called The Night Watch is a militia painting, the thesaurus is a set of general terms, but the RKD contains a database for an alternate form of describing artworks, that today is mostly filled with biblical references.
To see all images that depict Miriams dance, the associated iconclass code 71E1232 can be used as a search term. Official website Direct link to the databases The Dutch version of the Art and Architecture Thesaurus
The Victorian era was the period of Queen Victorias reign, from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901. It was a period of peace, refined sensibilities. Some scholars date the beginning of the period in terms of sensibilities, the era followed the Georgian period and preceded the Edwardian period. The half of the Victorian age roughly coincided with the first part of the Belle Époque era of continental Europe, culturally there was a transition away from the rationalism of the Georgian period and toward romanticism and mysticism with regard to religion, social values, and arts. The end of the saw the Boer War. Domestically, the agenda was increasingly liberal with a number of shifts in the direction of political reform, industrial reform. Two especially important figures in period of British history are the prime ministers Benjamin Disraeli and William Gladstone. Disraeli, favoured by the queen, was a gregarious Conservative and his rival Gladstone, a Liberal distrusted by the Queen, served more terms and oversaw much of the overall legislative development of the era.
The population of England and Wales almost doubled from 16.8 million in 1851 to 30.5 million in 1901, Scotlands population rose rapidly, from 2.8 million in 1851 to 4.4 million in 1901. However, Irelands population decreased sharply, from 8.2 million in 1841 to less than 4.5 million in 1901, mostly due to the Great Famine. Between 1837 and 1901 about 15 million emigrants departed the UK permanently, in search of a life in the United States, South Africa, New Zealand, Australia. During the early part of the era, politics in the House of Commons involved battles between the two parties, the Whigs/Liberals and the Conservatives. These parties were led by such prominent statesmen as Lord Melbourne, Sir Robert Peel, Lord Derby, Lord Palmerston, Disraeli, Victoria became queen in 1837 at age 18. Her long reign until 1901 was mainly a time of peace, Britain reached the zenith of its economic, political and cultural power. The era saw the expansion of the second British Empire, Historians have characterised the mid-Victorian era as Britains Golden Years.
There was prosperity, as the income per person grew by half. There was peace abroad, and social peace at home, opposition to the new order melted away, says Porter. The Chartist movement peaked as a movement among the working class in 1848, its leaders moved to other pursuits, such as trade unions
Amesbury is a city in Essex County, located on the left bank of the Merrimack River near its mouth, upstream from Salisbury and across the river from Newburyport and West Newbury. The population was 16,283 at the 2010 census, a former farming and mill town, Amesbury is today largely residential. It is one of the two northernmost towns in Massachusetts and he intended to send to England for his wife and children, but they never did rejoin him. He and his man, William Schooler, were arrested shortly for a murder Schooler had committed. The latter was hanged for it, given the fishing rights on the river by the subsequent settlement, provided he would sell only to it, he abandoned agriculture for fishing. They were given permission to associate together as a township, middens of shells and arrowheads marked the former locations of native villages. They had fallen victim to smallpox, the area remained in possession of the tribes along the Merrimack, who hunted and fished there. The settlers formed a militia to counteract the threat of conflict.
The hill is part of the bank of the Merrimack. Today this cascade, sometimes called falls, remains sunken in an urban environment, the settlers of the plantation, who entered Massachusetts Bay Colony through Newbury, were rebels in a cause shortly to be settled by the English Civil War. Although nominally subjects of the crown, they did not in any way obey it and they did maintain close ties with the Parliamentary cause in Britain. They established a Puritan church rather than the Church of England, in the early spring of 1639 about 60 planters took up residence on land cleared by the natives. On September 4 the General Court named the town Colchester, but in October changed the name to Salisbury, probably at the instigation of Christopher Batt, from Salisbury, a soldier, he trained the first militia. In November the General Court appointed a government of six, which required that every lot owner take up residence on his lot and they began to assign lots west of the Pow-wow river. The original Salisbury was many times larger than the present, from it several townships were separated.
On January 12,1641, a town meeting ordered the first roads north, on April 21 another meeting granted to William Osgood 50 acres of upland and 10 of meadow along the Pow-wow provided he build the towns first sawmill. It utilized a wheel driven by the Pow-wow. The mill produced lumber for use, but pipe-staves for export
P. T. Barnum
Phineas Taylor P. T. Barnum was an American politician and businessman remembered for promoting celebrated hoaxes and for founding the Barnum & Bailey Circus. Barnum is widely, but erroneously, credited with coining the phrase Theres a sucker born every minute, born in Bethel, Barnum became a small-business owner in his early twenties, and founded a weekly newspaper, before moving to New York City in 1834. Barnum used the museum as a platform to promote hoaxes and human curiosities such as the Feejee mermaid, in 1850 he promoted the American tour of singer Jenny Lind, paying her an unprecedented $1,000 a night for 150 nights. After economic reversals due to bad investments in the 1850s, and years of litigation and public humiliation, he used a lecture tour, mostly as a temperance speaker and his museum added Americas first aquarium and expanded the wax-figure department. While in New York, he converted to Universalism and was a member of the Church of the Divine Paternity, Barnum served two terms in the Connecticut legislature in 1865 as a Republican for Fairfield.
It may tenant the body of a Chinaman, a Turk, elected in 1875 as Mayor of Bridgeport, Connecticut, he worked to improve the water supply, bring gas lighting to streets, and enforce liquor and prostitution laws. Barnum was instrumental in starting Bridgeport Hospital, founded in 1878, the circus business was the source of much of his enduring fame. He established P. T. Barnums Grand Traveling Museum, Caravan & Hippodrome, a circus and museum of freaks. Barnum died in his sleep at home in 1891, and was buried in Mountain Grove Cemetery, Barnum was born in Bethel, the son of inn keeper and store-keeper Philo Barnum and second wife Irene Taylor. He was the great grandson of Thomas Barnum, the English immigrant ancestor of the Barnum family in North America. His maternal grandfather Phineas Taylor was a Whig, landowner, justice of the peace, and lottery schemer, Barnum was adept at arithmetic but hated physical work. He started as a store-keeper, and he learned haggling and using deception to make a sale and he was involved with the first lottery mania in the United States.
At the age of 19, he married Charity Hallett, the young husband had several businesses, a general store, a book auctioning trade, real estate speculation, and a statewide lottery network. He became active in politics and advocated against blue laws promulgated by Calvinists who sought to restrict gambling. Barnum started a paper in 1829, The Herald of Freedom, in Danbury. His editorials against church elders led to libel suits and a prosecution which resulted in imprisonment for two months, but he became a champion of the movement upon his release. In 1834, when lotteries were banned in Connecticut, cutting off his income, Barnum sold his store. Joice Heth died in 1836, no more than 80 years old, Barnum improved the attraction, renamed Barnums American Museum, upgrading the building and adding exhibits, and it became a popular showplace
New York (state)
New York is a state in the northeastern United States, and is the 27th-most extensive, fourth-most populous, and seventh-most densely populated U. S. state. New York is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and Connecticut and Vermont to the east. With an estimated population of 8.55 million in 2015, New York City is the most populous city in the United States, the New York Metropolitan Area is one of the most populous urban agglomerations in the world. New York City makes up over 40% of the population of New York State, two-thirds of the states population lives in the New York City Metropolitan Area, and nearly 40% lives on Long Island. Both the state and New York City were named for the 17th-century Duke of York, the next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany. New York has a diverse geography and these more mountainous regions are bisected by two major river valleys—the north-south Hudson River Valley and the east-west Mohawk River Valley, which forms the core of the Erie Canal.
Western New York is considered part of the Great Lakes Region and straddles Lake Ontario, between the two lakes lies Niagara Falls. The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, New York had been inhabited by tribes of Algonquian and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans came to New York. The first Europeans to arrive were French colonists and Jesuit missionaries who arrived southward from settlements at Montreal for trade, the British annexed the colony from the Dutch in 1664. The borders of the British colony, the Province of New York, were similar to those of the present-day state, New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom and opportunity. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance. On April 17,1524 Verrazanno entered New York Bay, by way of the now called the Narrows into the northern bay which he named Santa Margherita.
Verrazzano described it as a vast coastline with a delta in which every kind of ship could pass and he adds. This vast sheet of water swarmed with native boats and he landed on the tip of Manhattan and possibly on the furthest point of Long Island. Verrazannos stay was interrupted by a storm which pushed him north towards Marthas Vineyard, in 1540 French traders from New France built a chateau on Castle Island, within present-day Albany, due to flooding, it was abandoned the next year. In 1614, the Dutch under the command of Hendrick Corstiaensen, rebuilt the French chateau, Fort Nassau was the first Dutch settlement in North America, and was located along the Hudson River, within present-day Albany. The small fort served as a trading post and warehouse, located on the Hudson River flood plain, the rudimentary fort was washed away by flooding in 1617, and abandoned for good after Fort Orange was built nearby in 1623. Henry Hudsons 1609 voyage marked the beginning of European involvement with the area, sailing for the Dutch East India Company and looking for a passage to Asia, he entered the Upper New York Bay on September 11 of that year
Brooklyn is the most populous borough of New York City, with a Census-estimated 2,636,735 residents in 2015. It borders the borough of Queens at the end of Long Island. Today, if New York City dissolved, Brooklyn would rank as the third-most populous city in the U. S. behind Los Angeles, the borough continues, however, to maintain a distinct culture. Many Brooklyn neighborhoods are ethnic enclaves, Brooklyns official motto, displayed on the Borough seal and flag, is Eendraght Maeckt Maght which translates from early modern Dutch as Unity makes strength. Since 2010, Brooklyn has evolved into a hub of entrepreneurship and high technology startup firms. The history of European settlement in Brooklyn spans more than 350 years, the neighborhood of Marine Park was home to North Americas first tidal mill. It was built by the Dutch, and the foundation can be seen today, the area was not formally settled as a town. Many incidents and documents relating to this period are in Gabriel Furmans early compilation, what is today Brooklyn left Dutch hands after the final English conquest of New Netherland in 1664, a prelude to the Second Anglo–Dutch War.
The English reorganized the six old Dutch towns on southwestern Long Island as Kings County on November 1,1683 and this tract of land was recognized as a political entity for the first time, and the municipal groundwork was laid for a expansive idea of Brooklyn identity. On August 27,1776 was fought the Battle of Long Island, the first major engagement fought in the American Revolutionary War after independence was declared, and the largest of the entire conflict. British troops forced Continental Army troops under George Washington off the heights near the sites of Green-Wood Cemetery, Prospect Park. The fortified American positions at Brooklyn Heights consequently became untenable and were evacuated a few days later, One result of the Treaty of Paris in 1783 was the evacuation of the British from New York City, celebrated by residents into the 20th century. The New York Navy Yard operated in Wallabout Bay for the entire 19th century, the first center of urbanization sprang up in the Town of Brooklyn, directly across from Lower Manhattan, which saw the incorporation of the Village of Brooklyn in 1817.
Reliable steam ferry service across the East River to Fulton Landing converted Brooklyn Heights into a town for Wall Street. Ferry Road to Jamaica Pass became Fulton Street to East New York and Village were combined to form the first, kernel incarnation of the City of Brooklyn in 1834. Industrial deconcentration in mid-century was bringing shipbuilding and other manufacturing to the part of the county. Each of the two cities and six towns in Kings County remained independent municipalities, and purposely created non-aligning street grids with different naming systems and it became the most popular and highest circulation afternoon paper in America. The publisher changed to L. Van Anden on April 19,1842, on May 14,1849 the name was shortened to The Brooklyn Daily Eagle, on September 5,1938 it was further shortened to Brooklyn Eagle
Green-Wood Cemetery was founded in 1838 as a rural cemetery in Kings County, New York. Like other early rural cemeteries, Green-Wood was founded in a time of rapid urbanization when churchyards in New York City were becoming overcrowded. Located in Greenwood Heights, the cemetery lies several blocks southwest of Prospect Park, the gates of the cemetery were designated a New York City landmark in 1966, and the Weir Greenhouse, used as a visitors center, in 1982. The cemetery was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1997 and was granted National Historic Landmark status in 2006 by the U. S. Department of the Interior. The Fort Hamilton Parkway Gate and the chapel were designated as landmarks by New York City in 2016. The popularity of Green-Wood Cemetery inspired a competition to design a Central Park for NYC, the winners were Calvert Vaux and Frederick Law Olmsted. It essentially inspired the creation of Central Park and Prospect Park, Battle Hill, the highest point in Brooklyn, is on cemetery grounds, rising approximately 200 feet above sea level.
It was the site of an important action during the Battle of Long Island on August 27,1776, a Revolutionary War monument by Frederick Ruckstull, Altar to Liberty, was erected there in 1920. From this height, the bronze Minerva statue gazes towards the Statue of Liberty across New York Harbor, the cemetery was the idea of Henry Evelyn Pierrepont, a Brooklyn social leader. The Pierrepont papers deposited at the Brooklyn Historical Society contain material about the organizing of Green-Wood Cemetery and it was a popular tourist attraction in the 1850s and by early 1860s, it became the popular tourist place 2nd to Niagara Falls. It was the place most famous New Yorkers who died during the half of the nineteenth century were buried. Green-Wood Cemetery is still operating with approximately 600,000 graves and 7000 trees spread out over 478 acres, the rolling hills and dales, several ponds and an on-site chapel provide an environment that still draws visitors. This incorporates a sculpture of the ship, half-submerged by the waves, as well as a Civil War Memorial, during the Civil War, Green-Wood Cemetery created the Soldiers Lot for free veterans burials.
The gates were designed by Richard Upjohn in Gothic Revival style, the main entrance to the cemetery was built in 1861-65 of Belleville, New Jersey brownstone. A Designated Landmarks of New York plaque was erected on it in 1958 by the New York Community Trust, several wooden shelters were built, including one in a Gothic Revival style, one resembling an Italian villa, and another resembling a Swiss chalet. A descendent colony of parakeets that are believed to have escaped their containers while in transit now nests in the spires of the gate. On December 5,1876, the Brooklyn Theater Fire claimed the lives of at least 278 individuals, out of that total,103 unidentified victims were interred in a common grave at Green-Wood Cemetery. An obelisk near the entrance at Fifth Avenue and 25th Street marks the burial site
A banner can be a flag or other piece of cloth bearing a symbol, slogan or other message. A flag whose design is the same as the shield in a coat of arms is called a banner of arms, also, a bar shape piece of non-cloth advertising material sporting a name, slogan, or other marketing message. Church banners commonly portray the saint to whom the church is dedicated, the word derives from French word bannière and late Latin bandum, a cloth out of which a flag is made. Banns has the same origin meaning an official proclamation, and abandon means to change loyalty or disobey orders, the vexillum was a flag-like object used as a military standard by units in the Ancient Roman army. The word vexillum is a diminutive of the Latin word, meaning a sail, which confirms the historical evidence that vexilla were literally little sails i. e. flag-like standards. In the vexillum the cloth was draped from a crossbar suspended from the staff. A heraldic banner is usually square or rectangular, a distinction exists between the heraldic banner and the heraldic standard.
The distinction, however, is often misunderstood or ignored, for example, the Royal Standard of the United Kingdom is in fact a banner of the royal arms. The prophet Isaiah was commanded to raise a banner and exalt his voice, habakkuk received a similar order to write a vision upon tables that could be read by one who runs past it. Banners in churches have, in the past, been used mainly for processions, the emphasis has, in recent years, shifted markedly towards the permanent or transient display of banners on walls or pillars of churches and other places of worship. A famous example of large banners on display is Liverpool R. C, where the banners are designed by a resident artist. Banners are used to communicate the testimony of Jesus Christ by evangelists, the same kind of banners are used in many other countries. Many, but not all of them, have red as a dominant colour and these marches were one of the most prominent annual celebrations staged in Australia by any group. Most of these banners have not survived, the Labour Council of NSW has the largest surviving collection at Sydney Trades Hall Sydney Trades Hall in Sussex Street, Sydney.
The Federated Society of Boilermakers, Iron & Steel Shipbuilders of Australia was formed in 1873, the reverse of the banner shows the warship Australia at sea. The banner is canvas and was painted by Sydney firm Althouse & Geiger, master painters and decorators, founded in 1875, the company is still in operation. The banner is a powerful tool in communicating the experience. For more on the design and making of these banners, see Banner-making, sports fans often buy or make banners to display in the grandstands