Union (American Civil War)
During the American Civil War, the Union known as the North, referred to the United States of America and to the national government of President Abraham Lincoln and the 20 free states, as well as 4 border and slave states that supported it. The Union was opposed by 11 southern slave states that formed the Confederate States of America known as "the Confederacy" or "the South". All of the Union's states provided soldiers for the United States Army, though the border areas sent tens of thousands of soldiers south into the Confederacy; the Border states were essential as a supply base for the Union invasion of the Confederacy, Lincoln realized he could not win the war without control of them Maryland, which lay north of the national capital of Washington, D. C.. The Northeast and upper Midwest provided the industrial resources for a mechanized war producing large quantities of munitions and supplies, as well as financing for the war; the Midwest provided soldiers, horses, financial support, training camps.
Army hospitals were set up across the Union. Most states had Republican Party governors who energetically supported the war effort and suppressed anti-war subversion in 1863–64; the Democratic Party supported the war at the beginning in 1861 but by 1862, was split between the War Democrats and the anti-war element led by the "Copperheads". The Democrats made major electoral gains in 1862 in state elections, most notably in New York, they lost ground in 1863 in Ohio. In 1864, the Republicans campaigned under the National Union Party banner, which attracted many War Democrats and soldiers and scored a landslide victory for Lincoln and his entire ticket against opposition candidate George B. McClellan, former General-in-Chief of the Union Army and its eastern Army of the Potomac; the war years were quite prosperous except where serious fighting and guerrilla warfare took place along the southern border. Prosperity was stimulated by heavy government spending and the creation of an new national banking system.
The Union states invested a great deal of money and effort in organizing psychological and social support for soldiers' wives and orphans, for the soldiers themselves. Most soldiers were volunteers, although after 1862 many volunteered in order to escape the draft and to take advantage of generous cash bounties on offer from states and localities. Draft resistance was notable in some larger cities New York City with its massive anti-draft riots of July 1863 and in some remote districts such as the coal mining areas of Pennsylvania. In the context of the American Civil War, the Union is sometimes referred to as "the North", both and now, as opposed to the Confederacy, "the South"; the Union never recognized the legitimacy of the Confederacy's secession and maintained at all times that it remained a part of the United States of America. In foreign affairs the Union was the only side recognized by all other nations, none of which recognized the Confederate government; the term "Union" occurs in the first governing document of the United States, the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union.
The subsequent Constitution of 1787 was issued and ratified in the name not of the states, but of "We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union...". Union, for the United States of America, is repeated in such clauses as the Admission to the Union clause in Article IV, Section 3. Before the war started, the phrase "preserve the Union" was commonplace, a "union of states" had been used to refer to the entire United States of America. Using the term "Union" to apply to the non-secessionist side carried a connotation of legitimacy as the continuation of the pre-existing political entity. Confederates saw the Union states as being opposed to slavery referring to them as abolitionists, as in reference to the U. S. Navy as the "Abolition fleet" and the U. S. Army as the "Abolition forces". Unlike the Confederacy, the Union had a large industrialized and urbanized area, more advanced commercial and financial systems than the rural South. Additionally, the Union states had a manpower advantage of 5 to 2 at the start of the war.
Year by year, the Confederacy shrank and lost control of increasing quantities of resources and population. Meanwhile, the Union turned its growing potential advantage into a much stronger military force. However, much of the Union strength had to be used to garrison conquered areas, to protect railroads and other vital points; the Union's great advantages in population and industry would prove to be vital long-term factors in its victory over the Confederacy, but it took the Union a long while to mobilize these resources. The attack on Fort Sumter rallied the North to the defense of American nationalism. Historian, Allan Nevins, says: The thunderclap of Sumter produced a startling crystallization of Northern sentiment... Anger swept the land. From every side came news of mass meetings, resolutions, tenders of business support, the muster of companies and regiments, the determined action of governors and legislatures. McClintock states: At the time, Northerners were right to wonder at the near unanimity that so followed long months of bitterness and discord.
It would not last throughout the protracted war to come – or through the year – but in that moment of unity was laid bare the common Northern nationalism hidden by the fierce battles more typical of the political arena." Historian Michael Smith, argues that, as the war grou
New Hampshire Army National Guard
The New Hampshire Army National Guard was created in 1680 by New Hampshire governor John Cutt. The lineal ancestor of the Headquarters and Headquarters Battery, the 197th Field Artillery Brigade, began life as the Concord Volunteers in 1861, they were mustered into federal service 3 June 1861 at Portsmouth as Company E, 2d New Hampshire Volunteer Infantry. They were involved in the U. S. Civil War battles of Bull Run, the Peninsula, Fredericksburg, Cold Harbor, Petersburg in Virginia from 1862 to 1864. During World War II the New Hampshire Army National Guardsmen fought in the European and Pacific theaters. One of the elements of the 197th Field Artillery received the Philippine Republic Presidential Unit Citation dated October 17, 1944, to July 4, 1945, being part of the forces that liberated the Philippines from the Japanese imperial forces; the 195th Infantry, as an Infantry Combat Team, was allocated to the NH ARNG after the war. The regimental insignia was approved on 30 October 1953, it was redesignated for the 941st Armored Field Artillery Battalion, New Hampshire National Guard on 7 February 1956.
The insignia was rescinded on 8 April 1963. It was reinstated and redesignated for the 195th Regiment, New Hampshire Army National Guard, with the description and symbolism revised on 20 June 1997. During the Vietnam War, the 3/197 Field Artillery served in Ap Phu Loi, South Vietnam, providing FA Forward Observer Teams and Artillery Liaison Teams in the II Field Force Area. In 1991, the 744 Transportation Company was deployed to Saudi Arabia and Iraq during the Gulf War; the 744 T. C. 6th Transportation Battalion, 2nd Corp Support Command- 2nd COSCOM, VII Corps, US Army, was awarded the U. S. Army Meritorious Unit Commendation for their service in the Gulf War. Captain Timothy Ainsworth was the 744 T. C. Commander. In 1995 the New Hampshire Army National Guard deployed to Bosnia to support Operation Joint Endeavor. In 1999 they deployed to the Central American republic of Honduras. From 2004-2005, the 744 T. C. ran missions out of LSA Anaconda, Iraq, during the Iraq War. Sergeant Jeremiah Holmes was killed in action caused by a powerful enemy improvised explosive device on a bridge, south of LSA Anaconda in Habbiniyah, Anbar Province, Iraq on March 29, 2004.
Captain Mary Bergner was the 744 T. C. Commander; the 2nd Battalion 197th Artillery deployed in 2004-2005 to Iraq, serving as an MP unit, in the cities of Tikrit and Baqubah. SPC Allan J. Burgess was killed in action by a large VBIED in the city of Mosul on October 15, 2004; the 197th Field Artillery Brigade was ordered again into active Federal service on September 11, 2010 at Manchester. This time, they were deployed in Kuwait for Operation New Dawn, they were reverted to state control. During the 2010-2011 Kuwait Deployment for the 197 Fires Brigade Chain of command was Commander- Colonel Peter Corey, Deputy Commander- Lieutenant Colonel Mark W. Leahey, Executive Officer - LTC Daniel T. Wilson, 197 FIB Command Sergeant Major was CSM Thomas Considine; the New Hampshire units involved were Headquarters and Headquarters Battery, 3-197thFA, 3643rd, 372nd Signal. The 237th MP Co deployed to Afganistan in 2013 in support of Operation Enduring Freedom. There they provided base security and customs support to multiple locations throughout the country.
The 744th T. C. was renamed the 744th F. S. C. and its garrison is located in New Hampshire. 197th Fires Brigade 3rd Battalion, 197th Field Artillery Regiment 372d Signal Company 54th Troop Command 12th Civil Support TeamAviation 3d Battalion, 238th Aviation Regiment at Concord 249th Medical Company LUH at Concord 172nd Field Artillery]] 197th Coast Artillery 195th Infantry List of armored and cavalry regiments of the United States Army New Hampshire State Guard The War Tapes New Hampshire National Guard NH Army National Guard Members Return Home New Hampshire State Area Command Brief History of Army National Guard Mobilizations NH National Guard
The Emancipation Proclamation, or Proclamation 95, was a presidential proclamation and executive order issued by United States President Abraham Lincoln on January 1, 1863. It changed the federal legal status of more than 3.5 million enslaved African Americans in the designated areas of the South from slave to free. As soon as a slave escaped the control of the Confederate government, by running away or through advances of federal troops, the former slave became free; the rebel surrender liberated and resulted in the proclamation's application to all of the designated former slaves. It did not cover slaves in Union areas, it was issued as a war measure during the American Civil War, directed to all of the areas in rebellion and all segments of the executive branch of the United States. The Proclamation ordered the freedom of all slaves in ten states; because it was issued under the president's authority to suppress rebellion, it excluded areas not in rebellion, but still applied to more than 3.5 million of the 4 million slaves.
The Proclamation was based on the president's constitutional authority as commander in chief of the armed forces. The Proclamation was issued in January 1863 after U. S government issued a series of warnings in the summer of 1862 under the Second Confiscation Act, allowing Southern Confederate supporters 60 days to surrender, or face confiscation of land and slaves; the Proclamation ordered that suitable persons among those freed could be enrolled into the paid service of United States' forces, ordered the Union Army to "recognize and maintain the freedom of" the ex-slaves. The Proclamation did not compensate the owners, did not outlaw slavery, did not grant citizenship to the ex-slaves, it made the eradication of slavery an explicit war goal, in addition to the goal of reuniting the Union. Around 25,000 to 75,000 slaves in regions where the US Army was active were emancipated, it could not be enforced in areas still under rebellion, but, as the Union army took control of Confederate regions, the Proclamation provided the legal framework for freeing more than three and a half million slaves in those regions.
Prior to the Proclamation, in accordance with the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850, escaped slaves were either returned to their masters or held in camps as contraband for return. The Proclamation applied only to slaves in Confederate-held lands. Excluded were some regions controlled by the Union army. Emancipation in those places would come after separate state actions or the December 1865 ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment, which made slavery and indentured servitude, except for those duly convicted of a crime, illegal everywhere subject to United States jurisdiction. On September 22, 1862, Lincoln issued a preliminary warning that he would order the emancipation of all slaves in any state that did not end its rebellion against the Union by January 1, 1863. None of the Confederate states restored themselves to the Union, Lincoln's order was signed and took effect on January 1, 1863; the Emancipation Proclamation outraged white Southerners. It angered some Northern Democrats, energized anti-slavery forces, undermined elements in Europe that wanted to intervene to help the Confederacy.
The Proclamation lifted the spirits of African Americans both slave. It led many slaves to escape from their masters and get to Union lines to obtain their freedom, to join the Union Army; the Emancipation Proclamation broadened the goals of the Civil War. While slavery had been a major issue that led to the war, Lincoln's only mission at the start of the war was to maintain the Union; the Proclamation made freeing the slaves an explicit goal of the Union war effort. Establishing the abolition of slavery as one of the two primary war goals served to deter intervention by Britain and France; the Emancipation Proclamation was never challenged in court. To ensure the abolition of slavery in all of the U. S. Lincoln pushed for passage of the Thirteenth Amendment, insisted that Reconstruction plans for Southern states require abolition in new state constitutions. Congress passed the 13th Amendment by the necessary two-thirds vote on January 31, 1865, it was ratified by the states on December 6, 1865, ending legal slavery.
The United States Constitution of 1787 did not use the word "slavery" but included several provisions about unfree persons. The Three-Fifths Compromise allocated Congressional representation based "on the whole Number of free Persons" and "three fifths of all other Persons". Under the Fugitive Slave Clause, "o person held to service or labour in one state" would be freed by escaping to another. Article I, Section 9 allowed Congress to pass legislation to outlaw the "Importation of Persons", but not until 1808. However, for purposes of the Fifth Amendment—which states that, "No person shall... be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law"—slaves were understood as property. Although abolitionists used the Fifth Amendment to argue against slavery, it became part of the legal basis for treating slaves as property with Dred Scott v. Sandford. So
Governor of New Hampshire
The Governor of New Hampshire is the head of the executive branch of New Hampshire's state government. The governor is elected at the biennial state general election in November of even-numbered years. New Hampshire is one of only two states, along with bordering Vermont, to hold gubernatorial elections every two years as opposed to every four; the state's 82nd governor is Republican Chris Sununu, who has served since January 5, 2017. In New Hampshire, the governor has no term limit of any kind. No governor has served more than three terms since the 18th century with the exception of John Lynch, who won an unprecedented fourth two-year term on November 2, 2010. John Taylor Gilman had been the last governor before Lynch to serve longer than six years, serving 14 one-year terms as governor between 1794 and 1816. Unlike in many other states in which Executive Councils are advisory, the Executive Council of New Hampshire has a strong check on the governor's power; the five-member council has a veto over many actions of the governor.
Together, the Governor and Executive Council approve contracts with a value of $5,000 or more, approve pardons, appoint the directors and commissioners, the Attorney General and officers in the National Guard. The governor has the sole power to veto bills and to command the National Guard while it is not in federal service. To be qualified to be governor, one must be 30 years of age, a registered voter, domiciled in New Hampshire for at least seven years. Traditionally, the governors of the Province of New Hampshire had been titled as "President of New Hampshire", beginning with the appointment of the province's first president, John Cutt, in 1679. From 1786 to 1791, "President of the State of New Hampshire" was the official style of the position; the New Hampshire Constitution was amended in 1791 to replace "President" with "Governor". OfficialOfficial websiteGeneral informationGovernor of New Hampshire at Ballotpedia Governors of New Hampshire at The Political Graveyard Works by or about Office of the Governor of New Hampshire in libraries
Bristol, New Hampshire
Bristol is a town in Grafton County, New Hampshire, United States. The population was 3,054 at the 2010 census, it is home to Wellington State Park, Sugar Hill State Forest, Profile Falls on the Smith River. Surrounded by hills and lakes, Bristol includes the lower two-thirds of Newfound Lake, a resort area; the primary settlement in town, where 1,688 people resided at the 2010 census, is defined by the U. S. Census Bureau as the Bristol census-designated place and is located at the intersection of New Hampshire routes 3A and 104. Bristol was taken from Bridgewater and New Chester and incorporated 24 June 1819. Colonel Peter Sleeper, Benjamin Emmons and others commenced a settlement here in 1770. Extensive deposits of fine sand or clay similar to the "Bristol sand" used in Bristol, England, to make fine china and pottery gave the town its name. Here the sand was used to make a superior quality brick, marketed as Bristol brick. With water power from the Pemigewasset River, the town was a center of manufacturing in the early days for goods such as paper, woolens, flannel and piano stools.
On January 16, 1884, the town of Bristol voted to accept the gift of a library building and land from Josiah Minot and Solomon Sleeper and to manage and maintain a public library. The Minot-Sleeper Library became the first building erected to house a public library in the Lakes Region at the time, when it was opened to the community in 1885. On August 15, 2012, a groundbreaking ceremony was held in celebration of the library's expansion. In February 2013, the new addition was ready for use. Bristol is one of four towns with shoreline on Newfound Lake, a tourist destination since the mid-19th century. Farmers at first rented rooms and provided meals, but in the 1870s, hotels including the Hotel Bristol and G. G. Brown Hotel were built. In 1874, Bristol was the terminus of the Bristol Branch railroad; the New Hampshire Central Railroad was planned to pass through Bristol. In the 1920s, W. F. Darling created a compound of about one hundred cottages for rent, first known as Hiland Park and as Bungalo Village.
In 2004, the compound was sold to a proprietor. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 22.4 square miles, of which 17.1 square miles is land and 5.3 square miles is water, comprising 23.43% of the town. Bristol is drained by the Pemigewasset River, the Smith River and the Newfound River, draining Newfound Lake and most of the center of town; the highest point in town is Bristol elevation 1,803 feet above sea level. Bristol lies within the Merrimack River watershed. Bristol is served by state routes 3A and 104; as of the census of 2010, there were 3,054 people, 1,283 households, 851 families residing in the town. There were 2,488 housing units, of which 1,205, or 48.4%, were vacant. 1,089 of the vacant units were for seasonal or recreational use. The racial makeup of the town was 96.9% white, 0.3% African American, 0.2% Native American, 0.7% Asian, 0.0% Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander, 0.3% some other race, 1.6% from two or more races. 1.1% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
Of the 1,283 households, 29.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.0% were headed by married couples living together, 11.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.7% were non-families. 26.7% of all households were made up of individuals, 9.5% were someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.36, the average family size was 2.81. In the town, 21.5% of the population were under the age of 18, 7.0% were from 18 to 24, 23.6% from 25 to 44, 32.4% from 45 to 64, 15.5% were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43.5 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.3 males. For the period 2011-2015, the estimated median annual income for a household was $50,080, the median income for a family was $56,161. Male full-time workers had a median income of $43,627 versus $35,921 for females; the per capita income for the town was $25,353. 8.7% of the population and 5.0% of families were below the poverty line.
15.4% of the population under the age of 18 and 4.3% of those 65 or older were living in poverty. Luther Atwood, an American chemist in the oil industry Nathaniel S. Berry, 28th governor of New Hampshire John Cheever, writer Benjamin Flanders, Reconstruction Governor of Louisiana. Ladd cited as the first Union soldier killed in the American Civil War Lenny McNab, Food Network chef Fred Lewis Pattee and professor of American literature Thomas A. Watson, inventor Town of Bristol official website Bristol Historical Society Minot-Sleeper Library Pemigewasset Valley Snowmobile Club A Walking Tour of Historic Bristol, New Hampshire Wellington State Park New Hampshire Economic and Labor Market Information Bureau Profile