Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh
Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh, abbreviated as RSS, is an Indian right-wing, Hindu nationalist, paramilitary volunteer organisation, regarded as the parent organisation of the ruling party of India, the Bharatiya Janata Party. The RSS is one of the principal organizations of the Sangh Parivar group. Founded on 27 September 1925, it claimed a commitment to selfless service to India; the organisation is the world's largest voluntary missionary organization. The initial impetus was to provide character training through Hindu discipline and to unite the Hindu community to form a Hindu Rashtra; the organisation promotes the ideals of upholding Indian culture and the values of a civil society and spreads the ideology of Hindutva, to "strengthen" the Hindu community. It drew initial inspiration from European right-wing groups during World War II. RSS grew into a prominent Hindu nationalist umbrella organisation, spawning several affiliated organisations that established numerous schools and clubs to spread its ideological beliefs.
The RSS was banned once during British rule, thrice by the post-independence Indian government – first in 1948 when a former RSS member assassinated Mahatma Gandhi. RSS was founded in 1925 by a doctor in the city of Nagpur, British India. Hedgewar was a political protege of B. S. Moonje, a Tilakite Congressman, Hindu Mahasabha politician and social activist from Nagpur. Moonje had sent Hedgewar to Calcutta to pursue his medical studies and to learn terrorist techniques from the revolutionary secret societies of the Bengalis. Hedgewar became a member of the Anushilan Samiti, an anti-British revolutionary group, getting into its inner circle; the secretive methods of these societies were used by him in organising the RSS. After returning to Nagpur, Hedgewar organized anti-British activities through the Kranti Dal and participated in independence activist Tilak's Home Rule campaign in 1918. According to the official RSS history, he came to realize that revolutionary activities alone were not enough to overthrow the British.
After reading V. D. Savarkar's Hindutva, published in Nagpur in 1923, meeting Savarkar in the Ratnagiri prison in 1925, Hedgewar was influenced by him, he founded the RSS with the objective of strengthening the Hindu society. Hedgewar believed that a handful of British were able to rule over the vast country of India because Hindus were disunited, lacked valour and lacked a civic character, he recruited energetic Hindu youth with revolutionary fervour, gave them a uniform of a black forage cap, khaki shirt and khaki shorts—emulating the British police—and taught them paramilitary techniques with lathi, sword and dagger. Hindu ceremonies and rituals played a large role in the organisation, not so much for religious observance, but to provide awareness of India's glorious past and to bind the members in a religious communion. Hedgewar held weekly sessions of what he called baudhik, consisting of simple questions to the novices concerning the Hindu nation and its history and heroes warrior king Shivaji.
The saffron flag of Shivaji, the Bhagwa Dhwaj, was used as the emblem for the new organisation. Its public tasks involved protecting Hindu pilgrims at festivals and confronting Muslim resistance against Hindu processions near mosques. Two years into the life of the organisation, in 1927, Hedgewar organised an "Officers' Training Camp" with the objective of forming a corps of key workers, whom he called pracharaks, he asked the volunteers to become sadhus first, renouncing professional and family lives and dedicating themselves to the cause of the RSS. According to scholar Christophe Jaffrelot, Hedgewar embraced this doctrine after it had been reinterpreted by nationalists such as Aurobindo; the tradition of renunciation gave the RSS the character of a `Hindu sect'. Development of the shakha network of the RSS was the main preoccupation for Hedgewar throughout his career as the RSS chief; the first pracharaks were responsible for establishing as many shakhas as possible, first in Nagpur across Maharashtra and in the rest of India.
P. B. Dani was sent to establish a shakha at the Benaras Hindu University and other Universities were targeted to recruit new followers among the student population. Three pracharaks went to Punjab: Appaji Joshi to Sialkot, Moreshwar Munje to the DAV College in Rawalpindi and Raja Bhau Paturkar to the DAV College in Lahore. In 1940, Madhavrao Muley was appointed as the prant pracharak in Lahore. Scholars differ on Hedgewar's motivations for forming the RSS because he never involved the RSS in fighting the British rule. Jaffrelot says that the RSS was intended to propagate the ideology of Hindutva and to provide "new physical strength" to the majority community. An alternative interpretation is. After Tilak's demise in 1920, like other followers of Tilak in Nagpur, Hedgewar was opposed to some of the programmes adopted by Gandhi. Gandhi's stance on the Indian Muslim Khilafat issue was a cause for concern to Hedgewar, so was the fact that the'cow protection' was not on the Congress agenda; this led Hedgewar, along with other Tilakities, to part ways with Gandhi.
In 1921, Hedgewar delivered a series of lectures in Maharashtra with slogans such as "Freedom within a year" and "boycott". He deliberately broke the law, for which he was imprisoned
Capital punishment known as the death penalty, is a government-sanctioned practice whereby a person is killed by the state as a punishment for a crime. The sentence that someone be punished in such a manner is referred to as a death sentence, whereas the act of carrying out the sentence is known as an execution. Crimes that are punishable by death are known as capital crimes or capital offences, they include offences such as murder, mass murder, treason, offenses against the State, such as attempting to overthrow government, drug trafficking, war crimes, crimes against humanity and genocide, but may include a wide range of offences depending on a country. Etymologically, the term capital in this context alluded to execution by beheading. Fifty-six countries retain capital punishment, 106 countries have abolished it de jure for all crimes, eight have abolished it for ordinary crimes, 28 are abolitionist in practice. Capital punishment is a matter of active controversy in several countries and states, positions can vary within a single political ideology or cultural region.
In the European Union, Article 2 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union prohibits the use of capital punishment. The Council of Europe, which has 47 member states, has sought to abolish the use of the death penalty by its members through Protocol 13 of the European Convention on Human Rights. However, this only affects those member states which have signed and ratified it, they do not include Armenia and Azerbaijan; the United Nations General Assembly has adopted, in 2007, 2008, 2010, 2012 and 2014, non-binding resolutions calling for a global moratorium on executions, with a view to eventual abolition. Although most nations have abolished capital punishment, over 60% of the world's population live in countries where the death penalty is retained, such as China, the United States, Pakistan, Nigeria, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, among all Islamic countries, as is maintained in Japan, South Korea and Sri Lanka. China is believed to execute more people than all other countries combined.
Execution of criminals and dissidents has been used by nearly all societies since the beginning of civilizations on Earth. Until the nineteenth century, without developed prison systems, there was no workable alternative to insure deterrence and incapacitation of criminals. In pre-modern times the executions themselves involved torture with cruel and painful methods, such as the breaking wheel, sawing, hanging and quartering, brazen bull, burning at the stake, slow slicing, boiling alive, schwedentrunk, blood eagle, scaphism; the use of formal execution extends to the beginning of recorded history. Most historical records and various primitive tribal practices indicate that the death penalty was a part of their justice system. Communal punishment for wrongdoing included compensation by the wrongdoer, corporal punishment, shunning and execution. Compensation and shunning were enough as a form of justice; the response to crimes committed by neighbouring tribes, clans or communities included a formal apology, blood feuds, tribal warfare.
A blood feud or vendetta occurs when arbitration between families or tribes fails or an arbitration system is non-existent. This form of justice was common before the emergence of an arbitration system based on state or organized religion, it may result from land disputes or a code of honour. "Acts of retaliation underscore the ability of the social collective to defend itself and demonstrate to enemies that injury to property, rights, or the person will not go unpunished." However, in practice, it is difficult to distinguish between a war of vendetta and one of conquest. In most countries that practise capital punishment, it is now reserved for murder, war crimes, treason, or as part of military justice. In some countries sexual crimes, such as rape, adultery, incest and bestiality carry the death penalty, as do religious crimes such as Hudud and Qisas crimes, such as apostasy, moharebeh, Fasad, Mofsed-e-filarz and witchcraft. In many countries that use the death penalty, drug trafficking is a capital offence.
In China, human trafficking and serious cases of corruption and financial crimes are punished by the death penalty. In militaries around the world courts-martial have imposed death sentences for offences such as cowardice, desertion and mutiny. Elaborations of tribal arbitration of feuds included peace settlements done in a religious context and compensation system. Compensation was based on the principle of substitution which might include material compensation, exchange of brides or grooms, or payment of the blood debt. Settlement rules could allow for animal blood to replace human blood, or transfers of property or blood money or in some case an offer of a person for execution; the person offered for execution did not have to be an original perpetrator of the crime because the social system was based on tribes and clans, not individuals. Blood feuds could be regulated at meetings, such as the Norsemen things. Systems deriving from blood feuds may survive alongside more advanced legal systems or be given recognition by courts.
One of the more modern refinements of the blood feud is the duel. In certain parts of the world, n
M. S. Golwalkar
Madhav Sadashiv Golwalkar was the second Sarsanghchalak of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh. Golwalkar authored We, or Our Nationhood Defined. Golwalkar was born on 19 February 1906 to Sadashivrao and Lakshmibai at Ramtek, near Nagpur in Maharashtra, his family supported him in his studies, activities. Sadashivrao, a former clerk in the Posts and Telegraphs Department, became a teacher in the Central Provinces and ended his career as headmaster of a high school. Golwalkar was the only surviving son of nine children. Since his father was transferred around the country, he attended a number of schools. Golwalkar was apt and apolitical as a student; as an adolescent, he developed a deep interest in spiritual meditation. In 1922, Golwalkar enrolled in a missionary-run educational institute in Nagpur. At the college, he was incensed at the "open advocacy" of Christianity and the disparagement of Hinduism. In 1924, Golwalkar left Hislop College for Benaras Hindu University in Varanasi, receiving a Bachelor of Science degree in 1925 and a master's degree in biology in 1927.
He was influenced by a nationalist leader and founder of the university. Golwalkar went to Madras to pursue a doctorate in marine biology, but could not complete it because of his father's retirement, his students called him "Guruji" because of his beard, long hair and simple robe, a practice continued in a reverential manner by his RSS followers. Golwalkar returned to Nagpur, obtained a law degree by 1935. While he was lecturing at Benares Hindu University, Bhaiyaji Dani, a student and close associate of RSS Sarsanghchalak K. B. Hedgewar, founded an RSS shakha in Varanasi. Although Golwalkar attended meetings and was esteemed by its members, there is "no indication that Golwalkar took a keen interest" in the organisation. In 1931, Hedgewar was drawn to the ascetic Golwalkar. After returning to Nagpur, Hedgewar exerted greater influence on Golwalkar. According to RSS sources, Hedgewar encouraged him to pursue a law degree because it would give him the reputation required of an RSS leader. In 1934, Hedgewar made him secretary of the main Nagpur branch.
After he began practising law, Hedgewar tasked him with the management of the Akola Officers' Training Camp. In October 1936, Golwalkar abandoned his law practice and RSS work for the Sargachi Ramakrishna Mission ashram in West Bengal to renounce the world and become a sanyasi, he became a disciple of Swami Akhandananda, a disciple of Ramakrishna and brother monk of Swami Vivekananda. On 13 January 1937 Golwalkar received his diksha, but left the ashram soon afterwards, he returned to Nagpur in a state of depression and indecision to seek Hedgewar's advice after his guru died in 1937, Hedgewar convinced him that his obligation to society could best be fulfilled by working for the RSS. After Golwalkar rejoined the RSS, Hedgewar began grooming him for leadership and he was placed in charge of the All-India Officers' Training Camp from 1937 to 1939. Golwalkar's abilities were appreciated. In 1938, he was asked to translate G. D. Savarkar's 1934 Marathi language Rashtra Mimansa into Hindi and English.
The resulting book, We, or Our Nationhood Defined, was published in Golwalkar's name and regarded as a systematic treatment of RSS ideology. In 1939, at a Gurudakshina festival, Hedgewar announced that Golwalkar would be the next general secretary. A day before he died on 21 June 1940, he gave Golwalkar a sheet of paper asking him to be the RSS leader. On 3 July, five state-level sanghchalak in Nagpur announced Hedgewar's decision. Golwalkar's choice was said to have stunned the RSS volunteers, since Hedgewar passed over several senior activists. Golwalkar's background and interests made him an unlikely successor, Balasaheb Deoras said that several RSS leaders were sceptical about Golwalkar's ability as a sarsanghchalak. In retrospect, Hedgewar's grooming (including encouragement to obtain a Law degree and the authorship of We, or Our Nationhood Defined, is seen as key to Golwalkar's success. One reason advanced for his choice is that he was thought to maintain RSS independence, otherwise liable to be regarded as a youth front of the Hindu Mahasabha.
RSS supreme leader for more than 30 years, Golwalkar made it one of strongest religious-political organisations in India. The RSS extended to foreign countries, where Hindus were recruited into organisations such as the Bharatiya Swayamsevak Sangh or the Hindu Swayamsevak Sangh. There was a important shift in the RSS worldview. One of Golwalkar's major innovations was an anti-communist, anti-socialist ideology, with the slogan "Not socialism but Hinduism." According to D. R. Goyal, the RSS' anti-Marxist tinge made it popular with the wealthy sections of society who generously supported it; the RSS expanded into Jammu and Kashmir in 1940, when Balraj Madhok was sent as a pracharak to Jammu with Prem Nath Dogra as director. A shakha was founded in Srinagar in 1944, Golwalkar visited the city in 1946. On 18 October 1947 he is reported to have met Maharaja Hari Sin
Haryana is one of the 29 states in India, located in northern part of the country. It was carved out of the former state of East Punjab on 1 November 1966 on linguistic as well as on cultural basis, it is ranked 22nd in terms of area with less than 1.4% of India's land area. Chandigarh is the state capital, Faridabad in National Capital Region is the most populous city of the state and Gurugram is a leading financial hub of NCR with major Fortune 500 companies located in it. Haryana has 6 administrative divisions, 22 districts, 72 sub-divisions, 93 revenue tehsils, 50 sub-tehsils, 140 community development blocks, 154 cities and towns, 6,848 villages and 6222 villages panchayats; as the largest recipient of investment per capita since 2000 in India, among one of the wealthiest and most economically developed regions in South Asia, Haryana has the fifth highest per capita income among Indian states and UTs at ₹199,612 against the national average of ₹112,432 for year 2016–17. Haryana's 2019-20 estimated state GSDP of US$110 billion is growing at 12.96% 2012-17 CAGR and placed on the 13th position behind only much bigger states, is boosted by 30 SEZs, 7% national agricultural exports, 65% of national Basmati rice export, 67% cars, 60% motorbikes, 50% tractors and 50% refrigerators produced in India.
Faridabad has been described as eighth fastest growing city in the world and third most in India by City Mayors Foundation survey. In services, Gurugram ranks number 1 in India in IT growth rate and existing technology infrastructure, number 2 in startup ecosystem and livability. Among the world's oldest and largest ancient civilizations, the Indus Valley Civilization sites at Rakhigarhi village in Hisar district and Bhirrana in Fatehabad district are 9,000 years old. Rich in history, heritage and fauna, human resources and tourism with well developed economy, national highways and state roads, it is bordered by Himachal Pradesh to the north-east, by river Yamuna along its eastern border with Uttar Pradesh, by Rajasthan to the west and south, Ghaggar-Hakra River flows along its northern border with Punjab. Since Haryana surrounds the country's capital Delhi on three sides a large area of Haryana is included in the economically-important National Capital Region for the purposes of planning and development.
The name Haryana is found in the works of the 12th-century AD Apabhramsha writer Vibudh Shridhar. The name Haryana has been derived from the Sanskrit words Hari and ayana, meaning "the Abode of God". However, scholars such as Muni Lal, Murli Chand Sharma, HA Phadke and Sukhdev Singh Chib believe that the name comes from a compound of the words Hari and Aranya; the Vedic state of Brahmavarta is claimed to be located in south Haryana, where the initial Vedic scriptures were composed after the great floods some 10,000 years ago. Rakhigarhi village in Hisar district and Bhirrana in Fatehabad district are home to the largest and one of the world's oldest ancient Indus Valley Civilization sites, dated at over 9,000 years old. Evidence of paved roads, a drainage system, a large-scale rainwater collection storage system, terracotta brick and statue production, skilled metal working have been uncovered. According to archaeologists, Rakhigarhi may be the origin of Harappan civilisation, which arose in the Ghaggar basin in Haryana and and moved to the Indus valley.
Ancient bronze and stone idols of Jain Tirthankara were found in archaeological expeditions in Badli, Dadri, Hansi, Kasan, Narnaul, Rewari, Rohad and Sonepat in Haryana. After the sack of Bhatner fort during the Timurid conquests of India in 1398, Timur attacked and sacked the cities of Sirsa, Sunam and Panipat; when he reached the town of Sarsuti, the residents, who were non-Muslims and were chased by a detachment of Timur's troops, with thousands of them being killed and looted by the troops. From there he travelled to Fatehabad, whose residents fled and a large number of those remaining in the town were massacred; the Ahirs resisted him at Ahruni but were defeated, with thousands being killed and many being taken prisoners while the town was burnt to ashes. From there he travelled to Tohana, whose Jat inhabitants were stated to be robbers according to Sharaf ad-Din Ali Yazdi, they were defeated and fled. Timur's army killed 200 Jats, while taking many more as prisoners, he sent a detachment to chase the fleeing Jats and killed 2,000 of them while their wives and children were enslaved and their property plundered.
Timur proceeded to Kaithal whose residents were massacred and plundered, destroying all villages along the way. On the next day, he came to Assandh whose residents were "fire-worshippers" according to Yazdi, had fled to Delhi. Next he travelled to and subdued Tughlaqpur fort and Salwan before reaching Panipat whose residents had fled, he marched on to Loni fort. The area, now Haryana has been ruled by some of the major empires of India. Panipat is known for three seminal battles in the history of India. In the First Battle of Panipat, Babur defeated the Lodis. In the Second Battle of Panipat, Akbar defeated the local Haryanvi Hindu Emperor of Delhi, who belonged to Rewari. Hem Chandra Vikramaditya had earlier won 22 battles across India from Punjab to Bengal, defeating Mughals and Afghans. Hemu had defeat
The Bombay Presidency known as Bombay and Sind from 1843 to 1936 and the Bombay Province, was an administrative subdivision of British India. Headquartered in the city of Bombay, at its greatest extent, the presidency included the Konkan and Pune divisions of the present-day Indian state of Maharashtra, Anand, Gandhinagar, Kheda and Surat districts of the present-day state of Gujarat, Belagavi, Dharwad and Uttara Kannada districts of the present-day state of Karnataka and the South Canara (Dakshina Kannada and Udupi district including Kasargod District of Kerala; the Bombay Presidency was created when the city of Bombay was leased in fee tail to the East India Company by a Royal Charter from the King of Britain, Charles II, who had in turn acquired it on May 11, 1661, when his marriage treaty with Catherine of Braganza, daughter of King John IV of Portugal, placed the islands of Bombay in possession of the English Empire, as part of Catherine's dowry to Charles. The English East India Company transferred its Western India headquarters from Surat, its first colony in that region, to Bombay in 1687.
The Presidency was brought under British Parliament control along with other parts of British India through Pitt's India Act. Major territorial acquisitions were made during the Anglo-Maratha Wars when the whole of the Peshwa's dominions and much of the Gaekwad's sphere of influence were annexed to the Bombay Presidency in different stages till 1818. Aden was annexed in 1839, while Sind was annexed by the Company in 1843 after defeating the Talpur dynasty in the Battle of Hyderabad and it was made a part of the Bombay Presidency. At its greatest extent, the Bombay Presidency comprised the present-day state of Gujarat, the western two-thirds of Maharashtra state, including the regions of Konkan and Kandesh, northwestern Karnataka state of India; the districts and provinces of the presidency were directly under British rule, while the internal administration of the native or princely states was in the hands of local rulers. The presidency, managed the defence of princely states and British relations with them through political agencies.
The Bombay Presidency along with the Bengal Presidency and Madras Presidency were the three major centres of British power. The first English settlement in the Presidency known as Western Presidency was begun in 1618 at Surat in present-day Gujarat, when the East India Company established a factory, protected by a charter obtained from the Mughal Emperor Jahangir. In 1626 the Dutch and the English made an unsuccessful attempt to gain possession of the island of Bombay in the coastal Konkan region from Portugal, in 1653 proposals were suggested for its purchase from the Portuguese. In 1661 Bombay was ceded to the Kingdom of England as part of the dowry of the infanta Catherine of Braganza on her marriage to King Charles II. So was the acquisition esteemed in England, so unsuccessful was the administration of the crown officers, that in 1668 Bombay was transferred to the East India Company for an annual payment of £10, the Company established a factory there. At the time of the transfer, powers for the island's defence and for the administration of justice were conferred on the Company.
As English trade in Bombay increased, Surat began its relative decline. In 1687, Bombay was made the headquarters of all the East India Company's possessions in India. However, in 1753 the governor of Bombay became subordinate to that of Calcutta. During the 18th century, the Hindu Maratha Empire expanded claiming Konkan and much of eastern Gujarat from the disintegrating Mughal Empire. In western Gujarat, including Kathiawar and Kutch, the loosening of Mughal control allowed numerous local rulers to create independent states; the first conflict between the British and the Marathas was the First Anglo-Maratha War which began in 1774 and resulted in the 1782 Treaty of Salbai, by which the island of Salsette, adjacent to Bombay island, was ceded to the British, while Bharuch was ceded to the Maratha ruler Scindia. The British annexed Surat in 1800. British territory was enlarged in the Second Anglo-Maratha War which ended in 1803; the East India Company received the districts of Bharuch, etc. and the Maratha Gaekwad rulers of Baroda acknowledged British sovereignty.
In 1803 the Bombay Presidency included only Salsette, the islands of the harbour and Bankot. The Gujarat districts were taken over by the Bombay government in 1805 and enlarged in 1818. Baji Rao II, the last of the peshwas, who had attempted to shake off the British yoke, was defeated in the Battle of Khadki, captured subsequently and pensioned, large portions of his dominions were included in the Presidency, the settlement of, completed by Mountstuart Elphinstone, governor from 1819 to 1827, his policy was to rule as far as possible on native lines, avoiding all changes for which the population was not yet ripe. The period that followed is notable for the enlargement of the Presidency through the lapse of ce
Vijayadashami known as Dasahara, Dasara, Dussehra or Dashain is a major Hindu festival celebrated at the end of Navratri every year. It is observed on the tenth day in the Hindu calendar month of Ashvin, the seventh month of the Hindu Luni-Solar Calendar, which falls in the Gregorian months of September and October. Vijayadashami is observed for different reasons and celebrated differently in various parts of South Asia. In the southern and northeastern states of India, Vijayadashami marks the end of Durga Puja, remembering goddess Durga's victory over the buffalo demon Mahishasura to restore and protect dharma. In the northern and western states, the festival is synonymously called Dussehra. In these regions, it remembers God Rama's victory over the Ravana. On the same occasion. Alternatively it marks a reverence for one of the aspects of goddess Devi such as Durga or Saraswati. Vijayadashami celebrations include processions to a river or ocean front that carry clay statues of Durga, Saraswati and Kartikeya, accompanied by music and chants, after which the images are immersed into the water for dissolution and a goodbye.
Elsewhere, on Dasara, the towering effigies of Ravana symbolizing the evil are burnt with fireworks marking evil's destruction. The festival starts the preparation for one of the most important and celebrated Diwali, the festival of lights, celebrated twenty days after the Vijayadashami. Vijayadashami is a composite of two words "Vijaya" and "Dashami", which mean "victory" and "tenth," connoting the festival on the tenth day celebrating the victory of good over evil; the same Hindu festival-related term, takes different forms in different regions of India and Nepal, as well as among Hindu minorities found elsewhere. According to James Lochtefeld, the word Dussehra is a variant of Dashahara, a compound Sanskrit word composed of "dasham" and "ahar" meaning "10" and "day". According to Monier-Williams, Dus means "bad, sinful," and Hara means "removing, destroying," connoting "removing the bad, destroying the evil, sinful." Ravana kidnapped Sita. To free her. After performing severe penance for ten thousand years he received a boon from the creator-god Brahma: he could henceforth not be killed by gods, demons, or spirits.
He is portrayed as a powerful demon king. Lord Vishnu incarnates as the human Rama to defeat and kill him, thus circumventing the boon given by Lord Brahma. A deadly and fierceful battle takes place between Rama & Ravana in which Rama kills Ravana and ends the evil rule. Ravana has 10 heads. Killing of the one who has 10 heads is called Dusshera. Dharma was established on the Earth because of Rama's victory over Ravana, thus this festival is celebrated reminding the victories of Good over Evil. In the Mahabharata, the Pandavas are known to have spent their thirteenth year of exile in disguise in the kingdom of Virata. Before going to Virata, they are known to have hung their celestial weapons in Shami tree for safe keeping for a year. Bhima kills Kichaka. Hearing about the death of Kichaka, Duryodhana surmises. A host of Kaurava warriors attacks Virata to steal their cattle, but in reality, desiring to pierce the Pandavas' veil of anonymity. Full of bravado, Virata's son Uttar attempts to take on the army by himself while the rest of the Matsya army has been lured away to fight Susharma and the Trigartas.
As suggested by Draupadi, Uttar takes Brihannala with him, as his charioteer. When he sees the Kaurava army, Uttar attempts to flee. Arjuna reveals his identity and those of his brothers'. Arjuna takes Uttar to the tree. Arjuna picks up his Gandiva after worshipping the tree as Shami tree safeguarded the Pandavas’ weapons for that complete year. Arjuna reties thread to Gandiva drags& releases it- which produces terrible twang. At the same point of time, Kaurava warriors were eagerly waiting to spot Pandavas. Dispute chats takes place between Drona. Karna told Duryodhana that he would defeat Arjuna & don’t get threatened with Drona’s words since Drona was intentionally praising Arjuna as Arjuna was favorite student of Drona. Ashwatthama supports his father by praising Arjuna. Arjuna arrives the battle field.. Eager to defend the land that had given him refuge, Arjuna engaged the legion of Kaurava warriors; the battle starts between entire Kuru Army. All the warriors including Bhishma, Karna and Ashwathama together attacked Arjuna to kill him but Arjuna defeated all of them multiple times.
During the battle Arjuna killed Sangramjit the foster brother of Karna and instead of taking the revenge of his brother, Karna took heroice flight in order to save his life from Arjuna. Karna tried to fly away from Arjuna but he could not since Arjuna invoked Sammohanaastra which made entire army fell asleep.. This is the war. In this way Arjuna alone defeated entire Kuru army consisting of 10,000s of soldiers, Maharathis: Bhishma, Karna. One of the names of Arj
Vallabhbhai Patel, popularly known as Sardar Patel, was an Indian politician. He served as the first Deputy Prime Minister of India, he was an Indian barrister and statesman, a senior leader of the Indian National Congress and a founding father of the Republic of India who played a leading role in the country's struggle for independence and guided its integration into a united, independent nation. In India and elsewhere, he was called Sardar, meaning "chief" in Hindi and Persian, he acted as Home Minister during the political integration of India and the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947. Patel was raised in the countryside of state of Gujarat, he was a successful lawyer. He subsequently organised peasants from Kheda and Bardoli in Gujarat in non-violent civil disobedience against the British Raj, becoming one of the most influential leaders in Gujarat, he was appointed as the 49th President of Indian National Congress, organising the party for elections in 1934 and 1937 while promoting the Quit India Movement.
As the first Home Minister and Deputy Prime Minister of India, Patel organised relief efforts for refugees fleeing from Punjab and Delhi and worked to restore peace. He led the task of forging a united India integrating into the newly independent nation those British colonial provinces, "allocated" to India. Besides those provinces, under direct British rule 565 self-governing princely states had been released from British suzerainty by the Indian Independence Act of 1947. Threatening military force, Patel persuaded every princely state to accede to India, his commitment to national integration in the newly independent country was total and uncompromising, earning him the sobriquet "Iron Man of India". He is remembered as the "patron saint of India's civil servants" for having established the modern all-India services system, he is called the "Unifier of India". The Statue of Unity, the world's tallest statue, was dedicated to him on 31 October 2018, 182 metres in height. Patel's date of birth was never recorded.
He belonged to the Leuva Patel Patidar community of Central Gujarat, although the Leuva Patels and Kadava Patels have claimed him as one of their own. Patel travelled to attend schools in Nadiad and Borsad, living self-sufficiently with other boys, he reputedly cultivated a stoic character. A popular anecdote recounts that he lanced his own painful boil without hesitation as the barber charged with doing it trembled; when Patel passed his matriculation at the late age of 22, he was regarded by his elders as an unambitious man destined for a commonplace job. Patel himself, harboured a plan to study to become a lawyer and save funds, travel to England, become a barrister. Patel spent years away from his family, studying on his own with books borrowed from other lawyers, passing his examinations within two years. Fetching his wife Jhaverba from her parents' home, Patel set up his household in Godhra and was called to the bar. During the many years it took him to save money, Patel – now an advocate – earned a reputation as a fierce and skilled lawyer.
The couple had a daughter, Maniben, in 1904 and a son, Dahyabhai, in 1906. Patel cared for a friend suffering from the Bubonic plague when it swept across Gujarat; when Patel himself came down with the disease, he sent his family to safety, left his home, moved into an isolated house in Nadiad. Patel practised law in Godhra and Anand while taking on the financial burdens of his homestead in Karamsad. Patel was the first chairman and founder of "Edward Memorial High School" Borsad, today known as Jhaverbhai Dajibhai Patel High School; when he had saved enough for his trip to England and applied for a pass and a ticket, they were addressed to "V. J. Patel," at the home of his elder brother Vithalbhai, who had the same initials as Vallabhai. Having once nurtured a similar hope to study in England, Vithalbhai remonstrated his younger brother, saying that it would be disreputable for an older brother to follow his younger brother. In keeping with concerns for his family's honour, Patel allowed Vithalbhai to go in his place.
In 1909 Patel's wife Jhaverba was hospitalised in Bombay to undergo major surgery for cancer. Her health worsened and, despite successful emergency surgery, she died in the hospital. Patel was given a note informing him of his wife's demise as he was cross-examining a witness in court. According to witnesses, Patel read the note, pocketed it, continued his cross-examination and won the case, he broke the news to others. Patel decided against marrying again, he raised his children with the help of his family and sent them to English-language schools in Mumbai. At the age of 36 he enrolled at the Middle Temple Inn in London. Completing a 36-month course in 30 months, Patel finished at the top of his class despite having had no previous college background. Returning to India, Patel settled in Ahmedabad and became one of the city's most successful barristers. Wearing European-style clothes and sporting urbane mannerisms, he became a skilled bridge player. Patel nurtured ambitions to expand his practice and accumulate great wealth and to provide his children with a modern education.
He had made a pact with his brother Vithalbhai to support his entry into politics in the Bombay Presidency, while Patel remained in Ahmedabad to provide for the family. At the urging of his friends, Patel ran in the election for the post of sanitation