The Nation of Islam is an African American political and religious movement, founded in Detroit, United States, by Wallace D. Fard Muhammad on July 4, 1930, its stated goals are to improve the spiritual, mental and economic condition of African Americans in the United States. Critics have described the theology of the organization as promoting black superiority over whites and anti-LGBT rhetoric; the Southern Poverty Law Center tracks the NOI as a hate group. Its official newspaper is The Final Call. In 2007, the core membership was estimated to be between 20,000 and 50,000, it is one of the wealthiest organizations in black America. Fard disappeared in June 1934, his successor Elijah Muhammad established places of worship, a school named Muhammad University of Islam and real estate holdings in the United States and abroad. The Nation has long been a strong advocate of African-American businesses. There were a number of splits and splinter groups during Elijah Muhammad's leadership, most notably the departure of senior leader Malcolm X to become a Sunni Muslim.
After Elijah Muhammad's death in 1975, his son, Warith Deen Mohammed, changed the name of the organization to "World Community of Islam in the West", attempted to convert it to a mainstream Sunni Muslim ideology. In 1977, Louis Farrakhan rejected Warith Deen Mohammed's leadership and re-established the Nation of Islam on the original model, he took over Mosque Maryam in Chicago, Illinois. Since 2010, under Farrakhan, members have been encouraged to study Dianetics, the Nation claims it has trained 1,055 auditors; the NOI was founded in Detroit in 1930, by Wallace Fard Muhammad known as W. D. Fard Muhammad, his goal, according to the Nation of Islam, was to "teach the downtrodden and defenseless Black people a thorough Knowledge of God and of themselves, to put them on the road to Self-Independence with a superior culture and higher civilization than they had experienced." According to the NOI, Fard chose Elijah Muhammad to be his assistant in 1931. According to Muhammad, Fard trained him daily for nine months less for about two years.
In May 1933, shortly after naming Elijah Muhammad Minister of Islam, Fard disappeared without notifying his followers or designating a successor. In the wake of Fard's disappearance, several potential leaders emerged. Muhammad asserted that Fard had selected him to be his successor and trained him "day and night" for three years, he argued that Fard was God incarnate, that Fard had revealed this to him alone. Muhammad established a newspaper, The Final Call to Islam referring to Fard as a prophet and as Almighty God, he prevailed over his rivals as leader. In 1942, during World War II, Elijah Muhammad was convicted of violating the Selective Service Act and jailed. Many other Nation of Islam members were charged, as NOI opposed serving in the United States military. Upon his release in 1946, Elijah Muhammad built up the membership of his movement through recruitment in the postwar decades, his program called for the establishment of a separate nation for black Americans and the adoption of a religion based on the worship of Allah and on the belief that blacks were his chosen people.
During this time, the Nation of Islam attracted Malcolm Little. While in prison in Boston for burglary from 1946 to 1952, Little joined the Nation of Islam, he was influenced by his brother, who had become a member in Detroit. Little quit smoking and eating pork, in keeping with the Nation's practices and dietary restrictions, he spent long hours reading books in the prison library. He sharpened his oratory skills by participating in debating classes. Following Nation tradition, Elijah Muhammad ordered him to replace his surname, "Little", with an "X", a custom among Nation of Islam followers who considered their surnames to have been imposed by white slaveholders after their African names were taken from them; the X was meant to represent a lot "lost heritage and a personal unknown history."Malcolm X rose to become a minister and national spokesperson for the NOI. He is credited with the group's dramatic increase in membership between the early 1950s and early 1960s. In March 1964, Malcolm X left the Nation due to disagreements with Elijah Muhammad.
Malcolm X said Muhammad had engaged in extramarital affairs with young Nation secretaries—a serious violation of Nation teachings. On February 21, 1965, Malcolm X was shot and killed while giving a speech at the Audubon Ballroom in Washington Heights, New York. In March 1966, three NOI members were convicted of assassinating Malcolm X. In 1955, Louis Wolcott joined the Nation of Islam. Following custom, he replaced his surname with an "X", he was given his new name, "Farrakhan", by Elijah Muhammad. In 1965, following the assassination of Malcolm X, Farrakhan emerged as the protege of Malcolm. Like his predecessor, Farrakhan was a dynamic, charismatic leader and a powerful speaker with the ability to appeal to the African-American masses. At the time of Elijah Muhammad's death in 1975, there were 75 NOI centers across America; the Nation's leadership chose Wallace Muhammad known as Warith Deen Mohammad, the fifth of Elijah's sons—not Farrakhan—as the new Supreme Minister. At the time, Nation of Islam was founded upon the principles of self-reliance and black supremacy, a belief that mainstream Muslims consider heretical.
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Nicole Schmidhofer is an Austrian World Cup alpine ski racer. She specializes in the speed events of downhill and super-G. Born in Friesach in Carinthia, Schmidhofer made her World Cup debut in March 2007, she competed for Austria at the 2010 Winter Olympics, but did not finish in the super-G at Whistler, her only event at the Olympics. Three years Schmidhofer finished in 11th place in the super-G at the 2013 World Championships in Schladming, her breakout World Cup season was with three wins and three additional podiums. Standings through 9 February 2020 4 wins – 12 podiums – 6 DH, 6 SG) Nicole Schmidhofer at the International Ski Federation Nicole Schmidhofer World Cup standings at the International Ski Federation Nicole Schmidhofer at Ski-DB Alpine Ski Database Nicole Schmidhofer at the International Olympic Committee Nicole Schmidhofer at Olympics at Sports-Reference.com Nicole Schmidhofer at Austrian Ski team Nicole Schmidhofer at Fischer Skis nici-schmidhofer.at personal site
Scott Duvall is a Canadian politician serving as the Member of Parliament for Hamilton Mountain. He had served on Hamilton City Council representing Ward 7 from 2006 until he was elected to the House of Commons following the 2015 Canadian Federal Election, he is a member of the New Democratic Party Prior to being elected to Hamilton City Council, Duvall was a steelworker and a labour union president. On January 5, 2015, Duvall was selected as the NDP candidate for the Hamilton Mountain riding, after the resignation of long time NDP MP Chris Charlton. Following a tight nomination battle with former Ontario NDP candidate Bryan Adamczyk, Scott won the nomination race. Throughout the entirety of his career, he has been vocal about labour issues in the Hamilton area. Duvall is a Hamilton area native, born into a household with seven other siblings, he began his career working at Stelco, where his father worked. Duvall and his wife Sherry have three daughters, he became the president of his union. While Duvall was a city councillor, he sat as the chair of the city's steel issues subcommittee.
Duvall was appointed the New Democratic Party critic for Pensions in the 42nd Parliament. On November 13, 2018 Duvall was nominated again to run in the 2019 federal election, he has said. He stated that issues such as pay equity, pension reformation are his top priorities. On November 6, 2017, Duvall introduced a Private member's bill, Bill C-384 "An Act to amend the Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act and the Companies’ Creditors Arrangement Act"; this bill sought to amend the priority given to pensioners, in the case of bankruptcy proceedings by Canadian companies. This bill was in response to the underfunding of pension plans in the Bankruptcy proceedings of prominent Canadian companies Nortel and Sears Canada. Duvall has gone to multiple ridings across Canada in 2017 and 2018, to discuss the implications of the current pension laws. Official website Scott Duvall – Parliament of Canada biography