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National Archives Building

The National Archives Building, known informally as Archives I, is the headquarters of the National Archives and Records Administration. It is located north of the National Mall at 700 Pennsylvania Avenue, Washington, D. C.. The Rotunda entrance is on Constitution Avenue, while the research entrance is on Pennsylvania Avenue. A second larger facility, known as "Archives II", is located in Maryland; the National Archives building holds the original copies of the three main formative documents of the United States and its government: the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution, the Bill of Rights. These are displayed to the public in the main chamber of the National Archives, called the Rotunda for the Charters of Freedom; the building hosts additional important American historical items, including the Articles of Confederation, the Louisiana Purchase Treaty, the Emancipation Proclamation, collections of photography and other and culturally significant American artifacts. An original version of the 1297 Magna Carta confirmed by Edward I is an internationally historical document on display.

Once inside the Rotunda for the Charters of Freedom, there are no lines to see the individual documents and visitors are allowed to walk from document to document as they wish. Photography is not permitted in the National Archives Museum. Photography with natural light is permitted in research rooms. From its founding, the U. S. federal government has documented its policies and decisions, but for 150 years it had no method or place to safeguard important records. During those years, officials decried federal neglect, or too fires destroyed important documents, reinforcing the need for an archives. By the end of the 19th century, a few architects had submitted plans to the government for an archives or a hall of records. By the early 20th century an organized effort aimed at creating the National Archives began, but not until 1926 did Congress approve the National Archives Building; that year, Congress authorized construction of the National Archives Building as part of a massive public buildings program designed to beautify the center of Washington, DC, provide office space for the growing federal bureaucracy.

This program led to the construction of buildings within the Federal Triangle. Secretary of the Treasury Andrew W. Mellon gave the responsibility for designing the Triangle grouping to a Board of Architectural Consultants. Louis A. Simon, the Supervisory Architect of the Treasury Department, drafted a preliminary design for the Archives, placing it along Pennsylvania Avenue between 9th and 10th Streets, NW. In late 1927, preliminary drawings of the individual Triangle buildings were incorporated into a formal presentation of the entire project; the drawings became the basis for a three-dimensional scale model, publicly unveiled in April 1929. The next month, after examining the model, the Commission of Fine Arts was critical of Simon's design for an archives. Commissioners suggested that the noted architect John Russell Pope be added to the Board of Architectural Consultants and that he design the National Archives. Pope was asked to join. Pope's architectural vision transformed both the location and design of the National Archives Building.

He proposed relocating the Archives to the block between Seventh and Eighth Streets, a site he believed demanded a monumental building such as the National Archives. In place of Simon's design, Pope's National Archives was to be a neoclassical temple befitting an institution dedicated to American history; the site was occupied by the former Center Market, Washington, D. C.. Ground was broken for the National Archives on September 5, 1931, by the Assistant Secretary of the Treasury, Ferry K. Heath. By the time President Herbert Hoover laid the cornerstone of the building in February 1933, significant problems had arisen; because the massive structure was to be constructed above an underground stream, the Tiber Creek, 8,575 piles had been driven into the unstable soil, before pouring a huge concrete bowl as a foundation. Another difficulty arose over the choice of building materials. Both limestone and granite were authorized as acceptable, but construction began during the darkest days of the Great Depression, suppliers of each material lobbied fiercely to have the government use their stone.

As in the other Federal Triangle buildings, limestone was used for the exterior superstructure and granite for the base. Constructing the National Archives was a monumental task. Not only was the building the most ornate structure on the Federal Triangle, but it called for installation of specialized air-handling systems and filters, reinforced flooring, thousands of feet of shelving to meet the building's archival storage requirements; the building's exterior took more than 4 years to finish and required a host of workers ranging from sculptors and model makers to air-conditioning contractors and structural-steel workers. In November 1935, 120 National Archives staff members moved into their uncompleted building. Most of the exterior work was complete, but many stack areas, where records would be stored, had no shelving for incoming records. Work continued on the Rotunda and other public spaces. More earlier estimates about the need for future stack space proved to be quite insufficient; as soon as Pope's original design was complete, a project to fill the Archives' interior courtyard began, doubling storage space from 374,000 square feet to more than 757,000 square feet.

John Russell Pope's vision of the Archives as a temple of history has been preserved through maintenance and period

Tobias Abse

Dr. Tobias Abse was a history lecturer at Goldsmiths College of the University of London from 1994 to 2016. Abse has written extensively on the rise of the Fascist Right in Italy prior to World War II, he has been a member of the Socialist Alliance National Executive, the Alliance for Green Socialism National Committee, the Socialist History Society committee and the Revolutionary History editorial board and is a regular contributor to UK socialist newspapers and magazines. Abse is the son of social reformer Leo Abse, he was educated at William Ellis School and Gonville and Caius College, where he graduated with a double-starred first-class degree in History in 1978. Abse, Toby. 2007. The Moro Affair: Interpretations and Consequences. In: S. Gundle and L. Rinaldi, eds. Assassinations and Murder in Modern Italy Transformations in Society and Culture. Palgrave MacMillan, pp. 89–100. ISBN 1403983917 Abse, Toby. 2006. Catholic-Jewish Relations in Italy from Unification to the Second Vatican Council. In: Philip J. Broadhead and Damien V. Keown, eds.

Can Faiths Make Peace? Holy Wars and the Resolution of Religious Conflicts. I. B Tauris, pp. 107–123. ISBN 9781845112769 Abse, Toby. 2005. Italy's Long Road to Austerity and the Paradoxes of Communism. In: B. Moss, ed. Monetary Union in Crisis: The European Union as a Neo-Liberal Construction. Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 249–265. ISBN 0333963172 Abse, Toby. 2003. Palmiro Togliatti, Loyal Servant of Stalin. In: K. Flett and D. Renton, eds. New Approaches to Socialist History. New Clarion Press, pp. 30–48. ISBN 1873797419

Simone Ragusi

Simone Ragusi is an Italian rugby union player who plays as a Full back. He plays for Petrarca Rugby competing in the top tier of the Italian rugby union, the Top12. Ragusi was born in Italy, he was born into a rugby family. Simon Ragusi started playing rugby for the local youth of AS Rugby Milano. Simone temporarily transferred to Wales to gain experience with the Ospreys but failed to find a place on the team and was instead loaned to Bridgend RFC to play in the Welsh Premier Division. In 2012, he returned to Italy joining Prato, where he found his footing playing at Fly-half playing in the final of the 2012-13 National Championship of Excellence losing 16-11 against Mogliano. Around this time he made debut for Italy National second Team; the following year he transferred to Rovigo, once again fielding for the second consecutive time in the final of the Championship of Excellence. This time the title went to Calvisano who prevailed after coming from 0 - 17 down to win 26-17. In 2014, Ragusi Simon moved to Benetton Treviso to once again try for the Pro12.

He played. He played 672 minutes in the Pro 12 2015-2016 season; the same year he received his first call from the Italian national rugby union team. In the 2017-2018 season he contributed three tries. Http://www.espn.co.uk/italy/rugby/player/170985.html http://www.itsrugby.fr/joueur-27200.html http://www.pro12rugby.com/teams/benetton/squad.php?player=108143&includeref=dynamic