K. R. Narayanan
Kocheril Raman Narayanan was the tenth President of India. Born in Perumthanam, Uzhavoor village, in the princely state of Travancore, after a brief stint with journalism and studying political science at the London School of Economics with the assistance of a scholarship, Narayanan began his career in India as a member of the Indian Foreign Service in the Nehru administration, he served as ambassador to Japan, United Kingdom, Turkey, People's Republic of China and United States of America and was referred to by Nehru as "the best diplomat of the country". He entered politics at Indira Gandhi's request and won three successive general elections to the Lok Sabha and served as a Minister of State in the Union Cabinet under former Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi. Elected as the ninth Vice President in 1992, Narayanan went on to become President in 1997, he was the first member of the Dalit community to hold the post. Narayanan is regarded as an independent and assertive President who set several precedents and enlarged the scope of the highest constitutional office.
He described himself as a "working President" who worked "within the four corners of the Constitution". He used his discretionary powers as a President and deviated from convention and precedent in many situations, including – but not limited to – the appointment of the Prime Minister in a hung Parliament, in dismissing a state government and imposing President's rule there at the suggestion of the Union Cabinet, during the Kargil conflict, he presided over the golden jubilee celebrations of Indian independence and in the country's general election of 1998, he became the first Indian President to vote when in office, setting another new precedent. K. R. Narayanan was born in a small thatched hut at Perumthanam, Uzhavoor, as the fourth of seven children of Kocheril Raman Vaidyar, a practitioner of the traditional Indian medical systems of Siddha and Punnaththuraveettil Paappiyamma, his family was poor. He was born on 4 February 1921, but his uncle, who accompanied him on his first day in school, did not know his actual date of birth, arbitrarily chose 27 October 1920 for the records.
Narayanan had his early schooling in Uzhavoor at the Government Lower Primary School and Our Lady of Lourdes Upper Primary School, Uzhavoor. He walked to school for about 15 kilometres daily through paddy fields, was unable to pay the modest fees, he listened to school lessons while standing outside the classroom, having been barred from attending because tuition fees were outstanding. The family lacked money to buy books and his elder brother K. R. Neelakantan, confined to home as he was suffering from asthma, used to borrow books from other students, copy them down, give them to Narayanan, he matriculated from Kuravilangad. He completed his intermediate at C. M. S. College, aided by a scholarship from the Travancore Royal family. Narayanan obtained his B. A. and M. A. in English literature from the University of Travancore, standing first in the university. With his family facing grave difficulties, he left for Delhi and worked for some time as a journalist with The Hindu and The Times of India.
During this time he once interviewed Mahatma Gandhi in Bombay on his own volition. Narayanan went to England and studied political science under Harold Laski at the London School of Economics, he obtained the honours degree of B. Sc. with a specialisation in political science, helped by a scholarship from J. R. D. Tata. During his years in London, he was active in the India League under V. K. Krishna Menon, he was the London correspondent of the Social Welfare Weekly published by K. M. Munshi, he shared lodgings with K. N. Veerasamy Ringadoo; when Narayanan returned to India in 1948, Laski gave him a letter of introduction to Prime minister Jawaharlal Nehru. Years he narrated how he began his career in the public service:When I finished with LSE, Laski, of his own, gave me a letter of introduction for Panditji. On reaching Delhi I sought an appointment with the PM. I suppose, because I was an Indian student returning home from London, I was given a time-slot, it was here in Parliament House. We talked for a few minutes about London and things like that and I could soon see that it was time for me to leave.
So I said goodbye and as I left the room I handed over the letter from Laski, stepped out into the great circular corridor outside. When I was half way round, I heard the sound of someone clapping from the direction. I turned to see Panditji beckoning me to come back, he had opened the letter as I read it. "Why didn't you give this to me earlier?" "Well, sir, I am sorry. I thought it
Neoclassical architecture is an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century. In its purest form, it is a style principally derived from the architecture of classical antiquity, the Vitruvian principles, the work of the Italian architect Andrea Palladio. In form, neoclassical architecture emphasizes the wall rather than chiaroscuro and maintains separate identities to each of its parts; the style is manifested both in its details as a reaction against the Rococo style of naturalistic ornament, in its architectural formulae as an outgrowth of some classicising features of the Late Baroque architectural tradition. Neoclassical architecture is still designed today, but may be labelled New Classical Architecture for contemporary buildings. In Central and Eastern Europe, the style is referred to as Classicism, while the newer revival styles of the 19th century until today are called neoclassical. Intellectually, neoclassicism was symptomatic of a desire to return to the perceived "purity" of the arts of Rome, to the more vague perception of Ancient Greek arts and, to a lesser extent, 16th-century Renaissance Classicism, a source for academic Late Baroque architecture.
Many early 19th-century neoclassical architects were influenced by the drawings and projects of Étienne-Louis Boullée and Claude Nicolas Ledoux. The many graphite drawings of Boullée and his students depict spare geometrical architecture that emulates the eternality of the universe. There are Edmund Burke's conception of the sublime. Ledoux addressed the concept of architectural character, maintaining that a building should communicate its function to the viewer: taken such ideas give rise to "architecture parlante". A return to more classical architectural forms as a reaction to the Rococo style can be detected in some European architecture of the earlier 18th century, most vividly represented in the Palladian architecture of Georgian Britain and Ireland; the baroque style had never been to the English taste. Four influential books were published in the first quarter of the 18th century which highlighted the simplicity and purity of classical architecture: Vitruvius Britannicus, Palladio's Four Books of Architecture, De Re Aedificatoria and The Designs of Inigo Jones... with Some Additional Designs.
The most popular was the four-volume Vitruvius Britannicus by Colen Campbell. The book contained architectural prints of famous British buildings, inspired by the great architects from Vitruvius to Palladio. At first the book featured the work of Inigo Jones, but the tomes contained drawings and plans by Campbell and other 18th-century architects. Palladian architecture became well established in 18th-century Britain. At the forefront of the new school of design was the aristocratic "architect earl", Richard Boyle, 3rd Earl of Burlington; this House was a reinterpretation of Palladio's Villa Capra, but purified of 16th century elements and ornament. This severe lack of ornamentation was to be a feature of the Palladianism. In 1734 William Kent and Lord Burlington designed one of England's finest examples of Palladian architecture with Holkham Hall in Norfolk; the main block of this house followed Palladio's dictates quite but Palladio's low detached, wings of farm buildings were elevated in significance.
This classicising vein was detectable, to a lesser degree, in the Late Baroque architecture in Paris, such as in Perrault's east range of the Louvre. This shift was visible in Rome at the redesigned façade for S. Giovanni in Laterano. By the mid 18th century, the movement broadened to incorporate a greater range of Classical influences, including those from Ancient Greece. An early centre of neoclassicism was Italy Naples, where by the 1730s, court architects such as Luigi Vanvitelli and Ferdinando Fuga were recovering classical and Mannierist forms in their Baroque architecture. Following their lead, Giovanni Antonio Medrano began to build the first neoclassical structures in Italy in the 1730s. In the same period, Alessandro Pompei introduced neoclassicism to the Venetian Republic, building one of the first lapidariums in Europe in Verona, in the Doric style. During the same period, neoclassical elements were introduced to Tuscany by architect Jean Nicolas Jadot de Ville-Issey, the court architect of Francis Stephen of Lorraine.
On Jadot's lead, an original neoclassical style was developed by Gaspare Paoletti, transforming Florence into the most important centre of neoclassicism in the peninsula. In the second half of the century, Neoclassicism flourished in Turin and Trieste. In the latter two cities, just as in Tuscany, the sober neoclassical style was linked to the reformism of the ruling Habsburg enlightened monarchs; the Rococo style remained much popular in Italy until the Napoleonic regimes, which brought a new archaeological classicism, embraced as a political statement by young, urban Italians with republican leanings. The shift to neoclassical architecture is conventionally dated to the 1750s, it first gained influence in France. In France, the movement was propelled by a generation of French art students trained in Rome, was influenced by the writings of
National Archives of Indonesia
The National Archives of Indonesia is the non-departmental government institution of Indonesia responsible for maintaining a central archive. It holds the largest archive collection related to the Dutch East India Company. In 2003, Indonesia introduced a joint submission to the UNESCO Memory of the World Register with the Netherlands, South Africa, Sri Lanka for their archival collections related to the VOC; the National Archives collection traces its origins to the work of Jacob Anne van der Chijs, appointed the first archivist of the Dutch East Indies in 1892 by the colonial government. The task of archive management in the early period of Dutch presence in Indonesia fell upon the General Secretariat of the colonial government. Archive material received little attention during this period and was unmaintained, resulting in accumulation of material and insect damage. During the interregnum period arising from Napoleonic Wars, the British took over administration of the Dutch East Indies. Archive maintenance fell upon the hands of the librarian of the Royal Batavian Society of Arts and Sciences.
On 19 February 1819, the archive was returned to the management of the General Secretariat and remained within its jurisdiction until 1892. In 1860, Jacob Anne van der Chijs and Henry David Levyssohn Norman were commissioned to investigate the existing archives. Over the next several years, 15 chests of archive material were transported to the Nationaal Archief in the Netherlands. Plans to send all material overseas were blocked by the Batavian Society, a commission was charged in 1872 to determine which materials important enough to be kept would be transferred to the Society. Van der Chijs was recommissioned in 1880 to create the archive's first collection catalog, published in two years later; the collection contained 18,387 items, work began to order and number them definitively. Van der Chijs was appointed the first archivist of the Indies on 28 January 1892 through a government decree. Although van der Chijs regarded his work as provisional, his successors did not continue the work to document the VOC archives.
In 1925, the collection was moved to the former country estate of Governor-General Reynier de Klerck, where it remained undamaged during the period of Japanese occupation. When the Dutch transferred sovereignty of the Indies to Indonesia in 1949, the collections were handed to the current National Archives, they were moved to the new location of the National Archives in 1975. Indonesia holds the largest archive collection related to the Dutch East India Company in the world, with documents dating between 1612 and 1811; the collection encompasses half of the VOC archives worldwide with a total of 15,000 entries on 1,800 meters of shelf space. In 2003, a joint nomination to include the combined archives of the Dutch East India Company in the Memory of the World Register with the Netherlands, South Africa, Sri Lanka was submitted to and approved by UNESCO. Bibliography of Indonesia National Library of Indonesia National Archives Building, Jakarta Balk, G. Louisa; the Archives of the Dutch East India Company and the Local Institutions in Batavia, Leiden: Brill Publishers, ISBN 978-90-04-16365-2.
Van Boven, Maarten W. Memory of the World Register: Nomination Form, Nationaal Archief, retrieved 8 July 2010. Arsip Nasional Republik Indonesia
National Archives of Georgia
The National Archives of Georgia is the legal entity of public law under the Ministry of Justice of the nation of Georgia. The National Archives holds written documents, film documents and audio records, totaling more than five million exhibits; the exhibits preserved at the depositories of the archives are dated back to the 9th through 21st century. They include: historical, contemporary history, audio-visual archives and local archives from every region; the documents in the Archives are official, their preservation has been established by law. Some of the preserved documents include texts from the First Republic, scientific archives, the parish books that hold information about the christening and the death of citizens, the gospel of the 9th century, Anchi gospel, Kings' deeds, private letters, other legal monuments, photos from the 19th century, first film documents, the documents of different state or private structures; the National Archives serve the political, economical and cultural interests of the country and as an ancestors’ documentary heritage is the essential trapping of the authority.
In ancient Georgia, as well as in other countries, manuscripts were kept and preserved by their authors and ecclesiastic jutoddictions – court and religious centers. Every jurisdiction would penerally need juridical standards and the documents depicting them, legislative acts, income: expense books, deeds, diplomatic letters in internal and foreign relatives. According to the indirect notifications it is confirmed that there was a royal archive in the 6th century, not only the treasury but the depository for documents. Church and private archives existed; the modern archives in Georgia were established on April 23, 1920, according to the law about the establishment of Republic's Central Scientific Archive, issued by the Democratic Republic of Georgia. On July 1, 1921 the revolutionary committee of Georgia issued a decree “About the reorganization of the Archival Affair”. From 2004 the archival institution was under the Ministry of Justice of Georgia as the State department of Archives of Georgia.
In accordance with the law # 71 from March 12, 2007, issued by the Minister of Justice of Georgia, the legal entity the National Archives of Georgia was formed. At present, the state control of archival and clerical work fields, the development of the national archival fund, is in its authority; the National Archives of Georgia under the state control independently ensures the ruling of archival affairs in Georgia, the improvement of clerical work and the development of the national archival fund. The goals of the National Archives of Georgia are: a) the supplement of the national archival fund. On the base of the law of Georgia "About the National Archival Fund and the National Archives", the National Archive realizes the registration and the preservation of the documents of the national archival fund without the distinction of their place of preservation the state control and the supervision of the rules of the clerical work; the National Archives of Georgia receives the documents of the national archival fund in time and regularized.
Realizes to display the documents representing the history of Georgia preserved in foreign Archives, prepares the sentences to acquire these documents or their copies. Provides the protection of the archival documents preserved in the National Archives, the monitoring and the optimization arrangements of the conditions of their preservation. Provides the free acknowledgment of the interested persons on the documents of the national archival fund according to the stated legislation. Publishes the documents of the national archival fund according to the stated rules the informational literature about the composition and the content of the documents preserved in the National Archives of Georgia, it realizes the methodical leadership and control of the activities of the central archives and the local archives - the territorial organs of the National archives of Georgia. It controls and guides the work of the archives of different institutions the preparation of their documentation to pass to the National Archives of Georgia.
Conducts the scientific research works in the field of archives, documents and adjacent historical disciplines. The origin of the Central Historical Archive of Georgia is connected with the activities of the so-called military historical department at the staff of Caucasus army in 1878 and Caucasus military archive, established in 1908. After the declaration of the independence of Georgia, on 26 May 1918, the archival materials, scattered through the country, were gathered in one archival institution. In 1920 it was called the Central Scientific Archive and the State Historical Archive of Georgia in 1939; the Central Historical Archive is one of the most important scientific institutions of our country. The precious documents, hold in this archive, represents the rich materials for the studies of not only Georgian but Cauca
Bhopal is the capital city of the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh and the administrative headquarters of Bhopal district and Bhopal division. The city was the capital of the former Bhopal State. Bhopal is known as the City of Lakes for its various natural as well as artificial lakes and is one of the greenest cities in India, it is 131st in the world. A Y-class city, Bhopal houses various educational and research institutions and installations of national importance, including ISRO's Master Control Facility, BHEL, AMPRI. Bhopal is home to the largest number of Institutes of National Importance in India, namely IISER, MANIT, SPA, AIIMS, NLIU and IIIT; the city attracted international attention in December 1984 after the Bhopal disaster, when a Union Carbide India Limited pesticide manufacturing plant leaked a mixture of deadly gases composed of methyl isocyanate, leading to one of the worst industrial disasters in the world's history. The Bhopal disaster continues to be a part of the socio-political debate and a logistical challenge for the people of Bhopal.
Bhopal was selected as one of the first twenty Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under PM Narendra Modi's flagship Smart Cities Mission. According to folklore, Bhopal was founded in 11th century by the Paramara king Bhoja, who ruled from his capital at Dhar; this theory states that Bhopal was known as Bhojpal after a dam constructed by the king's minister. No archaeological evidence, inscriptions or historical texts support the claim about an earlier settlement founded by Bhoja at the same place. An alternative theory says. In the early 18th century, Bhopal was a small village in the Gond kingdom; the modern Bhopal city was established by a Pashtun soldier in the Mughal army. After the death of the emperor Aurangzeb, Khan started providing mercenary services to local chieftains in the politically unstable Malwa region. In 1709, he took on the lease of Berasia estate and annexed several territories in the region to establish the Bhopal State. Khan received the territory of Bhopal from the Gond queen Kamlapati in lieu of payment for mercenary services and usurped her kingdom after her death.
In the 1720s, he built the Fatehgarh fort in the village, which developed into the city of Bhopal over the next few decades. Bhopal became a princely state after signing a treaty with the British East India Company in 1818. Between 1819 and 1926, the state was ruled by four women, Begums — unique in the royalty of those days — under British suzerainty. Qudsia Begum was the first woman ruler, succeeded by her granddaughter, Shah Jehan. Between the years 1844-1860, when Shah Jehan was a child, her mother Sikandar ruled as regent, was recognized as ruler in 1860, she ruled until 1868, when Shah Jehan succeeded her and was Begum until 1901. In 1901, Shah Jehan's daughter Kaikhusrau Jahan became Begum, ruled until 1926, was the last of the female line of succession. In 1926, she abdicated in favor of her son, Hamidullah Khan, who ruled until 1947, was the last of the sovereign Nawabs; the rule of Begums gave the city its waterworks, railways, a postal system, a municipality constituted in 1907. Bhopal State was the second-largest Muslim-ruled princely state: the first being Hyderabad.
After the independence of India in 1947, the last Nawab expressed his wish to retain Bhopal as a separate unit. Agitations against the Nawab broke out in December 1948, leading to the arrest of prominent leaders including Shankar Dayal Sharma; the political detainees were released, the Nawab signed the agreement for Bhopal's merger with the Union of India on 30 April 1949. The Bhopal state was taken over by the Union Government of India on 1 June 1949. On December 1984, a Union Carbide India Limited pesticide plant in Bhopal leaked around 32 tons of toxic gases, including methyl isocyanate gas which led to the worst industrial disaster to date; the official death toll was recorded around 4,000. A Madhya Pradesh government report stated 3,787 deaths, while other estimates state the fatalities were higher from the accident and the medical complications caused by the accident in the weeks and years that followed; the higher estimates have been challenged. The impact of the disaster continues to this day in terms of psychological and neurological disabilities, skin, vision and birth disorders.
The soil and ground water near the factory site have been contaminated by the toxic wastes. The Bhopal disaster continues to be the part of the socio-political debate. Bhopal has an average elevation of 500 metres, it is located in the central part of India, is just north of the upper limit of the Vindhya mountain ranges. Located on the Malwa plateau, it is higher than the north Indian plains and the land rises towards the Vindhya Range to the south; the city has small hills within its boundaries. The prominent hills in Bhopal are Idgah hills and Shyamala hills in the northern region, Katara hills in southern region. City's geography has in it two lakes namely lower lake. Bhopal city is divided into two parts where one part, near the VIP and lake is old Bhopal and the other is where malls are situated New bhopal. Bhopal has a humid subtropical climate, with cool, dry winters, a h
National Archives of Singapore
The National Archives of Singapore is the national archives of Singapore. It was formed in August 1993 with the merging of the National Archives and the Oral History Department; the NAS is responsible for the collection and management of records relating to the nation's political and economic history. NAS identifies and collects records of historical significance from local and overseas private sources. In 1993, both NAS and the National Museum of Singapore were brought under the administration of the National Heritage Board; the National Archives was established in 1968 for the preservation and administration of the nation's archives. It holds records as far back as 1800, 19 years before the arrival of Sir Stamford Raffles and the founding of the modern nation; the Oral History Centre documents the history of Singapore through the use of oral history methodology. NAS has a selection of archival materials available for viewing by the public, including public records, building plans, oral history recordings, electronic records and an audio-visual collection of microfilms, videotapes, colour slides and maps.
The National Archives of Singapore is an institution of the National Library Board Official website of the National Archives of Singapore
Pondicherry known as Puducherry, is the capital and the most populous city of the Indian Union Territory of Puducherry, with a population of 657,209 and an area of 492 sq km. The city is in the Puducherry district of the union territory and is surrounded by the state of Tamil Nadu to which it shares most of its culture, it is affectionately called Pondy and short code as "Pdy," and has been known by the alternative name Puducherry in Tamil since 2006. Pondicherry city consists of 42 wards. Wards 1–10 are north of the city. Wards 11–19 are in Boulevard Town and remaining wards are southwest of the city centre; the history of Pondicherry is recorded only after the arrival of Dutch, Portuguese and French colonialists. By contrast, nearby places such as Arikamedu, Kakayanthoppe and Bahur, which were colonised by the French East India Company over a period of time and became the union territory of Pondicherry, have recorded histories that predate the colonial period; the marketplace Poduke or Poduca is as a Roman trading destination from the mid 1st century.
The area was part of the Pallava Kingdom of Kanchipuram in the 4th century. The Cholas of Thanjavur held it from the 10th to 13th centuries until it was replaced by the Pandya Kingdom in the 13th century; the Vijayanagar Empire took control of all of the South of India in the 14th century and maintained control until 1638 when they were supplanted by the Sultan of Bijapur. The French East India Company established this city as their headquarters in 1674. Five trading posts were established along the south Indian coast between 1668 and 1674; the city was separated by a canal into the Indian Quarter. During the Anglo-French wars, Puducherry changed hands frequently. On 16 January 1761, the British captured Puducherry from the French, but the Treaty of Paris at the conclusion of the Seven Years' War returned it; the British took control of the area again in 1793 at the Siege of Pondicherry amid the Wars of the French Revolution, returned it to France in 1814. When the British gained control of India in the late 1850s, they allowed the French to retain their settlements in the country.
Pondicherry, Mahé, Yanam and Chandernagor remained a part of French India until 1954 when it was incorporated into the Indian Union with the rest of French India. On 18 October 1954 in a general election involving 178 people in Pondicherry Municipal and Commune Panchayat, 170 people were in favour of independence and eight people voted against; the de facto transfer of the French Indian territories from French governance to the Indian union took place on 1 November 1954, was established as the union territory of Pondicherry. However, the formal de jure transfer of territory agreement between France and India was signed on 16 August 1962; the topography of Pondicherry is the same as that of coastal Tamil Nadu. Pondicherry's average elevation is at sea level, a number of sea inlets, referred to as "backwaters" can be found. Puducherry experiences extreme coastal erosion as a result of a breakwater constructed in 1989, just to the south of the city. Where there was once a broad, sandy beach, now the city is protected against the sea by a 2-km-long seawall.
While there was an early seawall made by the French government in 1735, this was not "hard structure coastal defense" so much as an adjunct to the old shipping pier and a transition from the beach to the city, which sits at a height of 8.5 m above sea level. Today, the seawall consists of rows of granite boulders which are reinforced every year in an attempt to stop erosion; as a consequence of the seawall, Pondicherry experiences severe seabed erosion and turbulence at the coastal margin, resulting in an extreme loss of biodiversity within the critical intertidal zone. Whenever gaps appear as the stones fall into the continually eroding seabed, the government of Puducherry adds more boulders. Pondicherry's seawall has caused beach erosion to migrate further up the coast, to the fishing villages in Puducherry and Tamil Nadu to the north of the city. In 2012, the Ministry of Power inaugurated the Smart Grid project in Puducherry. Farming around Pondicherry include crops such as rice, sugarcane and cotton.
In 2016, the Pondicherry State Government Employees Central Federation presented a status paper on the fiscal and social crisis in Puducherry to Union Home Minister Rajnath Singh. The report stated that a "combination of a staggering debt, stagnant tax revenues and rampant misappropriation of funds has throttled the economy of the Union Territory" and called for measures on a war footing to "deliver good governance and end corruption." The climate of Pondicherry is classified by the Köppen climate classification as tropical wet and dry, similar to that of coastal Tamil Nadu. Summer lasts from April to early June, when maximum temperatures reach 41 °C; the average maximum temperature is 36 °C. Minimum temperatures are in the order of 28–32 °C; this is followed by a period of high humidity and occasional thundershowers from June till September. The northeast monsoon sets in during the middle of October, Pondicherry gets the bulk of its annual rainfall during the period from October to December.
The annual average rainfall is 1,240 mm. Winters are warm, with highs of 30 °C and lows dipping to around 18–20 °C. According to the 2011 census of India, Pondicherry had a population of 244,377, with 124,947 females and 119,430 males. Pondicherry had an average literacy rate of 80.6% with male literacy at 84.6% and female literacy at 76.7%. In Pondicherry, 10% of the population was under six years of age; the majority speaks Tamil in Pondicherry, while there is a community of French pe