Brígido Iriarte Stadium
Estadio Brígido Iriarte is a multi-purpose stadium in Caracas, Venezuela. It is used for football matches and is the home stadium of Venezuelan Primera División teams Atlético Venezuela and Metropolitanos, as well as second tier league team Estudiantes de Caracas; the stadium holds 10,000 people. It was renovated in 2007
Caracas Santiago de León de Caracas, is the capital and largest city of Venezuela, centre of the Greater Caracas Area. Caracas is located along the Guaire River in the northern part of the country, following the contours of the narrow Caracas Valley on the Venezuelan coastal mountain range. Terrain suitable for building lies between 760 and 1,140 m above sea level, although there is some settlement above this range; the valley is close to the Caribbean Sea, separated from the coast by a steep 2,200-metre-high mountain range, Cerro El Ávila. The Metropolitan Region of Caracas has an estimated population of 4,923,201. Speaking, the centre of the city is still "Catedral", located near Bolívar Square though it is assumed that it is Plaza Venezuela, located in the Los Caobos neighbourhood. Chacaíto area, Luis Brión Square and El Rosal neighborhood are considered the geographic center of the Metropolitan Region of Caracas called "Greater Caracas". Businesses in the city include service companies and malls.
Caracas has a service-based economy, apart from some industrial activity in its metropolitan area. The Caracas Stock Exchange and Petróleos de Venezuela are headquartered in Caracas. PDVSA is the largest company in Venezuela. Caracas is Venezuela's cultural capital, with many restaurants, theaters and shopping centers; some of the tallest skyscrapers in Latin America are located in Caracas. Caracas has been considered one of the most important cultural, tourist and economic centers of Latin America; the Museum of Contemporary Art of Caracas is one of the most important in South America. The Museum of Fine Arts and the National Art Gallery of Caracas are noteworthy; the National Art Gallery is projected to be the largest museum in Latin America, according to its architect Carlos Gómez De Llarena. Caracas is home to two of the tallest skyscrapers in South America: the Parque Central Towers, it has a nominal GDP of 91,988 million dollars, a nominal GDP per capita of 18,992 and a PPP GDP per capita of 32,710 dollars.
Being the seventh city in GDP and the seventh metropolitan area in population of Latin America. Caracas has the highest per capita murder rate in the world, with 111.19 homicides per 100,000 inhabitants. At the time of the founding of the city in 1567, the valley of Caracas was populated by indigenous peoples. Francisco Fajardo, the son of a Spanish captain and a Guaiqueri cacica, attempted to establish a plantation in the valley in 1562 after founding a series of coastal towns. Fajardo's settlement did not last long, it was destroyed by natives of the region led by Guaicaipuro. This was the last rebellion on the part of the natives. On 25 July 1567, Captain Diego de Losada laid the foundations of the city of Santiago de León de Caracas; the foundation − 1567 – "I take possession of this land in the name of God and the King" These were the words of Don Diego de Losada in founding the city of Caracas on 25 July 1567. In 1577, Caracas became the capital of the Spanish Empire's Venezuela Province under Governor Juan de Pimentel.
During the 17th century, the coast of Venezuela was raided by pirates. With the coastal mountains as a barrier, Caracas was immune to such attacks. However, in 1595, around 200 English privateers including George Sommers and Amyas Preston crossed the mountains through a little-used pass while the town's defenders were guarding the more often-used one. Encountering little resistance, the invaders sacked and set fire to the town after a failed ransom negotiation; as the cocoa cultivation and exports under the Compañía Guipuzcoana de Caracas grew in importance, the city expanded. In 1777, Caracas became the capital of the Captaincy General of Venezuela. José María España and Manuel Gual led an attempted revolution aimed at independence, but the rebellion was put down on 13 July 1797. Caracas was the site of the signing of a Declaration of independence on 17 August 1811. In 1812, an earthquake destroyed Caracas; the independentist war continued until 24 June 1821, when Bolívar defeated royalists in the Battle of Carabobo.
Caracas grew in economic importance during Venezuela's oil boom in the early 20th century. During the 1950s, Caracas began an intensive modernization program which continued throughout the 1960s and early 1970s; the Universidad Central de Venezuela, designed by modernist architect Carlos Raúl Villanueva and declared World Heritage by UNESCO, was built. New working- and middle-class residential districts sprouted in the valley, extending the urban area toward the east and southeast. Joining El Silencio designed by Villanueva, were several workers' housing districts, 23 de Enero and Simon Rodriguez. Middle-class developments include Bello Monte, Los Palos Grandes, El Cafetal; the dramatic change in the economic structure of the country, which went from being agricultural to dependent on oil production, stimulated the fast development of Caracas, made it a magnet for people in rural communities who migrated to the capital city in an unplanned fashion searching for greater economic opportunity. This migration created the rancho belt of the valley of Caracas.
The flag of Caracas consists of a burgundy red field with the version of the Coat of Arms of the City. The red field symbolises the blood spilt by Caraquenian people in favour of independence and the highest ideals of the Venezuelan Nation. In the year 1994 as a result of the change of municipal authorities, it was decided to increase the size of the Caracas coat of arms and move it to the centre of the field; this version
National Pantheon of Venezuela
The National Pantheon of Venezuela is a final resting place for national heroes. The Pantheon was created in the 1870s on the site of a ruined church on the northern edge of the old town of Caracas, Venezuela; the entire central nave is dedicated to Simón Bolívar, with the altar's place taken by the hero's bronze sarcophagus, while lesser luminaries are relegated to the aisles. The national pantheon's vault is covered with 1930s paintings depicting scenes from Bolívar's life, the huge crystal chandelier glittering overhead was installed in 1883 on the centennial of his birth; the Pantheon was reopened in 2013 after a 3 year long process of restoration. Cecilio Acosta. Writer and humanist.. José Ángel de Álamo. Doctor, leader of the Independence movement.. Francisco de Paula Alcántara. General in the War of Independence.. Demetrio Alfaro. Officer in the War of Independence.. Lisandro Alvarado. Doctor.. Raimundo Andueza. Lawyer and politician, father of President Raimundo Andueza Palacio.. Francisco Aranda.
Politician.. Juan Bautista Arismendi. Officer in the War of Independence.. Jesús María Aristeguieta. Military officer and politician in the War of Independence.. Carlos Arvelo. Doctor and politician.. Rafael Arvelo. Journalist.. Francisco de Paula Avendaño. Officer in the War of Independence.. Rafael María Baralt. Writer and historian. José Miguel Barceló. Military of the Federal War.. Pedro Bárcenas. Doctor and officer in the War of Independence.. Víctor Barret de Nazarís. Military and politician of the Federal War.. Renato Beluche. Sailor in the Venezuelan Navy during the War of Independence.. José Francisco Bermúdez. Officer in the War of Independence.. Pedro Bermúdez Cousín. Lawyer and politician.. Andrés Eloy Blanco. Poet and politician.. José Félix Blanco. Priest.. Manuel Blanco. Sailor who fought with both San Martín and Simón Bolívar.. Rufino Blanco Fombona. Writer and politician.. Simón Bolívar. Liberator of Bolivia, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela.. Justo Bricéño. Officer in the War of Independence.. Mario Briceño Iragorry.
Historian and diplomat.. Domingo Briceño y Briceño. Lawyer and writer.. Luis Brión. Admiral of the Venezuelan Navy in the Independence War.. Blas Bruzual. Military and journalist.. Manuel Ezequiel Bruzual. Military and politician.. Lorenzo Bustillos. Officer in the War of Independence.. Luisa Cáceres de Arismendi. Patriot and Heroine of the Venezuelan War of Independence.. Josefa Venancio de la Encarnación Camejo. Heroine in the War of Independence. Francisco Carabaño Aponte. Officer in the War of Independence.. Teresa Carreño. Pianist and composer.. José de la Cruz Carrillo. Officer in the War of Independence.. Carlos Luis Castelli. Officer in the War of Independence.. Juan Francisco del Castillo. Lawyer and politician.. Pedro Camejo. Known by his nickname Negro Primero, hero of the War of Independence and fought with Simón Bolívar till his untimely death in the Battle of Carabobo. Cipriano Castro. Military and President of Venezuela.. Manuel Cedeño. Officer in the War of Independence.. Lino de Clemente. Official of the Venezuelan navy..
Agostino Codazzi. Military, scientist and cartographer.. Juan Fermín Colmenares. Military and politician at the Federal War.. Juan José Conde. Officer in the War of Independence.. José María Delgado Correa.. Manuel María Echeandía.. Juan Crisóstomo Falcón. Soldier and President of Venezuela.. León de Febres Cordero. Officer in the War of Independence.. Carmelo Fernández. Officer in the War of Independence.. Fernando Figueredo. Officer in the War of Independence.. Alejo Fortique. Politician and diplomat.. Argimiro Gabaldon. Politician, poet and guerillero.. Rómulo Gallegos. Writer and politician, President of Venezuela.. Juan Garcés. Soldier in the war of Independence.. José María García. Navy officer in the War of Independence.. Valentín García. Officer in the War of Independence.. Miguel Gil. Soldier in the War of Independence.. Francisco Esteban Gómez. Officer in the War of Independence.. José de Jesús González. Military leader of the Federal War.. Tomás Green.. Guaicaipuro. Indigenous chief.. Juan Bautista Guerra Carrillo.
Manuel María Guevara.. Antonio Leocadio Guzmán. Politician and journalist.. Antonio Guzmán Blanco. Military and President of Venezuela.. Tomás de Heres. Officer in the War of Independence.. Francisco Hurtado.. Andrés Ibarra. Officer in the War of Independence.. Diego Ibarra. Officer in the War of Independence.. Francisco de Ibarra. Priest.. Juan Domingo del Sacramento Infante. Bricklayer, constructor of the San
Armando Reverón was a Venezuelan painter and sculptor, precursor of Arte Povera and considered one of the most important of the 20th century in Latin America. While his mental health deteriorated throughout his life, his artistic abilities remained, his house by the northern coast of Venezuela housed the Reveron Museum, although it was damaged by the Vargas mudslides in December 1999. He is the subject of various homages in different media, is remembered for his "muñecas" or dolls, he began his studies at the Colegio de los Padres Salesianos in Caracas. His maternal great-uncle, Ricardo Montilla, who had studied in New York, teaches him natural drawing and awakens his artistic vocation. In 1896 he was transferred to Valencia after the failure of his parents' marriage. Armando is sent home from Rodríguez-Zocca's family. Under the care of Rodríguez-Zocca's family, Reverón established a close relationship with Josefina, the daughter of the couple, came to appreciate her like his own sister; the walls of the house were some of the first paintings of Reverón, where he attempted to portray the family maid, Juanita Carrizales.
Rodríguez-Zocca's described Reverón´s temperament as "sad and melancholic". At the age of 12 he suffered typhus, which many believe psychically affected him for the rest of his life. Reverón built several huts in the land that he bought in Macuto, the main hut was his workshop. Around his waist he placed a large bag to hold his driftwood-made brushes; the decision to move coincided with a change of behavior and a transformation of his artistic concepts. During this period, by adopting primitive habits and detached from the city, Reverón could develop a deeper understanding of nature, thus entered what the critic Alfredo Boulton called his Período Blanco, located between 1924 and 1932. The GAN possesses an important collection of photographs by Alfredo Boulton of Reverón; these photographs contain a series of Reverón painting Luisa Phelps dated 1930. In 1933, he won a first award to be an exhibition of his work at the Ateneo de Caracas, presented in the gallery Katia Granoff in Paris, France. In early 1940, he began his Período Sepia, which corresponds to a set of canvases painted on the coast and in the port of La Guaira in which brown tones are dominant in landscapes of land and sea.
He subsequently suffered a period of depression following a psychotic breakdown which forced confinement in "San Jorge" sanatorium from "José María Finol". Once recovered, he worked in a different style. From that moment, he took refuge in a magical universe, around objects and dolls created by him, gave birth to the last and delirious expressionist stage of his work figurative period characterized by the use of materials such as chalk, crayons and a theatrical fantasy that became more and more uncontrollable but, through a drawing that aspired to academic correctness, sought to restore the emotional balance of Reverón. Maja at the Museum of Modern Art Woman of the River at the Museum of Modern Art White Landscape at the Museum of Modern Art Elderfield, John. Armando Reveron; the Museum of Modern Art. ISBN 0-87070-711-6. 2007 Reverón exhibition at the MOMA Noelia Sastre, "Reverón encandila a Nueva York" Newspaper El Universal
Francisco José Narváez was a Venezuelan sculptor, best known for "Las Toninas", a sculptural group that decorates the fountain of the Plaza O'Leary in Caracas. His work is characterized by a strong ethnic component and he made extensive use of local materials. Narváez was the son of a restorer. While he was still young, the family moved to Caracas and he began his studies at the Academy of Fine Arts. In 1928, he left for Paris where he attended the Académie Julian and established connections with the artistic community in Montparnasse, he returned to Venezuela in 1931 and, a few years began to work with the architect Carlos Raúl Villanueva, who commissioned him to supply sculptures for his projects, including the Plaza of Carabobo Park, the facade for the Museum of Fine Arts, the Museum of Natural Sciences and the Plaza O'Leary. In 1939, he travelled to New York to decorate the Venezuelan pavilion at the World's Fair and exhibited his works "Café y Frutas" and "Perlas y Cacao". In 1952, he completed an equestrian statue of General Rafael Urdaneta, now on display in the Plaza La Candelaria.
He collaborated with Villanueva to create several pieces for the University City of Caracas, conceived as a "synthesis of the Arts". "Education", "Science", "The Athlete" and the bust of José María Vargas are some of his works located on the campus of the Central University of Venezuela. In 1981 and 1982, he created two sculptures of monumental proportions. One of them, "Gran Volumen", was made for the Amuay Refinery Complex and the other, one of his last completed works, the "Armonía de Volúmenes y Espacio", was for Caracas Metro, it is located in a plaza, named for him. Fundación Francisco Narváez: Chronology
A landmark is a recognizable natural or artificial feature used for navigation, a feature that stands out from its near environment and is visible from long distances. In modern use, the term can be applied to smaller structures or features, that have become local or national symbols. In old English the word landmearc was used to describe an "object set up to mark the boundaries of a kingdom, etc.". Starting from approx. 1560, this understanding of landmark was replaced by a more general one. A landmark became a "conspicuous object in a landscape". A landmark meant a geographic feature used by explorers and others to find their way back or through an area. For example, the Table Mountain near Cape Town, South Africa is used as the landmark to help sailors to navigate around southern tip of Africa during the Age of Exploration. Artificial structures are sometimes built to assist sailors in naval navigation; the Lighthouse of Alexandria and Colossus of Rhodes are ancient structures built to lead ships to the port.
In modern usage, a landmark includes anything, recognizable, such as a monument, building, or other structure. In American English it is the main term used to designate places that might be of interest to tourists due to notable physical features or historical significance. Landmarks in the British English sense are used for casual navigation, such as giving directions; this is done in American English as well. In urban studies as well as in geography, a landmark is furthermore defined as an external point of reference that helps orienting in a familiar or unfamiliar environment. Landmarks are used in verbal route instructions and as such an object of study by linguists as well as in other fields of study. Landmarks are classified as either natural landmarks or man-made landmarks, both are used to support navigation on finding directions. A variant is a seamark or daymark, a structure built intentionally to aid sailors navigating featureless coasts. Natural landmarks can be characteristic features, such as plateaus.
Examples of natural landmarks are Table Mountain in South Africa, Mount Ararat in Turkey, Uluru in Australia, Mount Fuji in Japan and Grand Canyon in the United States. Trees might serve as local landmarks, such as jubilee oaks or conifers; some landmark trees may be nicknamed, examples being Hanging Oak or Centennial Tree. In modern sense, landmarks are referred to as monuments or prominent distinctive buildings, used as the symbol of a certain area, city, or nation; some examples include the Statue of Unity in Narmada, the White House in Washington, D. C. the Statue of Liberty in New York City, the Eiffel Tower in Paris, the Colosseum in Rome, Big Ben in London, Christ the Redeemer in Rio de Janeiro, Bratislava Castle in Bratislava, the Space Needle in Seattle, the Sydney Harbour Bridge or the Sydney Opera House, the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin, the CN Tower In Toronto, or Palace of Culture and Science in Warsaw. Church spires and mosque's minarets are very tall and visible from many miles around, thus serve as built landmarks.
Town hall towers and belfries have a landmark character. Contemporary history Cultural heritage management Cultural heritage tourism National landmark National symbol Media related to Landmarks at Wikimedia Commons
Aula Magna (Central University of Venezuela)
The Aula Magna of the Central University of Venezuela is located within the University City of Caracas, next to the University's main library building. The hall was built by Carlos Raúl Villanueva and declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in November 2000; the most notable feature of the hall is an artistic and practical function. They are one element of the hall's design which contributed to the science of interior space acoustics, though the building exterior is architecturally significant, it has been named the "most important auditorium" at the University. This is in part because it is the largest capacity auditorium, being able to hold 2,700 people with removable seats, because academic and political events have taken place within it; some of these events have been of great importance for the country and some have been part of historical movements. The current director of the hall is Trina Medina, with the assistant director Rosario Silva Prieto; when the University City was commissioned to be built in 1943, a committee was formed to analyse options for the planning.
As well as choosing the location near Central Caracas, this commission recommended basing the project for the campus on similar endeavours, naming the opened National University of Colombia in Bogotá with Leopold Rother's "urban project" there as one. Designs for the central campus complex were started in 1944, with early studies and a "tentative" plan by Villanueva. In the next few years, the medical complex at the university was built, the design had to have "substantial changes" in 1949; the final design was done in 1952. The ability to make changes is said by experts to be not only because of Venezuela thriving in these years, but because of Villanueva's likeable personality, that out of all of his successes during this period, the Aula Magna is an "unprecedented work", it is written that Villanueva was adept at adapting in his work, as well as embodying Modernism, was open to changing designs as the ideas of construction moved. Villanueva's designs invoke synthesis of art as well as living architecture, describing buildings as "movements" in the key.
The Aula Magna and Plaza Cubierta were placed at the centre of the campus project, as a culmination of its other elements. The contract for the construction of the Aula Magna was given to the company Christiani & Nielsen, started on November 28, 1952, with its end date set as March 31, 1953; the hall was finished on time. It was the main building of the Synthesis of the Arts project for the university, a campus creation and redesign carried out by architect Carlos Raúl Villanueva; the hall was baptized and opened on December 3, 1953, but inaugurated on March 2, 1954 with the opening of the 10th Inter-American Conference. When Villanueva first entered the completed hall, he threw his arms up and shouted that it was tremendous; the collaboration with Alexander Calder on the hall would begin a long working relationship between the pair, though Calder only saw the completed hall once, in 1955. The hall was named in the 1980s by Leo Beranek in review, as one of the five rooms with the best acoustics in the world, thanks to a system that combines technology and art: the Flying Saucers or Floating Clouds designed by the North American artist and engineer Alexander Calder.
These structures were installed on the ceiling under the supervision of the American firm Bolt and Newman, adjusted while an orchestra played on stage to calibrate the acoustics and make sure the quality remained consistent throughout the hall. The clouds are the most prominent example of the philosophy of the project to combine art and thought as well as function; the initial destination of the clouds was not inside the hall. Calder was working on a structure for outside in the Plaza Cubierta; this was a fortunate idea, because at the same time as Calder's suggestion, the American company was viewing the hall's original designs, noted that the shape of the structure would make the acoustics terrible unless it had extensive panelling. The design has given its inspiration including an opera hall in China; the problem-solving function of the panelling was an influence in the development of interior space acoustics. The panels serve a variety of purposes, with some absorbing sound, some projecting it, some magnifying it.
The structure of the panels, or clouds, is a steel frame containing two pieces of 1⁄2-inch thick laminated wood secured together, the largest cloud has an area of 860 square feet and a weight of 2.5 short tons. The clouds are between 4 and 8 inches thick, in total there are 31 panels: 22 on the ceiling, 5 on the right side wall and 4 on the left side wall. To position the clouds, 3⁄8 inch metal cables suspend them from the ceiling of the room, giving them the necessary inclination and height; the real ceiling of the room is 9.8 feet above a false plaster ceiling installed below, which facilitates adjustment of lighting systems and the support mechanisms of the "clouds". There are ladders to allow people to climb through the clouds. A fiberglass sheet was installed above the panels, to reduce echo and sound transfer time, optimize the acoustics for speech, it is possible to remove this sheet for musical concerts. Artistically, art c